Intelligencewechsler has definedintelligence as the aggregateor global capacity of theindividual to thinkrationally, to actpurposefully and to dealeffectively with theenvironment
Types of Intelligence Mechanical intelligence Social Abstract intelligence intelligence
Theories of Intelligence Multifactor Unitary Theory or Theory or Anarchic Monarchic Theory Theory (thorndike) Spearmans two factor Group factor Theory or theory Eclectic (thurstone) Theory
Spearman’s “g” Factor Logical Mechanical s s g s s Spatial Mathematical Each ability combines
Primary mental Abilities Verbal Comprehension Reasoning Word Fluency Perceptual Number Speed Memory Space
IntelligenceAssessment/tests On the basis of size On the basis of medium used Individual Tests Paper – pencil Tests Group Tests Verbal Tests Non – Verbal Tests Performance Tests Culture Fair Tests Or Culture Free Tests
Intelligence Assessment Alfred Binct (1896) MA vs. CA Louis Terman (1916) David Wechsler (1958)
The Stanford-Binet Alfred Binet(1875-1911) Intelligence scale in 1905 which involved attention, memory, discrimination and some other simple psychological processes Scale consisted of 30 items arranged in order of difficulty or complexity
Intelligence Quotient Stern (1914) devised the intelligence Quotient (IQ) Shifts the focus to the rate of development Allows children of different ages to be compared IQ = (MA/CA) x 100 This ratio no longer used in its literal form
Terman Classification of IQ IQ Classification 140 – 169 Genius 120 –139 Very Superior or Gifted 110 –119 Superior 90 – 109 Average 80-89 Slow Learners 70 –79 Border Line 50 –69 Morons 25 – 49 Imbeciles Below 24 Idiots
Intelligence TestingFrequency Distribution of IQ Scores (Figure adapted from Anastasi & Urbina, 1997) .
Wechsler Intelligence Scale Composed of two scales: Verbal and Performance
Subtests • Five Mandatory Subtests • Information • Similarities • ArithmeticVerbal • Vocabulary • Comprehension • One Supplementary TestScale • Digit Span • This test can be substituted for one of the other tests if and only if the data from a mandatory subtest is missing or invalidated. (Kamphaus, 1993)
Subtests • Five Mandatory Subtests • Picture Completion • Picture Arrangement • Block Design • Object AssemblyPerformance • Coding • Two Supplementary Subtests Scale • Mazes • Symbol Search • The Mazes subtest can be substituted for any of the mandatory subtest if the data is missing or invalidated. The Symbol Search can only be substituted for the Coding subtest. (Kamphaus, 1993)
Ravens “Culture-Fair”matrices Test The test has five sets i.e., A, B, C, D, E and each set has 12 patterns. Total 60 patterns.
Bhatia’s (Alexander) performanceTest Kohs block design test Pass along test Pattern drawing test Immediate memory for sound Picture construction test