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  1. 1. Biological School It is all about the body!!!!
  2. 2. The Nervous System It starts with an individual nerve cell called a NEURON.
  3. 3. Neuroanatomy Synapse Synapse Neurotransmitters (chemicals held in terminal buttons that travel through synaptic gap)
  4. 4. How does a Neuron fire? <ul><li>Resting Potential : slightly negative charge. </li></ul><ul><li>Reach the threshold when enough neurotransmitters reach dendrites. </li></ul><ul><li>Go into Action Potential . </li></ul><ul><li>All-or-none response . </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer of ions across axon’s membrane causes electrical charge. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Acetylcholine (ACH) <ul><li>Deals with motor movement and memory. </li></ul><ul><li>Too much and you will…. </li></ul><ul><li>Too little and you will… </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of ACH has been linked to Alzheimer’s disease. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Dopamine <ul><li>Deals with motor movement and alertness. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of dopamine has been linked to Parkinson’s disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Too much has been linked to schizophrenia. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Serotonin <ul><li>Involved in mood control. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of serotonin has been linked to clinical depression. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Endorphins <ul><li>Involved in pain control. </li></ul><ul><li>Many of our most addictive drugs deal with endorphins. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Drugs can be….. <ul><li>Agonists - make neuron fire </li></ul><ul><li>Antagonists - stop neural firing </li></ul><ul><li>Reuptake Inhibitors- block reuptake </li></ul>
  11. 11. Types of Neurons <ul><li>Efferent (Motor) Neurons </li></ul><ul><li>Interneurons </li></ul><ul><li>Afferent (Sensory) Neurons </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Nervous System
  13. 13. Central Nervous System <ul><li>The Brain and spinal cord </li></ul><ul><li>CNS </li></ul>
  14. 14. Peripheral Nervous System <ul><li>All nerves that are not encased in bone. </li></ul><ul><li>Everything but the brain and spinal cord. </li></ul><ul><li>Is divided into two categories…. somatic and autonomic . </li></ul>
  15. 15. Somatic Nervous System <ul><li>Controls voluntary muscle movement. </li></ul><ul><li>Uses motor (efferent) neurons. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Autonomic Nervous System <ul><li>Controls the automatic functions of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Divided into two categories…the sympathetic and the parasympathetic </li></ul>
  17. 17. Sympathetic Nervous System <ul><li>Fight or Flight Response. </li></ul><ul><li>Automatically accelerates heart rate, breathing, dilates pupils, slows down digestion. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Parasympathetic Nervous System <ul><li>Automatically slows the body down after a stressful event. </li></ul><ul><li>Heart rate and breathing slow down, pupils constrict and digestion speeds up. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Reflexes <ul><li>Normally, sensory (afferent) neurons take info up through spine to the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>Some reactions occur when sensory neurons reach just the spinal cord. </li></ul><ul><li>Survival adaptation. </li></ul>
  20. 20. The Brain <ul><li>Made up of neurons and glial cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Glial cells support neural cells. </li></ul>My wife is my glial cell. She takes care of me!!!
  21. 21. Ways to study the Brain!!! <ul><li>Accidents: Phineas Gage. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Lesions Cutting into the brain and looking for change. Brain tumors also lesion brain tissue.
