Methods of
Persuasive
Speaking

Getting the Most out of a Persuasive Speech

Credibility Appeals

Evidential Appeals

Logi...
Methods of
Persuasive
Speaking
(continued)

Motivational Appeals

Boundless.com/communications

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Methods of Persuasive Speaking > Getting the Most out of a Persuasive Speech

Getting the Most out of a Persuasive Speech
...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking > Getting the Most out of a Persuasive Speech

Expect Selective Exposure
• The selective ex...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking > Getting the Most out of a Persuasive Speech

Don't Expect Too Much
• The expected effecti...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking > Getting the Most out of a Persuasive Speech

Employ Empathy and Sensitivity
• Appeals to ...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking > Getting the Most out of a Persuasive Speech

Use Different Kinds of Appeals
• Aristotle d...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking > Credibility Appeals

Credibility Appeals
• Defining Credibility
• Types and Elements of C...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking > Credibility Appeals

Defining Credibility
• Credibility is a composite of subjective and ...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking > Credibility Appeals

Types and Elements of Credibility
• Personal experience in the workp...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking > Credibility Appeals

Building Credibility
• Establishing your good character is a crucial...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking > Credibility Appeals

Ethical Usage
• There are three types of appeal techniques in persua...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking > Evidential Appeals

Evidential Appeals
• Defining Evidence
• Deploying Evidence

• Ethica...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking > Evidential Appeals

Defining Evidence
• Accurate, contextual, easily understandable evide...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking > Evidential Appeals

Deploying Evidence
• When crafting your speech, consider the followin...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking > Evidential Appeals

Ethical Usage: Considering Other Viewpoints
• The same evidence can b...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking > Logical Appeals

Logical Appeals
• Different Lines of Reasoning
• Deploying a Rational Ap...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking > Logical Appeals

Different Lines of Reasoning
• Inductive reasoning, also known as induct...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking > Logical Appeals

Deploying a Rational Appeal
• Deploying rational appeals focuses on reas...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking > Logical Appeals

Logical Fallacies
• "Formal" refers to the form of the argument. An argu...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking > Emotional Appeals

Emotional Appeals
• Defining Emotional Appeal
• Producing an Emotional...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking > Emotional Appeals

Defining Emotional Appeal
• Pathos represents an appeal to the emotion...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking > Emotional Appeals

Producing an Emotional Appeal
• Producing an emotional appeal requires...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking > Emotional Appeals

Ethical Usage
• Ethos (plural: ethe) is an appeal to the authority or ...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking > Motivational Appeals

Motivational Appeals
• Motivating Listeners

Free to share, print, ...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking > Motivational Appeals

Motivating Listeners
• We can divide our motives into two basic typ...
Appendix
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Methods of Persuasive Speaking

Key terms
• accuracy Exact conformity to truth, or to a rule or model; degree of conformit...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

• evidence The available body of facts or information indicating whether a belief or propo...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

• objective not influenced by irrational emotions or prejudices; based on facts or evidenc...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

Pianist

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Sch...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

Martin Luther King, Jr.

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Methods of Persuasive Speaking

Audience Emotion

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Methods of Persuasive Speaking

Courtroom

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W...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

Unmasking Credibility

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Methods of Persuasive Speaking

Mountaineering

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Methods of Persuasive Speaking

Building Blocks

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Methods of Persuasive Speaking

Rhetorical

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...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

Sherlock Holmes

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Methods of Persuasive Speaking

Sherlock Holmes

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Methods of Persuasive Speaking

Chilean Presidential Debate

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Methods of Persuasive Speaking

Inductive and Deductive Reasoning

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Methods of Persuasive Speaking

Summary of Deductive and Inductive Reasoning

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Methods of Persuasive Speaking

The mind

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Wi...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

Euler circles to illustrate categorical deduction

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Methods of Persuasive Speaking

A father with his children

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Methods of Persuasive Speaking

Martin Luther King, Jr.

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Methods of Persuasive Speaking

Audience Emotion

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Methods of Persuasive Speaking

Carrot and Stick

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Methods of Persuasive Speaking

Hierarchy of Needs

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Methods of Persuasive Speaking

A group of people within hearing; specifically a group of people
listening to a performanc...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

A group of people within hearing; specifically a group of people
listening to a performanc...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

Which of the following best describes the selective exposure
theory?
A) The theory that su...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

Which of the following best describes the selective exposure
theory?
A) The theory that su...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

The _______ theory is a concept in media and communication
research that refers to individ...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

The _______ theory is a concept in media and communication
research that refers to individ...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

A group of people within hearing; specifically a group of people
listening to a performanc...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

A group of people within hearing; specifically a group of people
listening to a performanc...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

A group of people within hearing; specifically a group of people
listening to a performanc...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

A group of people within hearing; specifically a group of people
listening to a performanc...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

A group of people within hearing; specifically a group of people
listening to a performanc...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

A group of people within hearing; specifically a group of people
listening to a performanc...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

A group of people within hearing; specifically a group of people
listening to a performanc...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

A group of people within hearing; specifically a group of people
listening to a performanc...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

the process aimed at changing a person's (or a group's) attitude
or behavior
A) audience

...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

the process aimed at changing a person's (or a group's) attitude
or behavior
A) audience

...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

Many speakers get nervous before giving a speech because they
think the audience expects p...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

Many speakers get nervous before giving a speech because they
think the audience expects p...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

An an attempt to make the audience feel certain emotions so that
they will be more likely ...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

An an attempt to make the audience feel certain emotions so that
they will be more likely ...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

Which of the following is an example of a drawback of appealing
to the emotions of your au...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

Which of the following is an example of a drawback of appealing
to the emotions of your au...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

An an attempt to make the audience feel certain emotions so that
they will be more likely ...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

An an attempt to make the audience feel certain emotions so that
they will be more likely ...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

An attempt to show the logical connection between a set of
evidence and a consequence. Als...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

An attempt to show the logical connection between a set of
evidence and a consequence. Als...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

An an attempt to make the audience feel certain emotions so that
they will be more likely ...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

An an attempt to make the audience feel certain emotions so that
they will be more likely ...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

A woman gives a press conference because her daughter has
been kidnapped. The woman cries ...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

A woman gives a press conference because her daughter has
been kidnapped. The woman cries ...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

An an attempt to make the audience feel certain emotions so that
they will be more likely ...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

An an attempt to make the audience feel certain emotions so that
they will be more likely ...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

formed, as in opinions, based upon a person's feelings or
intuition, not upon observation ...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

formed, as in opinions, based upon a person's feelings or
intuition, not upon observation ...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

Eye-Oh-Key-Are. That’s spelled I-O-K-I-Y-A-R. Eye-Oh-Key-Are. It
means ‘It’s OK if you are...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

Eye-Oh-Key-Are. That’s spelled I-O-K-I-Y-A-R. Eye-Oh-Key-Are. It
means ‘It’s OK if you are...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

The objective and subjective components of the believability of a
source or message.
A) an...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

The objective and subjective components of the believability of a
source or message.
A) an...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

