Modifying Your Behavior What Can You Do to Help Yourself Change the Behaviors You Don’t Want to Those You DO Want?
Modifying Behavior <ul><li>Methods for producing change tend to emphasize different things </li></ul><ul><li>Some focus on...
Using Operant Conditioning Principles <ul><li>Operant Conditioning emphasizes the role of Positive and Negative Reinforcer...
The Three Basic Elements of Operant Conditioning <ul><li>Antecedent Stimuli (A) </li></ul><ul><li>Stimuli that precede a b...
Modifying Behavior with Operant Conditioning <ul><li>Steps to Self-Management </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the problem, and ...
1. Identify the Problem & Select a Specific Target Behavior <ul><li>The specific behavioral goal or outcome that you want ...
Insuring Success <ul><li>The target behavior must be important to you </li></ul><ul><li>Failure occurs when you pick a tar...
2. Monitor How Much of the Target Behavior Now Exists <ul><li>To make any change, you need to know the current state of th...
3. Control Antecedent Stimuli <ul><li>Stimuli can serve as cues or data to help you decide what to do, or they can be trig...
4. Break Response Chains <ul><li>Many of our behaviors are a series of interconnected responses with one action leading to...
5. Manage Consequent Stimuli <ul><li>Consequent stimuli have an important influence on your actions and those of others </...
More on the Principles for Managing Consequent Stimuli <ul><li>2.  Select Positive Reinforcers that are likely to  Influen...
More on the Principles for Managing Consequent Stimuli <ul><li>3. Reinforce the Behavior Immediately after it  Occurs </li...
More on the Principles for Managing Consequent Stimuli <ul><li>5. Reinforce Each Successive Approximation to  your Target ...
More on the Principles for Managing Consequent Stimuli <ul><li>6. Shift from Continuous Reinforcement once a  Target Behav...
More on the Principles for Managing Consequent Stimuli <ul><li>7. Shift to Partial Reinforcement Schedules to Aid in the T...
6. Enlist the Support of Others <ul><li>You may need the aid of others to keep you honest and to keep committed to your pr...
7. Enlist the Support of Others <ul><li>Monitor and Record Your Progress when Modifying Behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Having...
Social-Based Approaches to Modifying Behavior <ul><li>Imitation Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Learning by watching and imitat...
More on Imitation and Modeling <ul><li>Using Imitation Learning Principles </li></ul><ul><li>Select a role model </li></ul...
More on Imitation and Modeling <ul><li>Attention, Retention, and Motivational and Physical Movement Processes </li></ul><u...
Cognitive-Based Approaches to Modifying Behavior <ul><li>The cognitive approaches try to achieve behavioral changes by alt...
More on the Cognitive Approach <ul><li>Mental practice </li></ul><ul><li>Mental imagery is an effective way to rehearse a ...
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Critical Thinking 5

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What you can do to help yourself change the behaviors you don't want into those that you do want.

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Critical Thinking 5

  1. 1. Modifying Your Behavior What Can You Do to Help Yourself Change the Behaviors You Don’t Want to Those You DO Want?
