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  1. 1. 10: Intelligence <ul><li>Outline </li></ul><ul><li>3 issues: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is intelligence and how do we measure it? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does intelligence change over time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How does our genetic inheritance interact with our environment? </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. What is intelligence and can we measure it? <ul><li>Definitions are fuzzy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Verbal ability, problem solving skills and the ability to adapt to and learn from life’s everyday experiences’ (Santrock, 2000) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hard to test - 3 problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>unitary or multifactorial? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>culture bias </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>effect of environment / genes </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Problem 1: Unitary or multifactorial? <ul><li>Is intelligence a unitary or multifactorial concept? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Binet - unitary concept -> IQ tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Originally: IQ = [MA/CA] x 100 (ration IQ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Now: comparison with children same age; average 100, sd=15 (deviation IQ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spearman (1927) - g </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others - multifactorial concept: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Catell (1971, 1987) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Caroll (1993) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thurstone (1938) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gardner (1983) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sternberg (1985) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Distribution of IQ scores <ul><li>(From Bee, 2000) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Hierarchical models <ul><li>Cattell, 1971 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General intelligence (top of hierarchy) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fluid ability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acquisition of new information </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grasping new relations </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Crystallised ability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accumulation of knowledge over lifespan </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Hierarchical models (Carroll, 1993)   General intellect ( g ) Fluid intelligence Quantitative reasoning, analogical Crystallised intelligence Language comprehension, vocabulary General memory & learning Memory span, associative memory Visual perception Visual and spatial discrimination Auditory perception Phonemic and musical discrimination Retrieval ability Creativity, naming facility Cognitive speed Perceptual speed, rate of test-taking Processing speed Reaction time, speed of decision-making
  7. 7. Multiple intelligences <ul><li>Thurstone (1938) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>7 primary mental abilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Word fluency </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal meaning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reasoning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spatial visualisation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Numbering </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rote memory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Perceptual speed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Gardner (1983, 1993) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>8 frames of mind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Linguistic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Logical-Mathematical </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spatial </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bodily-kinesthetic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Musical </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interpersonal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intrapersonal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Naturalist – ability to understand natural and man-made systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evidence? Savant skills </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Sternberg’s TRIARCHIC theory <ul><li>Multidimensional Abilities Test: tested 3 components: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Componential (or analytical) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Planning, organising, remembering facts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experiential (or creative) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insight, ability to see connections </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contextual (or practical) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“street smarts”, practical solutions – which box of cereal is the best value? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Wechsler scales <ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal tests </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Comprehension </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arithmetic </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Similarities </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vocabulary </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Digit span </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Performance tests </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Picture completion </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Picture arrangement </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Block design </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Object assembly </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coding </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mazes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>WISC-III (Wechsler, 1974) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Problems <ul><li>Evidence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not a lot of evidence for different methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of research? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Lumpers vs splitters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lumpers: intelligence stems from one general ability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Splitters: many separate kinds of relatively independent intelligence (modular?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also: Hierarchical organisation of specific skills stemming from 1 or 2 factors. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How many intelligences are there? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We have contextual intelligence or musical intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why not chess, law, writing, poetry intelligence? </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Problem 2: Cultural bias <ul><li>Different emphases on important components of intelligence (Rogoff, 1998, Serpell, 2000): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>West: abstract thinking and logic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kenya: responsible participation in life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uganda: one who knows what to do and follows it through </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Papua New Guinea: recall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caroline Islands: navigation by stars </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Language barriers </li></ul>