A good way to earn subjective credibility is to

A) speak loudly, clearly, and confidently...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

A good way to earn subjective credibility is to

A) speak loudly, clearly, and confidently...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

The objective and subjective components of the believability of a
source or message.
A) un...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

The objective and subjective components of the believability of a
source or message.
A) un...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

The objective and subjective components of the believability of a
source or message.
A) se...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

The objective and subjective components of the believability of a
source or message.
A) se...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

not influenced by irrational emotions or prejudices; based on facts
or evidence.
A) inflec...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

not influenced by irrational emotions or prejudices; based on facts
or evidence.
A) inflec...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

You are giving a speech on Italian performance art. You spent a
month studying Commedia de...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

You are giving a speech on Italian performance art. You spent a
month studying Commedia de...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

The objective and subjective components of the believability of a
source or message.
A) se...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

The objective and subjective components of the believability of a
source or message.
A) se...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

The objective and subjective components of the believability of a
source or message.
A) un...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

The objective and subjective components of the believability of a
source or message.
A) un...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

The objective and subjective components of the believability of a
source or message.
A) an...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

The objective and subjective components of the believability of a
source or message.
A) an...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

You are government official speaking to an audience of senior
citizens about changes in th...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

You are government official speaking to an audience of senior
citizens about changes in th...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

Moral strength; consistency of values and principles.

A) objective

B) credibility

C) et...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

Moral strength; consistency of values and principles.

A) objective

B) credibility

C) et...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

In order to build credibility, you should

A) entertain potential objections.

B) walk the...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

In order to build credibility, you should

A) entertain potential objections.

B) walk the...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

A rhetorical appeal to an audience based on the speaker/writer's
credibility.
A) perceptio...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

A rhetorical appeal to an audience based on the speaker/writer's
credibility.
A) perceptio...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

A politician gives a speech during a campaign in which she
misrepresents her past in order...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

A politician gives a speech during a campaign in which she
misrepresents her past in order...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

Ethos is a type of appeal to an audience based on

A) the audience's emotional involvement...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

Ethos is a type of appeal to an audience based on

A) the audience's emotional involvement...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

How can context be used to strengthen evidence in a persuasive
speech?
A) The evidence mus...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

How can context be used to strengthen evidence in a persuasive
speech?
A) The evidence mus...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

What is the primary role of evidence in persuasive speaking?

A) Evidence builds credibili...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

What is the primary role of evidence in persuasive speaking?

A) Evidence builds credibili...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

The available body of facts or information indicating whether a
belief or proposition is t...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

The available body of facts or information indicating whether a
belief or proposition is t...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

The available body of facts or information indicating whether a
belief or proposition is t...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

The available body of facts or information indicating whether a
belief or proposition is t...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

Exact conformity to truth, or to a rule or model; degree of
conformity of a measure to a t...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

Exact conformity to truth, or to a rule or model; degree of
conformity of a measure to a t...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

The available body of facts or information indicating whether a
belief or proposition is t...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

The available body of facts or information indicating whether a
belief or proposition is t...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

The available body of facts or information indicating whether a
belief or proposition is t...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

The available body of facts or information indicating whether a
belief or proposition is t...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

When crafting a speech, speakers must consider which of the
following to ensure their evid...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

When crafting a speech, speakers must consider which of the
following to ensure their evid...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

painstaking and careful not to miss or omit any detail

A) thorough

B) fallacy

C) eviden...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

painstaking and careful not to miss or omit any detail

A) thorough

B) fallacy

C) eviden...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

Exact conformity to truth, or to a rule or model; degree of
conformity of a measure to a t...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

Exact conformity to truth, or to a rule or model; degree of
conformity of a measure to a t...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

An error in reasoningoften due to a misconception or a
presumption; used in informal disco...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

An error in reasoningoften due to a misconception or a
presumption; used in informal disco...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

An error in reasoningoften due to a misconception or a
presumption; used in informal disco...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

An error in reasoningoften due to a misconception or a
presumption; used in informal disco...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

Which of the following must a public speaker do to ensure that the
evidence in his or her ...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

Which of the following must a public speaker do to ensure that the
evidence in his or her ...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

All humans require oxygen to survive. Mary is human. Therefore,
Mary requires oxygen to su...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

All humans require oxygen to survive. Mary is human. Therefore,
Mary requires oxygen to su...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

The process of reasoning that uses given true premises to reach
a conclusion that is also ...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

The process of reasoning that uses given true premises to reach
a conclusion that is also ...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

A kind of reasoning that constructs or evaluates general
propositions that are derived fro...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

A kind of reasoning that constructs or evaluates general
propositions that are derived fro...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

An inference in which one proposition (the conclusion) follows
necessarily from two other ...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

An inference in which one proposition (the conclusion) follows
necessarily from two other ...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

Which of the following types of persuasive appeals focuses on
appealing to the audience's ...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

Which of the following types of persuasive appeals focuses on
appealing to the audience's ...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

the formulation of arguments based on logos--rational appeal or
logic.
A) Invention

B) De...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

the formulation of arguments based on logos--rational appeal or
logic.
A) Invention

B) De...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

An error in reasoningoften due to a misconception or a
presumption; used in informal disco...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

An error in reasoningoften due to a misconception or a
presumption; used in informal disco...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

An error in reasoningoften due to a misconception or a
presumption; used in informal disco...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

An error in reasoningoften due to a misconception or a
presumption; used in informal disco...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

The dog is panting and the cat is sleeping, therefore the cat
sleeps because the dog pants...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

The dog is panting and the cat is sleeping, therefore the cat
sleeps because the dog pants...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

An insubstantial concept, idea, endeavor or argument, particularly
one deliberately set up...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

An insubstantial concept, idea, endeavor or argument, particularly
one deliberately set up...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

A clue or information that is or is intended to be misleading, that
diverts attention from...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

A clue or information that is or is intended to be misleading, that
diverts attention from...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

A fallacy; a clearly defined error in reasoning used to support or
refute an argument, exc...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

A fallacy; a clearly defined error in reasoning used to support or
refute an argument, exc...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

Emotional appeals are effective as a rhetorical device but
considered a logical fallacy be...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

Emotional appeals are effective as a rhetorical device but
considered a logical fallacy be...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

To create an effective emotional appeal in a speech, the speaker
must use words that are h...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

To create an effective emotional appeal in a speech, the speaker
must use words that are h...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

A habit, a preparation, a state of readiness, or a tendency to act in
a specified way.
A) ...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

A habit, a preparation, a state of readiness, or a tendency to act in
a specified way.
A) ...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

The art of using language, especially public speaking, as a means
to persuade.
A) Manipula...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

The art of using language, especially public speaking, as a means
to persuade.
A) Manipula...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

An appeal to the audience's emotions.

A) ethics

B) Pathos

C) logical fallacy

D) manipu...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

An appeal to the audience's emotions.

A) ethics

B) Pathos

C) logical fallacy

D) manipu...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

When a speaker suggests to audience members that they do not
care enough, are too selfish,...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

When a speaker suggests to audience members that they do not
care enough, are too selfish,...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

The study of principles relating to right and wrong conduct.