  2. 2. Modifying Behavior <ul><li>Methods for producing change tend to emphasize different things </li></ul><ul><li>Some focus on the control of the environment to change overt behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>The underlying assumption is that once more desirable overt behaviors occur, less desirable thoughts and feelings associated with them will decrease </li></ul><ul><li>Others focus more on the thoughts and emotions that guide and direct your responses to situations in your life </li></ul><ul><li>The underlying assumption is that behaviors will improve when undesirable thoughts and feelings are managed </li></ul><ul><li>Both strategies work when used either alone or in combination </li></ul><ul><li>Used with self-talk and relaxation they are effective at modifying behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>You usually don’t fail at changing behavior because the techniques don’t work; rather, it’s because you don’t use the techniques </li></ul>
  3. 3. Using Operant Conditioning Principles <ul><li>Operant Conditioning emphasizes the role of Positive and Negative Reinforcers in controlling behavior </li></ul><ul><li>It focuses on how stimuli that follow responses, consequent stimuli , influence them </li></ul><ul><li>The operants ( responses that are voluntarily performed ) operate, or produce effects on the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Selecting a TV program, walking to a restaurant, turning on the air conditioner to cool a room </li></ul><ul><li>Operants make up a large part of your daily responses. </li></ul><ul><li>The process through which they are acquired is called Operant Conditioning </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Three Basic Elements of Operant Conditioning <ul><li>Antecedent Stimuli (A) </li></ul><ul><li>Stimuli that precede a behavior and can affect that behavior </li></ul><ul><li>They function as cues or signals that certain responses will be rewarded or punished, and they help to discriminate , or distinguish between things in the environment that will lead to reward or punishment from those that do not </li></ul><ul><li>They also function as “ triggers ” which cause various reflexes to occur, or they initiate overlearned habits or responses </li></ul><ul><li>They also initiate a wide variety of thoughts and emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior (B) </li></ul><ul><li>These are the specific actions that occur in the presence of antecedent stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>Consequences (C) </li></ul><ul><li>Included are overt behaviors and internal thoughts and feelings, either pleasant or unpleasant </li></ul><ul><li>Pleasant feelings are positive reinforcers and increase the likelihood of a behavior </li></ul><ul><li>When the feelings are unpleasant, the behavior is likely to decrease </li></ul>
  5. 5. Modifying Behavior with Operant Conditioning <ul><li>Steps to Self-Management </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the problem, and select a Target Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor how much of the Target Behavior currently exists </li></ul><ul><li>Control the Antecedent Stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>Break the response chains </li></ul><ul><li>Manage the Consequent Stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain social support </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor and Record your progress toward changing the behavior </li></ul>
  6. 6. 1. Identify the Problem & Select a Specific Target Behavior <ul><li>The specific behavioral goal or outcome that you want to achieve is your Target Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>It is important to be detailed and specific describing your Target Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>There are several advantages to clear, specific goals </li></ul><ul><li>They focus your time and energy in a specific direction and it enhances your motivation and commitment to gain the goal </li></ul><ul><li>Having an objective in mind helps you identify what knowledge and skills you need to make the appropriate changes in your actions </li></ul>
  7. 7. Insuring Success <ul><li>The target behavior must be important to you </li></ul><ul><li>Failure occurs when you pick a target that’s not important to you </li></ul><ul><li>To maintain your interest, you have to want to change the behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t try to do too much at once </li></ul><ul><li>Two things to lessen the chances of taking on too much: </li></ul><ul><li>Work with a single behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Look at the behavior as a chain and work on one part at a time </li></ul><ul><li>State the target behavior in a positive manner </li></ul><ul><li>State your target by describing what you want to do </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthen the desirability of replacement behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Your alternative behaviors need to be more motivating than the behavior you’re changing </li></ul>
  8. 8. 2. Monitor How Much of the Target Behavior Now Exists <ul><li>To make any change, you need to know the current state of the behavior </li></ul><ul><li>You need to obtain a baseline from which to monitor the changes in behavior </li></ul><ul><li>From the baseline you can make modifications in your program </li></ul><ul><li>It also shows you what behavioral areas need your attention </li></ul><ul><li>Recording Baseline Data </li></ul><ul><li>You need to record overt behavior and thoughts and feelings associated with them </li></ul><ul><li>It is also wise to record consequent stimuli following the response </li></ul><ul><li>Record information about specific aspects of the behavior you wish to change </li></ul><ul><li>Try not to focus only on negative data </li></ul><ul><li>Record the data as soon after the behavior occurs as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Keep the records so that a clear pattern of the behavior begins to emerge </li></ul><ul><li>Change can begin through the monitoring process alone </li></ul><ul><li>We react to being observed </li></ul><ul><li>This is referred to as reactivity or the Hawthorne Effect </li></ul><ul><li>To influence behavior, you need to follow these five remaining steps: </li></ul><ul><li>Control the antecedent stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>Break the response chains </li></ul><ul><li>Manage the consequent stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain support from other people </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor and record your progress </li></ul>