  12. 12. Solution? Culture fair tests <ul><li>Ask fair questions - relevant to all </li></ul><ul><li>Non-verbal tests: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Raven’s Progressive Matrices Test </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effective? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not very </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural differences even in drawing (Anastasi & Urbina, 1996) </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Raven’s Progressive Matrices <ul><li>(From Thornton, 2002) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Does intelligence change over time? <ul><li>Infant intelligence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>no verbal intelligence scales </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>more items measuring perceptual motor development and social interactional abilities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gesell (1925, 1928) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>motor, language, adaptive, personal-social skills </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Bayley Scales of infant development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bayley (1969; 1993) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 components: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>motor scale (e.g. crawling, climbing stairs) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>mental scale (e.g. response to sound, imitation, memory, problem solving, language comprehension and production) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Does intelligence change over time? <ul><li>NO correlation between infant and IQ test scores (Anderson, 1939). </li></ul><ul><li>But scales measure different things </li></ul><ul><li>Other infant measure correlate with IQ: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>habituation experiments (Bornstein, 1989) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>attention (Bornstein & Krasnegor, 1989) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stability over time? </li></ul>
  16. 16. Evidence for stability <ul><li>3 yrs onwards – start to get consistency </li></ul><ul><li>High correlations between IQ scores at 6, 8, 9 and 10 years </li></ul><ul><li>High correlations between IQ in childhood and at 18 years </li></ul><ul><li>-> conclude stability over time? </li></ul><ul><li>Not necessarily </li></ul>
  17. 17. Evidence against stability of intelligence over time <ul><li>Performance of a single child retaking same test at different ages CAN fluctuate </li></ul><ul><li>McCall et al 1973: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1/3 children’s scores fluctuated by 30 points </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1/7 children’s scores fluctuated by 40 points </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. More evidence against stability <ul><li>Environmental influences affect intelligence: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abeccedarian project (Ramey & Campbell, 1984; Ramey and Ramey, 1998): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>effect of activities aimed at improving language, motor, social and cognitive skills </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>BUT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lots of intervention programs with fraudulent claims (Eysenck, 1998) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Claimed improvements not found </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. How does our genetic inheritance interact with our environment? <ul><li>Research follows several lines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MZ/MZ comparison (separated) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MZ/DZ comparison </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adopted children/Bio parents/Adoptive parents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family correlations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parent/child </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Siblings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental manipulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inbreeding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heterosis </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. (adapted from Dworetzky, 1996; Bouchard & McGee, 1981)
  21. 21. How does genetic inheritance work? <ul><li>70-80% determination of IQ by heredity </li></ul><ul><li>Assumption: 2 bright parents produce bright child </li></ul><ul><li>BUT NOT STRICTLY TRUE </li></ul><ul><li>Laws of heredity predict regression to the mean </li></ul><ul><li>Children of bright parents will, on average, be bright – but less bright than parents </li></ul>
  22. 22. Summary <ul><li>Issue 1: what is intelligence and can we measure it? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unclear what intelligence is </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>almost certainly bound to be multifactorial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>but problems -> hard to measure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Issue 2: is it stable over time? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lots of evidence either way. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Issue 3: nature-nurture debate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>general conclusion that 70-80% of IQ difference can be explained be genetic differences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BUT: mustn’t make the mistake of interpreting this too simplistically </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Learning Outcomes & Reading <ul><li>Describe and evaluate theories of intelligence and the tests designed to measure it </li></ul><ul><li>Debate the issue of whether intelligence is stable over time and be able to describe and evaluate the relevant research </li></ul><ul><li>Be able to describe and evaluate studies that throw light on the interaction between genetic inheritance and environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Essential Reading (on Digital Resources): </li></ul><ul><li>Gardner , M. & Clark, E. (1992) The psychometric perspective on intellectual development in childhood and adolescence. In R. J. Sternberg & C. A. Berg (Eds).Intellectual development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press </li></ul><ul><li>Grigorenko, E.L. (2000). Heritabililty and intelligence In R. J. Sternberg (Ed). Handbook of intelligence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Meadows, S. (1993) The child as thinker. Hove: Routledge. Ch 3. pp.157-196 </li></ul><ul><li>Further Reading: </li></ul><ul><li>See lecture webpage or .pdf handout </li></ul>
  24. 24. Questions to ask <ul><li>What are the problems with the measurement of intelligence? </li></ul><ul><li>What do the different theories say about the nature of intelligence? </li></ul><ul><li>What does the research suggest about the nature of intelligence? </li></ul><ul><li>Is intelligence stable? </li></ul><ul><li>How can theory and research help us deal with the measurement of intelligence? </li></ul>