A) extemporaneous

B) telepr...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

The study of principles relating to right and wrong conduct.

A) extemporaneous

B) telepr...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

A rhetorical appeal to an audience based on the speaker/writer's
credibility.
A) perceptio...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

A rhetorical appeal to an audience based on the speaker/writer's
credibility.
A) perceptio...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

The study of principles relating to right and wrong conduct.

A) ethics

B) active listeni...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

The study of principles relating to right and wrong conduct.

A) ethics

B) active listeni...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

The usage of psychological influence over a person or situation to
gain a positive outcome...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

The usage of psychological influence over a person or situation to
gain a positive outcome...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

According to Maslow, which of the following must be met on the
Hierarchy of Needs before s...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

According to Maslow, which of the following must be met on the
Hierarchy of Needs before s...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

Willingness of action especially in behavior

A) evidence

B) fallacy

C) motivation

D) e...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

Willingness of action especially in behavior

A) evidence

B) fallacy

C) motivation

D) e...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

a technique for organizing persuasive speeches that inspires
people to take action, develo...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

a technique for organizing persuasive speeches that inspires
people to take action, develo...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

An incentive to act; a reason for doing something; anything that
prompted a choice of acti...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

An incentive to act; a reason for doing something; anything that
prompted a choice of acti...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

After showing how the speech topic applies to the psychological
needs of the audience memb...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

After showing how the speech topic applies to the psychological
needs of the audience memb...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

Attribution
• Wikipedia. "Selective exposure theory." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

• Wikipedia. "Credibility." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Credibility
• Wikipe...
Methods of Persuasive Speaking

• Brigham Young University. CC BY http://rhetoric.byu.edu/encompassing%2520terms/rhetoric....
Methods Persuasive Speaking
Methods Persuasive Speaking
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Methods Persuasive Speaking