  9. 9. 3. Control Antecedent Stimuli <ul><li>Stimuli can serve as cues or data to help you decide what to do, or they can be triggers for unproduc-tive or undesirable habits, thoughts, and feelings </li></ul><ul><li>Three things to do to manage antecedent stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>Remove stimuli that act as cues or triggers for problem behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid situations in which the antecedent stimuli normally appear </li></ul><ul><li>Add new antecedent stimuli in order to increase the chances of a desirable behavior occurring </li></ul>
  10. 10. 4. Break Response Chains <ul><li>Many of our behaviors are a series of interconnected responses with one action leading to another </li></ul><ul><li>A stimulus leads to a response which becomes the stimulus for the next response, and so on </li></ul><ul><li>Two ways of breaking the stimulus/response chain: </li></ul><ul><li>Take some action which is incompatible with the chain </li></ul><ul><li>Complicate the process of doing the behavior with an activity that interferes with the behavior </li></ul>
  11. 11. 5. Manage Consequent Stimuli <ul><li>Consequent stimuli have an important influence on your actions and those of others </li></ul><ul><li>Seven Principles for Managing Consequent Stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>1. Make sure you use Positive Reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Select a reinforcer that is appropriate for the behavior you want to modify </li></ul><ul><li>No single reinforcer is likely to work in all situations </li></ul><ul><li>Aversive stimuli in a self-management program doesn’t work </li></ul><ul><li>Aversive stimuli can make things worse by increasing your frustration levels and make some problem behaviors resistant to change </li></ul><ul><li>Self-punishment in personal change programs make you less likely to carry out your plans </li></ul>
  12. 12. More on the Principles for Managing Consequent Stimuli <ul><li>2. Select Positive Reinforcers that are likely to Influence the Behavior You Want to Change </li></ul><ul><li>There are six types of positive reinforcers </li></ul><ul><li>Social interactions with others </li></ul><ul><li>Things you do to reduce psychological needs </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental stimuli you find attractive and pleasant </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal self-reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Mental images to reinforce desirable actions </li></ul><ul><li>Responses you enjoy doing to help modify problem behaviors </li></ul>
  13. 13. More on the Principles for Managing Consequent Stimuli <ul><li>3. Reinforce the Behavior Immediately after it Occurs </li></ul><ul><li>An association must be made between a behavior and a reward </li></ul><ul><li>A token system could be used where a certain reward will be earned after a number of correct responses </li></ul><ul><li>4. Do Not Demand too much Effort for Too Little Reward </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits must be weighed against the effort it took to get the reward: a cost/benefit ratio </li></ul><ul><li>If the benefits the reward provides are not worth the effort, it is unlikely that anyone will work for the reward </li></ul>
  14. 14. More on the Principles for Managing Consequent Stimuli <ul><li>5. Reinforce Each Successive Approximation to your Target Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Learning takes place gradually over time </li></ul><ul><li>Components of the total response need to be rewarded: Shaping Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Three ways to reward the components of a response: </li></ul><ul><li>Reward each subunit of the target until it is mastered </li></ul><ul><li>Administer a portion of the total reinforcer for completing a part of the target behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforce and learn the final response in a sequence of related actions before you reinforce and learn the earlier responses </li></ul>
  15. 15. More on the Principles for Managing Consequent Stimuli <ul><li>6. Shift from Continuous Reinforcement once a Target Behavior is Acquired </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous reinforcement helps to begin the acquisition of a target behavior </li></ul><ul><li>In order to continue the process and make a behavior resistant to extinction, you need to shift from continuous reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Attempt to bring the behavior under the control of natural reinforcers in the environment </li></ul><ul><li>One thing to do is to monitor the natural rewards that accompany changes in your actions </li></ul>
  16. 16. More on the Principles for Managing Consequent Stimuli <ul><li>7. Shift to Partial Reinforcement Schedules to Aid in the Transfer to Naturally Occurring Stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>As soon as you see you’re making progress in modify- ing behavior, shift to either an interval or ratio schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure you don’t shift too rapidly because you may lose the change </li></ul>