  23. 23. Less Invasive ways to study the Brain <ul><li>Electroencephalogram (EEG) </li></ul><ul><li>Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT) </li></ul><ul><li>Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) </li></ul><ul><li>Positron Emission Tomography (PET) </li></ul><ul><li>Functional MRI </li></ul>
  24. 24. Brain Structures <ul><li>Some scientists divide the brain up into three parts. </li></ul><ul><li>Hindbrain </li></ul><ul><li>Midbrain </li></ul><ul><li>Forebrain </li></ul>
  25. 25. Medulla Oblongata <ul><li>Heart rate </li></ul><ul><li>Breathing </li></ul><ul><li>Blood Pressure </li></ul>
  26. 26. Pons <ul><li>Connects hindbrain, midbrain and forebrain together. </li></ul><ul><li>Involved in facial expressions. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Cerebellum <ul><li>Located in the back of our head- means little brain. </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinates muscle movements. </li></ul><ul><li>Like tracking a target. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Midbrain <ul><li>Coordinates simple movements with sensory information. </li></ul><ul><li>Contains the reticular formation : arousal and ability to focus attention. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Thalamus <ul><li>In Forebrain </li></ul><ul><li>Receives sensory information and sends them to appropriate areas of forebrain. </li></ul><ul><li>Like a switchboard. </li></ul><ul><li>Everything but smell. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Limbic System <ul><li>EMOTIONAL CONTROL CENTER of the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>Made up of Hypothalamus, Amygdala and Hippocampus. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Hypothalamus <ul><li>Pea sized in brain, but plays a not so pea sized role. </li></ul><ul><li>Body temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Hunger </li></ul><ul><li>Thirst </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual Arousal (libido) </li></ul><ul><li>Endocrine System </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral – Sympathetic NS; + heart rate, + BP </li></ul><ul><li>Medial – Para-sympathetic NS; - heart rate, + peripheral BP </li></ul>
  32. 32. Hippocampus and Amygdala <ul><li>Hippocampus is involved in memory processing. </li></ul><ul><li>Amygdala is vital for our basic emotions. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Cerebral Cortex <ul><li>Top layer of our brain. </li></ul><ul><li>Contains wrinkles called fissures. </li></ul><ul><li>The fissures increase surface area of our brain. </li></ul><ul><li>Laid out it would be about the size of a large pizza. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Hemispheres <ul><li>Divided into a left and right hemisphere. </li></ul><ul><li>Contralateral controlled- left controls right side of body and vice versa. </li></ul><ul><li>Brain Lateralization. </li></ul><ul><li>Lefties are better at spatial and creative tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>Righties are better at logic. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Split-Brain Patients <ul><li>Corpus Collosum attaches the two hemispheres of cerebral cortex. </li></ul><ul><li>When removed you have a split-brain patient. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Areas of the Cerebral Cortex <ul><li>Divided into eight lobes, four in each hemisphere (frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal). </li></ul><ul><li>Any area not dealing with our senses or muscle movements are called association areas . </li></ul>
  37. 37. Frontal Lobe <ul><li>Deals with planning, maintaining emotional control and abstract thought. </li></ul><ul><li>Contains Broca’s Area. </li></ul><ul><li>Broca’s Aphasia. </li></ul><ul><li>Contains Motor Cortex. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Parietal Lobes <ul><li>Located at the top of our head. </li></ul><ul><li>Contains the somato-sensory cortex. </li></ul><ul><li>Rest are association areas. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Temporal Lobes <ul><li>Process sound sensed by ears. </li></ul><ul><li>Not lateralized. </li></ul><ul><li>Contains Wernicke’s area. </li></ul><ul><li>Wernicke’s Aphasia. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Occipital Lobes <ul><li>In the back of our head. </li></ul><ul><li>Handles visual input from eyes. </li></ul><ul><li>Right half of each retina goes to left occipital lobe and vice versa. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Brain Plasticity <ul><li>The ability for our brains to form new connections after the neurons are damaged. </li></ul><ul><li>The younger you are, the more plastic your brain is. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Endocrine System <ul><li>System of glands that secrete hormones. </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled by the hypothalamus. </li></ul><ul><li>Ovaries and Testes. </li></ul><ul><li>Adrenal Gland </li></ul>
  43. 43. Genetics <ul><li>Every human cell contains 46 chromosomes (23 pairs). </li></ul><ul><li>Made up of deoxyribonucleic acid- DNA. </li></ul><ul><li>Made up of Genes. </li></ul><ul><li>Made up of nucleotides. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Twins <ul><li>Best way to really study genetics because they come from the same zygote. </li></ul><ul><li>Bouchard Study </li></ul><ul><li>.69 Correlational coefficient for IQ tests of identical twins raised apart. </li></ul><ul><li>.88 raised together. </li></ul>
  45. 45. Chromosomal Abnormalities <ul><li>Gender comes from 23 rd pair of chromosomes…men have XY…woman have XX. </li></ul><ul><li>Turner’s syndrome is single X. </li></ul><ul><li>Klinefelter’s syndrome is extra X…XXY </li></ul><ul><li>Down syndrome….extra chromosome on 21 st pair. </li></ul>