  1. 1. Methods of Persuasive Speaking Getting the Most out of a Persuasive Speech Credibility Appeals Evidential Appeals Logical Appeals Emotional Appeals Boundless.com/communications Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  2. 2. Methods of Persuasive Speaking (continued) Motivational Appeals Boundless.com/communications Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  3. 3. Methods of Persuasive Speaking > Getting the Most out of a Persuasive Speech Getting the Most out of a Persuasive Speech • Expect Selective Exposure • Don't Expect Too Much • Employ Empathy and Sensitivity • Use Different Kinds of Appeals Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com www.boundless.com/communications
  4. 4. Methods of Persuasive Speaking > Getting the Most out of a Persuasive Speech Expect Selective Exposure • The selective exposure theory is a concept that refers to individuals’ tendency to favor information that reinforces pre-existing views while avoiding contradictory information. • Selective exposure operates by reinforcing beliefs rather than exposing individuals to a diverse array of viewpoints. • Perceived usefulness of information, perceived norm of fairness, and curiosity regarding valuable information are three factors that can counteract selective exposure. Pianist View on Boundless.com Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com www.boundless.com/communications/methods-of-persuasive-speaking/getting-the-most-out-of-a-persuasive-speech-7d42f6ed-ec35-402b-98a0e32fe865ad52/expect-selective-exposure
  5. 5. Methods of Persuasive Speaking > Getting the Most out of a Persuasive Speech Don't Expect Too Much • The expected effectiveness of each speech depends on a number of factors, such as the audience, venue, time allotted, and the speaker's experience. • The expected quality of the delivery depends on the speaker's experience and comfort. Even the most gifted speakers make mistakes, so expecting perfection from a novice is unreasonable. • Anxiety of public speaking sometimes is derived from the idea that the audience expects perfection. In reality, most audiences are sympathetic and want the speaker to succeed. Martin Luther King, Jr. View on Boundless.com Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com www.boundless.com/communications/methods-of-persuasive-speaking/getting-the-most-out-of-a-persuasive-speech-7d42f6ed-ec35-402b-98a0e32fe865ad52/don-t-expect-too-much
  6. 6. Methods of Persuasive Speaking > Getting the Most out of a Persuasive Speech Employ Empathy and Sensitivity • Appeals to empathy and sensitivity are called emotional appeals. Emotional appeals seek to impart certain feelings in the audience so that they will act a certain way. They can be much more powerful than logical arguments in some situations. • To deploy an emotional appeal you need to share carefully selected information that naturally makes your audience feel a certain way. • Audiences can sense inauthentic emotional appeals and react negatively because they feel that they are being negatively. Poorly used emotional appeals can have the exact opposite effect than intended. Audience Emotion View on Boundless.com Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com www.boundless.com/communications/methods-of-persuasive-speaking/getting-the-most-out-of-a-persuasive-speech-7d42f6ed-ec35-402b-98a0e32fe865ad52/employ-empathy-and-sensitivity
  7. 7. Methods of Persuasive Speaking > Getting the Most out of a Persuasive Speech Use Different Kinds of Appeals • Aristotle defined 3 types of appeals: logos (evidential), pathos (emotional), and ethos (based on moral standing). Logos and pathos are the two most common contemporary categories. • Evidential appeals (logical appeals, logos) are based entirely on evidence that is then shown to cause a certain outcome based on rationality alone. This is the type of appeal allowed in scientific research and in courts of law. • Emotional appeals (pathos) attempt to cause the audience to feel certain emotions in order to persuade them. Stories and metaphors are examples of emotional appeals. Courtroom View on Boundless.com Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com www.boundless.com/communications/methods-of-persuasive-speaking/getting-the-most-out-of-a-persuasive-speech-7d42f6ed-ec35-402b-98a0e32fe865ad52/use-different-kinds-of-appeals
  8. 8. Methods of Persuasive Speaking > Credibility Appeals Credibility Appeals • Defining Credibility • Types and Elements of Credibility • Building Credibility • Ethical Usage Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com www.boundless.com/communications
  9. 9. Methods of Persuasive Speaking > Credibility Appeals Defining Credibility • Credibility is a composite of subjective and objective factors, so it relates to feelings and opinions, as well as facts and evidence. • The subjective component of a public speaker's credibility centers on the speaker's self-presentation. • The objective aspect of a public speaker's credibility is based on the speaker's expertise. Unmasking Credibility View on Boundless.com Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com www.boundless.com/communications/methods-of-persuasive-speaking/credibility-appeals/defining-credibility
  10. 10. Methods of Persuasive Speaking > Credibility Appeals Types and Elements of Credibility • Personal experience in the workplace, at home, in a hobby, or volunteering situations can bolster your credibility. You can support the validity of your experience with testimonials and personal recommendations. • Formal or informal training that relates to your topic can also support your credibility. • If you connect yourself and your message to credible people, your own credibility will benefit from the association. Mountaineering View on Boundless.com Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com www.boundless.com/communications/methods-of-persuasive-speaking/credibility-appeals/types-and-elements-of-credibility
  11. 11. Methods of Persuasive Speaking > Credibility Appeals Building Credibility • Establishing your good character is a crucial part of winning the audience's trust. • For a public speaker, character is not only about being a good person or a law- abiding citizen; speakers should also be looking out for the needs of their listeners. • To show your listeners that you care about their needs and interests, find common ground with the audience, appeal to shared beliefs and goals, and entertain potential objections. Building Blocks View on Boundless.com Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com www.boundless.com/communications/methods-of-persuasive-speaking/credibility-appeals/building-credibility
  12. 12. Methods of Persuasive Speaking > Credibility Appeals Ethical Usage • There are three types of appeal techniques in persuasive speaking: logos, pathos and ethos. Ethos is focused on the credibility appeal, that is, a rhetorical appeal to an audience based on the speaker's credibility. • It is unethical to lie to your audience about who you are and what you bring to the table in terms of experience, credibility and authority. • When it comes to ethical usage of credibility appeals, stick to authenticity and speaking honestly about who you are. Rhetorical View on Boundless.com Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com www.boundless.com/communications/methods-of-persuasive-speaking/credibility-appeals/ethical-usage
  13. 13. Methods of Persuasive Speaking > Evidential Appeals Evidential Appeals • Defining Evidence • Deploying Evidence • Ethical Usage: Considering Other Viewpoints Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com www.boundless.com/communications
  14. 14. Methods of Persuasive Speaking > Evidential Appeals Defining Evidence • Accurate, contextual, easily understandable evidence builds credibility to your persuasive argument. • The success or failure of an evidential appeal depends on how well the evidence has been defined and laid out for the audience. • Any information used as evidence must be complete enough that it strengthens the appeal. Otherwise, weak evidence will only erode the argument. • Name and define the evidence only as comprehensively as the scope of the speech allows; dense supporting materials can actually confuse your audience by overwhelming them with too much or too deeply defined evidence. Sherlock Holmes View on Boundless.com Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com www.boundless.com/communications/methods-of-persuasive-speaking/evidential-appeals/defining-evidence
  15. 15. Methods of Persuasive Speaking > Evidential Appeals Deploying Evidence • When crafting your speech, consider the following three areas: accuracy, relevance, and thoroughness. • Make sure that your evidence, be it facts, statistics, personal testimony, or other pieces of information, comes from credible sources. • Make sure your evidence is directly related to the points you are trying to make while also anticipating competing evidence that may contradict your line of reasoning. • By thorough by fully explaining and defining your evidence to your audience, but don't overwhelm them in the process. Sherlock Holmes View on Boundless.com Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com www.boundless.com/communications/methods-of-persuasive-speaking/evidential-appeals/deploying-evidence
  16. 16. Methods of Persuasive Speaking > Evidential Appeals Ethical Usage: Considering Other Viewpoints • The same evidence can be interpreted differently by different people. • Falsified evidence (intentionally or unintentionally) is unethical to use. Finding false evidence that is due to statistical fallacy can only be found after deep critique. • If an argument can withstand the honest critique of an opponent and is based on true and complete evidence, then the appeal is on sound ethical ground. Chilean Presidential Debate View on Boundless.com Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com www.boundless.com/communications/methods-of-persuasive-speaking/evidential-appeals/ethical-usage-considering-other-viewpoints
  17. 17. Methods of Persuasive Speaking > Logical Appeals Logical Appeals • Different Lines of Reasoning • Deploying a Rational Appeal • Logical Fallacies Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com www.boundless.com/communications