  17. 17. 6. Enlist the Support of Others <ul><li>You may need the aid of others to keep you honest and to keep committed to your program </li></ul><ul><li>You may want to have a contract with another </li></ul><ul><li>When asking for another’s help don’t use others to punish you if you don’t stick to your contract </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure that the only time your support person is to assist is when you are exhibiting desirable behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Your contracts must contain specifics as to what to do and when </li></ul><ul><li>Specific contracts are more motivating </li></ul>
  18. 18. 7. Enlist the Support of Others <ul><li>Monitor and Record Your Progress when Modifying Behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Having a record of your success is an important part of achieving your target behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral changes take time, and monitoring lets you know if your plan is working </li></ul><ul><li>You know what, if any, adjustments should be made </li></ul><ul><li>You may want to enlist the aid of another in monitoring some aspect(s) of your change </li></ul>
  19. 19. Social-Based Approaches to Modifying Behavior <ul><li>Imitation Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Learning by watching and imitating and modeling another’s behavior </li></ul><ul><li>It can help when learning various skills, emotional responses, socially appropriate behaviors, and aspects of sex roles </li></ul><ul><li>Developing skills </li></ul><ul><li>Often, observing others is the first step to acquiring a new skill or enhancing an existing one </li></ul><ul><li>Developing socially appropriate behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Imitation helps you acquire socially acceptable behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Learning and expressing emotions </li></ul><ul><li>The when, where appropriate, to whom, how much, for what reason, and why are all learned </li></ul><ul><li>Developing gender roles </li></ul><ul><li>Many masculine and feminine roles are learned by observing role models and how they act </li></ul>
  20. 20. More on Imitation and Modeling <ul><li>Using Imitation Learning Principles </li></ul><ul><li>Select a role model </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of the effective role model </li></ul><ul><li>1. Personality characteristics </li></ul><ul><li> Warm, friendly, worthy of respect, similarity to one’s self </li></ul><ul><li>2. Competence with the skill </li></ul><ul><li> Able to perform the skill at a level several steps above the level you want </li></ul><ul><li> Will occasionally make mistakes </li></ul><ul><li> Will give positive reward and feedback for performing the skill </li></ul><ul><li>3. Ability to teach the skill </li></ul><ul><li> Can break the skill into component parts to demonstrate it </li></ul><ul><li> Can organize and teach the behavior according to difficulty </li></ul><ul><li> Can talk about, label, and summarize what is being done </li></ul><ul><li> Can help you master the parts of the skill verbally or manually </li></ul>
  21. 21. More on Imitation and Modeling <ul><li>Attention, Retention, and Motivational and Physical Movement Processes </li></ul><ul><li>Attending means that you must notice the details of the model’s behavior </li></ul><ul><li>The behavior must be retained over time </li></ul><ul><li>Labeling what the model does, taking notes, or summarizing what occurs aids memory </li></ul><ul><li>Your physical abilities should copy the model’s actions </li></ul><ul><li>Observational learning usually occurs in the background and you’re not always aware that you’re following a model </li></ul>
  22. 22. Cognitive-Based Approaches to Modifying Behavior <ul><li>The cognitive approaches try to achieve behavioral changes by altering thought patterns, beliefs, and opinions </li></ul><ul><li>By changing how you think about and talk to yourself your self-image can be changed, and your resulting behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Instruction </li></ul><ul><li>When dealing with negative emotions, relax and say comforting things to yourself </li></ul><ul><li>The idea is to not let these emotions rule you </li></ul><ul><li>Helpful ideas to assist your change: </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat helpful reminders to yourself to relax </li></ul><ul><li>Reinterpret or reframe problems differently </li></ul><ul><li>Replace self-defeating thoughts with incompatible ones, including those with positive instructions </li></ul><ul><li>Remind yourself of helpful actions you can take </li></ul><ul><li>Remember to self-reward desirable behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Change can be difficult, and lapsing into old habits can bring guilt, self-blame and the tendency to give up </li></ul>
  23. 23. More on the Cognitive Approach <ul><li>Mental practice </li></ul><ul><li>Mental imagery is an effective way to rehearse a skill </li></ul><ul><li>Mental rehearsal is most beneficial when: </li></ul><ul><li>You possess the physical ability needed and are adequately prepared for performing the skill </li></ul><ul><li>It is used in conjunction with regular practice </li></ul><ul><li>You are motivated to learn and are able to concentrate and focus on the components of the skill </li></ul><ul><li>The mental images are concrete and vivid </li></ul><ul><li>The mental images follow the sequence of how the skill is executed </li></ul><ul><li>You are relaxed and not anxious when mentally rehearsing the skill </li></ul><ul><li>If possible, you have one mental rehearsal before engaging the skill </li></ul><ul><li>When combined with self-instruction, mental practice can be even more effective </li></ul>

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