  18. 18. Methods of Persuasive Speaking > Logical Appeals Different Lines of Reasoning • Inductive reasoning, also known as induction, is a kind of reasoning that constructs general propositions that are derived from specific examples. • Inductive reasoning is probabilistic; it only states that, given the premises, the conclusion is probable. • One important aspect of inductive reasoning is associative reasoning: seeing or noticing similarity among the different events or objects that you observe. • Deductive reasoning is the process of reasoning from one or more general statements, laws, or principles regarding what is known, in order to reach a logically certain conclusion. Inductive and Deductive Reasoning View on Boundless.com Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com www.boundless.com/communications/methods-of-persuasive-speaking/logical-appeals/different-lines-of-reasoning
  19. 19. Methods of Persuasive Speaking > Logical Appeals Deploying a Rational Appeal • Deploying rational appeals focuses on reasoning and how you use evidence to reason with your audience and invention, how arguments are formed based on the classical proof of logos--rational appeal and logic. • The burden of proof is on you the speaker to develop the right appeals for the particular audience. • When deploying deductive reasoning consider whether or not the audience is likely to accept the general premise as valid and true before you attempt to deduce other ideas or courses of action based on the general premise. • When deploying inductive reasoning consider if you have observed or collected enough evidence to draw a highly probable conclusion. The mind View on Boundless.com • When deploying associative reasoning, you will want to make sure that the ideas are indeed similar and that there are not obvious or outstanding differences which would negate the association you propose. • As you deploy a rational appeal consider if your reasoning is sound, whether the audience will accept your evidence and reasoning, and what objections the audience might raise so you can address the most significant points of disagreement in your message. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com www.boundless.com/communications/methods-of-persuasive-speaking/logical-appeals/deploying-a-rational-appeal
  20. 20. Methods of Persuasive Speaking > Logical Appeals Logical Fallacies • "Formal" refers to the form of the argument. An argument that contains a formal fallacy will always be invalid. However, even if a premise is not accurate, the formal conclusion could still be valid if the rules of logic are followed. • An informal fallacy is an error in reasoning that occurs due to a problem with the content, rather than mere structure, of the argument and is often due to a misconception or a presumption. • Common Fallacy--hasty generalization: argues from limited examples or a special case to a create general rule that applies to many cases. • Common Fallacy--Popular sentiment or bandwagon appeal (argumentum ad populum):—appeal to the majority; appeal to loyalty, "Everyone is doing it". Euler circles to illustrate categorical deduction View on Boundless.com • Common Fallacy--If it comes before, it is the cause, post hoc ergo propter hoc: believing that temporal succession implies a causal relation. • Common Fallacy--Two events co-occurring is not causation, cum hoc ergo propter hoc: believing that correlation implies a causal relation. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com www.boundless.com/communications/methods-of-persuasive-speaking/logical-appeals/logical-fallacies
  21. 21. Methods of Persuasive Speaking > Emotional Appeals Emotional Appeals • Defining Emotional Appeal • Producing an Emotional Appeal • Ethical Usage Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com www.boundless.com/communications
  22. 22. Methods of Persuasive Speaking > Emotional Appeals Defining Emotional Appeal • Pathos represents an appeal to the emotions of an audience. • An emotional appeal uses the manipulation of the emotions rather than valid logic to win an argument. • Emotional appeal is a<b> </b>logical fallacy, whereby a debater attempts to win an argument by trying to get an emotional reaction from the opponent and audience. • In debating terms, emotional appeals are often effective as a rhetorical device, but are generally considered naive or dishonest as a logical argument, since they often appeal to the prejudices of listeners rather than offer a sober assessment of A father with his children a situation. View on Boundless.com Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com www.boundless.com/communications/methods-of-persuasive-speaking/emotional-appeals/defining-emotional-appeal
  23. 23. Methods of Persuasive Speaking > Emotional Appeals Producing an Emotional Appeal • Producing an emotional appeal requires an understanding of your audience and what may strike their emotions the most. • An effective way to create emotional appeal is to use words that have a lot of pathos associated with them. Pathos is an emotional appeal used in rhetoric that depicts certain emotional states. • An example of a speech that is particularly effective at producing an emotional response with its listeners is Martin Luther King, Jr.'s "I Have a Dream" speech. The speech uses rhetoric to convey the point of equal opportunity for all people. Martin Luther King, Jr. View on Boundless.com Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com www.boundless.com/communications/methods-of-persuasive-speaking/emotional-appeals/producing-an-emotional-appeal
  24. 24. Methods of Persuasive Speaking > Emotional Appeals Ethical Usage • Ethos (plural: ethe) is an appeal to the authority or honesty of the presenter. • Emotional appeals will encourage the audience to identify with your message on a visceral level, bypassing intellectual filters, such as skepticism and logic. • It may be appealing to take a shortcut to making the audience sympathize with your point of view. However, emotional appeals don't always hold up well after the fact--so fortify your emotional appeal by engaging the intellect, too. Audience Emotion View on Boundless.com Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com www.boundless.com/communications/methods-of-persuasive-speaking/emotional-appeals/ethical-usage--2
  25. 25. Methods of Persuasive Speaking > Motivational Appeals Motivational Appeals • Motivating Listeners Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com www.boundless.com/communications
  26. 26. Methods of Persuasive Speaking > Motivational Appeals Motivating Listeners • We can divide our motives into two basic types: internal, intrinsic and external or extrinsic motives. Some are more intrinsic than others, but basically a motive or motivator is external if someone controls the means for you to satisfy the need or desire. • It is important to understand the current state of unfulfilled desires or need states that exist in your audience in order to select the appropriate motives for your appeal. • You can use Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs to select an unsatisfied need for your motivational appeals. The lower level needs such as Physiological and Safety needs will have to be satisfied before higher level needs, such as achievement or Hierarchy of Needs View on Boundless.com self-actualization can be addressed. • Monroe's Motivated Sequence is one method to organize your appeal to the listeners. The five steps in order are: Get Attention, Explain Need, Satisfaction (how your solution will met the need), Visualization (picture audience living with solution in place), and Action (what audience can do now). Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com www.boundless.com/communications/methods-of-persuasive-speaking/motivational-appeals/motivating-listeners
  27. 27. Appendix Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  28. 28. Methods of Persuasive Speaking Key terms • accuracy Exact conformity to truth, or to a rule or model; degree of conformity of a measure to a true or standard value. (CC BY-SA 3.0) • audience A group of people within hearing; specifically a group of people listening to a performance, speech etc.; the crowd seeing a stage performance. (CC BY-SA 3.0) • character Moral strength; consistency of values and principles. (CC BY-SA 3.0) • credibility The objective and subjective components of the believability of a source or message. (CC BY-SA 3.0) • credibility The objective and subjective components of the believability of a source or message. (CC BY-SA 3.0) • Deductive reasoning The process of reasoning that uses given true premises to reach a conclusion that is also true. Deductive reasoning contrasts with inductive reasoning. (CC BY-SA 3.0) • Disposition A habit, a preparation, a state of readiness, or a tendency to act in a specified way. (CC BY-SA 3.0) • emotional appeal An an attempt to make the audience feel certain emotions so that they will be more likely to be engaged by the speech. Also known as pathos. (CC BY-SA 3.0) • emotional appeal An an attempt to make the audience feel certain emotions so that they will be more likely to be engaged by the speech. Also known as pathos. (CC BY-SA 3.0) • ethics The study of principles relating to right and wrong conduct. (CC BY-SA 3.0) • ethos A rhetorical appeal to an audience based on the speaker/writer's credibility. (CC BY-SA 3.0) • ethos A rhetorical appeal to an audience based on the speaker/writer's credibility. (CC BY-SA 3.0) Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  29. 29. Methods of Persuasive Speaking • evidence The available body of facts or information indicating whether a belief or proposition is true or valid. (CC BY-SA 3.0) • evidence The available body of facts or information indicating whether a belief or proposition is true or valid. (CC BY-SA 3.0) • evidential appeal An attempt to show the logical connection between a set of evidence and a consequence. Also known as logical appeal or logos. (CC BY-SA 3.0) • fallacy An error in reasoning often due to a misconception or a presumption; used in informal discourse to mean an argument which is problematic for any reason (CC BY-SA 3.0) • fallacy An error in reasoning often due to a misconception or a presumption; used in informal discourse to mean an argument which is problematic for any reason (CC BY-SA 3.0) • Inductive reasoning A kind of reasoning that constructs or evaluates general propositions that are derived from specific examples. Inductive reasoning contrasts with deductive reasoning, in which specific examples are derived from general propositions. (CC BY-SA 3.0) • Invention the formulation of arguments based on logos--rational appeal or logic. (CC BY-SA 3.0) • logical fallacy A fallacy; a clearly defined error in reasoning used to support or refute an argument, excluding simple unintended mistakes. (CC BY-SA 3.0) • manipulation The usage of psychological influence over a person or situation to gain a positive outcome. (CC BY-SA 3.0) • Motivated sequence a technique for organizing persuasive speeches that inspires people to take action, developed by Alan Monroe. Includes five steps—attention, need, satisfaction, visualization, and action. (CC BY-SA 3.0) • motivation Willingness of action especially in behavior (CC BY-SA 3.0) • motive An incentive to act; a reason for doing something; anything that prompted a choice of action. (CC BY-SA 3.0) Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  30. 30. Methods of Persuasive Speaking • objective not influenced by irrational emotions or prejudices; based on facts or evidence. (CC BY-SA 3.0) • Pathos An appeal to the audience's emotions. (CC BY-SA 3.0) • persuasion the process aimed at changing a person's (or a group's) attitude or behavior (CC BY-SA 3.0) • red herring A clue or information that is or is intended to be misleading, that diverts attention from a question;often thought to relate to using smelly fish to train dogs to recognize the real scent of something they were suppose to be tracking. (CC BY-SA 3.0) • rhetoric The art of using language, especially public speaking, as a means to persuade. (CC BY-SA 3.0) • selective exposure The selective exposure theory is a concept in media and communication research that refers to individuals’ tendency to favor information that reinforces pre-existing views while avoiding contradictory information. (CC BY-SA 3.0) • straw man An insubstantial concept, idea, endeavor or argument, particularly one deliberately set up to be weakly supported, so that it can be easily knocked down; especially to impugn the strength of any related thing or idea. (CC BY-SA 3.0) • subjective formed, as in opinions, based upon a person's feelings or intuition, not upon observation or reasoning; coming more from within the observer than from observations of the external environment. (CC BY-SA 3.0) • syllogism An inference in which one proposition (the conclusion) follows necessarily from two other propositions, known as the premises. (CC BY-SA 3.0) • thorough painstaking and careful not to miss or omit any detail (CC BY-SA 3.0) Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  31. 31. Methods of Persuasive Speaking Pianist Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Schipul. "Benjamin Zander at The Up Experience October 27th 2011 - Photo Schipul - The Web Marketing Company." CC BY http://www.schipul.com/photos/3670/in/122/ View on Boundless.com
  32. 32. Methods of Persuasive Speaking Martin Luther King, Jr. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Fotopedia. "Martin Luther King Jr. - I Have A Dream Speech by e-strategyblog.com in 1964 - Martin Luther King, Jr., Nobel Prize - The Fotopedia Community Pictures ." CC BY http://www.fotopedia.com/items/flickr-1054179588 View on Boundless.com
  33. 33. Methods of Persuasive Speaking Audience Emotion Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Schipul. "The Up Experience 2011 Audience in Houston, TX - Photo Schipul - The Web Marketing Company." CC BY http://www.schipul.com/photos/3686/in/122/ View on Boundless.com
  34. 34. Methods of Persuasive Speaking Courtroom Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikimedia. "Courtroom." CC BY-SA http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Courtroom.jpg View on Boundless.com
  35. 35. Methods of Persuasive Speaking Unmasking Credibility Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Flickr. "Self Portrait | Flickr - Photo Sharing!." CC BY-SA http://www.flickr.com/photos/nomadic_lass/8065298559/in/photostream/ View on Boundless.com
  36. 36. Methods of Persuasive Speaking Mountaineering Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Flickr. "Mountaineers | Flickr - Photo Sharing!." CC BY http://www.flickr.com/photos/eelcoc/829975729/ View on Boundless.com
  37. 37. Methods of Persuasive Speaking Building Blocks Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Flickr. "Block Room | Flickr - Photo Sharing!." CC BY-SA http://www.flickr.com/photos/quoimedia/5306982448/ View on Boundless.com
  38. 38. Methods of Persuasive Speaking Rhetorical Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Flickr. "All sizes | Rhetorical (1 of 2) | Flickr - Photo Sharing!." CC BY http://www.flickr.com/photos/x1brett/5915077368/sizes/m/in/photostream/ View on Boundless.com
  39. 39. Methods of Persuasive Speaking Sherlock Holmes Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia. "Benedict Cumberbatch filming Sherlock cropped2." CC BY http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Benedict_Cumberbatch_filming_Sherlock_cropped2.jpg View on Boundless.com
  40. 40. Methods of Persuasive Speaking Sherlock Holmes Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikimedia. "Benedict Cumberbatch filming Sherlock cropped." CC BY http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Benedict_Cumberbatch_filming_Sherlock_cropped.jpg View on Boundless.com
  41. 41. Methods of Persuasive Speaking Chilean Presidential Debate Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikimedia. "Debate Anatel 2009." CC BY http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Debate_Anatel_2009.jpg View on Boundless.com
  42. 42. Methods of Persuasive Speaking Inductive and Deductive Reasoning Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikimedia. "Reasoning." GNU FDL http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%253AReasoning.jpg View on Boundless.com
  43. 43. Methods of Persuasive Speaking Summary of Deductive and Inductive Reasoning Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikimedia. "Invsde." GNU FDL http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%253AInvsde.jpg View on Boundless.com
  44. 44. Methods of Persuasive Speaking The mind Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikimedia. "Mind logo." GNU FDL http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mind_logo.jpg View on Boundless.com
  45. 45. Methods of Persuasive Speaking Euler circles to illustrate categorical deduction Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikimedia. "Eulercircles." Public domain http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%253AEulercircles.jpg View on Boundless.com
  46. 46. Methods of Persuasive Speaking A father with his children Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikimedia. "US Navy 040331-M-2270C-013 U.S. Marine Corps Gunnery Sgt. Kory Marino, assigned to the ^ldquo,Red Dogs^rdquo, of Marine Light Attack Helicopter Squadron Seven Seven Three (HMLA-773), Detachment A, holds and kisses his son and d." Public domain
  47. 47. Methods of Persuasive Speaking Martin Luther King, Jr. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Flickr. "Martin Luther King, Jr. | Flickr - Photo Sharing!." CC BY http://www.flickr.com/photos/nostri-imago/3012230160/ View on Boundless.com
  48. 48. Methods of Persuasive Speaking Audience Emotion Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Schipul. "The Up Experience 2011 Audience in Houston, TX - Photo Schipul - The Web Marketing Company." CC BY http://www.schipul.com/photos/3686/in/122/ View on Boundless.com
  49. 49. Methods of Persuasive Speaking Carrot and Stick Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikimedia. "Carrot and stick." CC BY-SA http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%253ACarrot_and_stick.svg View on Boundless.com
  50. 50. Methods of Persuasive Speaking Hierarchy of Needs Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikimedia. CC BY http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e5/Mazlow%2527s_Hierarchy_of_Needs.svg View on Boundless.com
  51. 51. Methods of Persuasive Speaking A group of people within hearing; specifically a group of people listening to a performance, speech etc.; the crowd seeing a stage performance. A) persuasion B) emotional appeal C) evidential appeal D) audience Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  52. 52. Methods of Persuasive Speaking A group of people within hearing; specifically a group of people listening to a performance, speech etc.; the crowd seeing a stage performance. A) persuasion B) emotional appeal C) evidential appeal D) audience Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wiktionary. "audience." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/audience
  53. 53. Methods of Persuasive Speaking Which of the following best describes the selective exposure theory? A) The theory that suggests consumers strive for information that results in cognitive equilibrium. B) The theory that listeners are easily swayed by new information based on their trust of the speaker. C) The theory that people will pay closer attention when the information contradicts previous opinions. D) The theory that people tend to favor information that reinforces their preexisting opinions. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  54. 54. Methods of Persuasive Speaking Which of the following best describes the selective exposure theory? A) The theory that suggests consumers strive for information that results in cognitive equilibrium. B) The theory that listeners are easily swayed by new information based on their trust of the speaker. C) The theory that people will pay closer attention when the information contradicts previous opinions. D) The theory that people tend to favor information that reinforces their preexisting opinions. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com/
  55. 55. Methods of Persuasive Speaking The _______ theory is a concept in media and communication research that refers to individuals’ tendency to favor information that reinforces pre-existing views while avoiding contradictory information. A) emotional appeal B) persuasion C) evidential appeal D) selective exposure Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  56. 56. Methods of Persuasive Speaking The _______ theory is a concept in media and communication research that refers to individuals’ tendency to favor information that reinforces pre-existing views while avoiding contradictory information. A) emotional appeal B) persuasion C) evidential appeal D) selective exposure Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia. "selective exposure." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/selective+exposure
  57. 57. Methods of Persuasive Speaking A group of people within hearing; specifically a group of people listening to a performance, speech etc.; the crowd seeing a stage performance. A) non-verbal communication B) noise C) audience D) situational awareness Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  58. 58. Methods of Persuasive Speaking A group of people within hearing; specifically a group of people listening to a performance, speech etc.; the crowd seeing a stage performance. A) non-verbal communication B) noise C) audience D) situational awareness Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wiktionary. "audience." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/audience
  59. 59. Methods of Persuasive Speaking A group of people within hearing; specifically a group of people listening to a performance, speech etc.; the crowd seeing a stage performance. A) informative B) speech C) audience D) toast Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  60. 60. Methods of Persuasive Speaking A group of people within hearing; specifically a group of people listening to a performance, speech etc.; the crowd seeing a stage performance. A) informative B) speech C) audience D) toast Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wiktionary. "audience." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/audience
  61. 61. Methods of Persuasive Speaking A group of people within hearing; specifically a group of people listening to a performance, speech etc.; the crowd seeing a stage performance. A) Group B) Gathering C) Meeting D) Audience Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  62. 62. Methods of Persuasive Speaking A group of people within hearing; specifically a group of people listening to a performance, speech etc.; the crowd seeing a stage performance. A) Group B) Gathering C) Meeting D) Audience Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wiktionary. "audience." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/audience
  63. 63. Methods of Persuasive Speaking A group of people within hearing; specifically a group of people listening to a performance, speech etc.; the crowd seeing a stage performance. A) audience B) Encode C) Message D) Demographics Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  64. 64. Methods of Persuasive Speaking A group of people within hearing; specifically a group of people listening to a performance, speech etc.; the crowd seeing a stage performance. A) audience B) Encode C) Message D) Demographics Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wiktionary. "audience." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/audience
  65. 65. Methods of Persuasive Speaking the process aimed at changing a person's (or a group's) attitude or behavior A) audience B) emotional appeal C) persuasion D) evidential appeal Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  66. 66. Methods of Persuasive Speaking the process aimed at changing a person's (or a group's) attitude or behavior A) audience B) emotional appeal C) persuasion D) evidential appeal Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Boundless Learning. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com//communications/definition/persuasion
  67. 67. Methods of Persuasive Speaking Many speakers get nervous before giving a speech because they think the audience expects perfection. This is A) false. Most audiences are like a sympathetic friend. B) true. Most audiences expect you to speak perfectly. C) false. Most audiences expect you to fail. D) true. Audiences assume you are a professional speaker and won't make any mistakes. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  68. 68. Methods of Persuasive Speaking Many speakers get nervous before giving a speech because they think the audience expects perfection. This is A) false. Most audiences are like a sympathetic friend. B) true. Most audiences expect you to speak perfectly. C) false. Most audiences expect you to fail. D) true. Audiences assume you are a professional speaker and won't make any mistakes. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com/
  69. 69. Methods of Persuasive Speaking An an attempt to make the audience feel certain emotions so that they will be more likely to be engaged by the speech. Also known as pathos. A) emotional appeal B) audience C) persuasion D) evidential appeal Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  70. 70. Methods of Persuasive Speaking An an attempt to make the audience feel certain emotions so that they will be more likely to be engaged by the speech. Also known as pathos. A) emotional appeal B) audience C) persuasion D) evidential appeal Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Boundless Learning. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com//communications/definition/emotional-appeal
  71. 71. Methods of Persuasive Speaking Which of the following is an example of a drawback of appealing to the emotions of your audience? A) All of these answers. B) If taken too far, an appeal to emotion can seem forced. C) Audiences may feel manipulated by a disingenuous emotional appeal. D) If an emotional appeal appears inauthentic, an audience may reject the appeal and the speaker. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  72. 72. Methods of Persuasive Speaking Which of the following is an example of a drawback of appealing to the emotions of your audience? A) All of these answers. B) If taken too far, an appeal to emotion can seem forced. C) Audiences may feel manipulated by a disingenuous emotional appeal. D) If an emotional appeal appears inauthentic, an audience may reject the appeal and the speaker. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com/
  73. 73. Methods of Persuasive Speaking An an attempt to make the audience feel certain emotions so that they will be more likely to be engaged by the speech. Also known as pathos. A) audience B) emotional appeal C) logic D) persuasion Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  74. 74. Methods of Persuasive Speaking An an attempt to make the audience feel certain emotions so that they will be more likely to be engaged by the speech. Also known as pathos. A) audience B) emotional appeal C) logic D) persuasion Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Boundless Learning. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com//communications/definition/emotional-appeal
  75. 75. Methods of Persuasive Speaking An attempt to show the logical connection between a set of evidence and a consequence. Also known as logical appeal or logos. A) evidential appeal B) audience C) persuasion D) emotional appeal Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  76. 76. Methods of Persuasive Speaking An attempt to show the logical connection between a set of evidence and a consequence. Also known as logical appeal or logos. A) evidential appeal B) audience C) persuasion D) emotional appeal Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Boundless Learning. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com//communications/definition/evidential-appeal
  77. 77. Methods of Persuasive Speaking An an attempt to make the audience feel certain emotions so that they will be more likely to be engaged by the speech. Also known as pathos. A) audience B) persuasion C) evidential appeal D) emotional appeal Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  78. 78. Methods of Persuasive Speaking An an attempt to make the audience feel certain emotions so that they will be more likely to be engaged by the speech. Also known as pathos. A) audience B) persuasion C) evidential appeal D) emotional appeal Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Boundless Learning. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com//communications/definition/emotional-appeal
  79. 79. Methods of Persuasive Speaking A woman gives a press conference because her daughter has been kidnapped. The woman cries and begs for her daughter to be returned. This exemplifies which type of appeal? A) Logos B) Pathos C) Evidential D) Logical Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  80. 80. Methods of Persuasive Speaking A woman gives a press conference because her daughter has been kidnapped. The woman cries and begs for her daughter to be returned. This exemplifies which type of appeal? A) Logos B) Pathos C) Evidential D) Logical Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com/
  81. 81. Methods of Persuasive Speaking An an attempt to make the audience feel certain emotions so that they will be more likely to be engaged by the speech. Also known as pathos. A) emotional appeal B) audience C) logic D) persuasion Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  82. 82. Methods of Persuasive Speaking An an attempt to make the audience feel certain emotions so that they will be more likely to be engaged by the speech. Also known as pathos. A) emotional appeal B) audience C) logic D) persuasion Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Boundless Learning. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com//communications/definition/emotional-appeal
  83. 83. Methods of Persuasive Speaking formed, as in opinions, based upon a person's feelings or intuition, not upon observation or reasoning; coming more from within the observer than from observations of the external environment. A) subjective B) abstract C) direct D) orality Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  84. 84. Methods of Persuasive Speaking formed, as in opinions, based upon a person's feelings or intuition, not upon observation or reasoning; coming more from within the observer than from observations of the external environment. A) subjective B) abstract C) direct D) orality Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wiktionary. "subjective." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/subjective
  85. 85. Methods of Persuasive Speaking Eye-Oh-Key-Are. That’s spelled I-O-K-I-Y-A-R. Eye-Oh-Key-Are. It means ‘It’s OK if you are a Republican’ and it’s one of many ways opposing parties vilify each other in today’s political climate. The problem is that each party spends so much time disparaging the other party that voters rarely hear politicians presenting their problem-solving ideas. Which of the following statements would be the best one to insert after this passage to establish the speaker’s credibility? A) A poll sponsored by the Washington Times found that 1 in 3 registered voters did not know how their current representative in Congress would vote on infrastructure spending. B) To prepare for this speech, I examined several transcripts from recent political speeches and found not a single one which went into detail about any policy issues. C) I’ve been voting since the day I turned 18 and have never seen politics as dominated by misinformation as it is now. D) Elected officials may be politicians, but in my opinion, they have an obligation to inform their constituents Free towheremake copiesstand onyours at www.boundless.com of share, print, they and changes. Get issues.
  86. 86. Methods of Persuasive Speaking Eye-Oh-Key-Are. That’s spelled I-O-K-I-Y-A-R. Eye-Oh-Key-Are. It means ‘It’s OK if you are a Republican’ and it’s one of many ways opposing parties vilify each other in today’s political climate. The problem is that each party spends so much time disparaging the other party that voters rarely hear politicians presenting their problem-solving ideas. Which of the following statements would be the best one to insert after this passage to establish the speaker’s credibility? A) A poll sponsored by the Washington Times found that 1 in 3 registered voters did not know how their current representative in Congress would vote on infrastructure spending. B) To prepare for this speech, I examined several transcripts from recent political speeches and found not a single one which went into detail about any policy issues. C) I’ve been voting since the day I turned 18 and have never seen politics as dominated by misinformation as it is now. D) Elected officials may be politicians, but in my opinion, they have an Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Saylor their constituents of where they stand on issues. obligation to inform OER. "Communication « Saylor.org – Free Online Courses Built by Professors." CC BY 3.0 http://www.saylor.org/majors/Communication/
  87. 87. Methods of Persuasive Speaking The objective and subjective components of the believability of a source or message. A) anecdote B) credibility C) topic D) introduction Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  88. 88. Methods of Persuasive Speaking The objective and subjective components of the believability of a source or message. A) anecdote B) credibility C) topic D) introduction Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia. "credibility." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/credibility
  89. 89. Methods of Persuasive Speaking A good way to earn subjective credibility is to A) speak loudly, clearly, and confidently. B) state your credentials. C) reveal a personal connection to your topic. D) establish common ground with your audience. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  90. 90. Methods of Persuasive Speaking A good way to earn subjective credibility is to A) speak loudly, clearly, and confidently. B) state your credentials. C) reveal a personal connection to your topic. D) establish common ground with your audience. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com/
  91. 91. Methods of Persuasive Speaking The objective and subjective components of the believability of a source or message. A) understanding B) memory C) mnemonic D) credibility Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  92. 92. Methods of Persuasive Speaking The objective and subjective components of the believability of a source or message. A) understanding B) memory C) mnemonic D) credibility Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia. "credibility." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/credibility
  93. 93. Methods of Persuasive Speaking The objective and subjective components of the believability of a source or message. A) search engine B) credibility C) keyword D) database Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  94. 94. Methods of Persuasive Speaking The objective and subjective components of the believability of a source or message. A) search engine B) credibility C) keyword D) database Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia. "credibility." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/credibility
  95. 95. Methods of Persuasive Speaking not influenced by irrational emotions or prejudices; based on facts or evidence. A) inflection B) objective C) language D) meaning Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  96. 96. Methods of Persuasive Speaking not influenced by irrational emotions or prejudices; based on facts or evidence. A) inflection B) objective C) language D) meaning Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wiktionary. "objective." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/objective
  97. 97. Methods of Persuasive Speaking You are giving a speech on Italian performance art. You spent a month studying Commedia dell'Arte in Italy. You refer to your time in Italy in your speech, boosting your credibility. This is an example of A) credibility from training. B) credibility from experience. C) credibility by association. D) credibility from intelligence. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  98. 98. Methods of Persuasive Speaking You are giving a speech on Italian performance art. You spent a month studying Commedia dell'Arte in Italy. You refer to your time in Italy in your speech, boosting your credibility. This is an example of A) credibility from training. B) credibility from experience. C) credibility by association. D) credibility from intelligence. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com/
  99. 99. Methods of Persuasive Speaking The objective and subjective components of the believability of a source or message. A) search engine B) keyword C) credibility D) database Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  100. 100. Methods of Persuasive Speaking The objective and subjective components of the believability of a source or message. A) search engine B) keyword C) credibility D) database Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia. "credibility." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/credibility
  101. 101. Methods of Persuasive Speaking The objective and subjective components of the believability of a source or message. A) understanding B) memory C) mnemonic D) credibility Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  102. 102. Methods of Persuasive Speaking The objective and subjective components of the believability of a source or message. A) understanding B) memory C) mnemonic D) credibility Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia. "credibility." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/credibility
  103. 103. Methods of Persuasive Speaking The objective and subjective components of the believability of a source or message. A) anecdote B) credibility C) topic D) introduction Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  104. 104. Methods of Persuasive Speaking The objective and subjective components of the believability of a source or message. A) anecdote B) credibility C) topic D) introduction Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia. "credibility." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/credibility
  105. 105. Methods of Persuasive Speaking You are government official speaking to an audience of senior citizens about changes in their government-sponsored health care benefits. Which of the following would be a good way to establish your credibility with that audience? A) Begin your speech with a story about your grandmother B) Summarize what you know about the audience’s health care concerns and provide information that addresses those concerns. C) Describe what your job is and how you were trained to do it D) Emphasize how the changes will not increase their out-of-pocket expenses. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  106. 106. Methods of Persuasive Speaking You are government official speaking to an audience of senior citizens about changes in their government-sponsored health care benefits. Which of the following would be a good way to establish your credibility with that audience? A) Begin your speech with a story about your grandmother B) Summarize what you know about the audience’s health care concerns and provide information that addresses those concerns. C) Describe what your job is and how you were trained to do it D) Emphasize how the changes will not increase their out-of-pocket expenses. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Saylor OER. "Communication « Saylor.org – Free Online Courses Built by Professors." CC BY 3.0 http://www.saylor.org/majors/Communication/
  107. 107. Methods of Persuasive Speaking Moral strength; consistency of values and principles. A) objective B) credibility C) ethos D) character Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  108. 108. Methods of Persuasive Speaking Moral strength; consistency of values and principles. A) objective B) credibility C) ethos D) character Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wiktionary. "character." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/character
  109. 109. Methods of Persuasive Speaking In order to build credibility, you should A) entertain potential objections. B) walk the audience through opposing viewpoints. C) All of these answers. D) listen to the needs of the audience. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  110. 110. Methods of Persuasive Speaking In order to build credibility, you should A) entertain potential objections. B) walk the audience through opposing viewpoints. C) All of these answers. D) listen to the needs of the audience. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com/
  111. 111. Methods of Persuasive Speaking A rhetorical appeal to an audience based on the speaker/writer's credibility. A) perception B) classification C) comparison D) ethos Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  112. 112. Methods of Persuasive Speaking A rhetorical appeal to an audience based on the speaker/writer's credibility. A) perception B) classification C) comparison D) ethos Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia. "ethos." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ethos
  113. 113. Methods of Persuasive Speaking A politician gives a speech during a campaign in which she misrepresents her past in order to appear more credible. This is A) ethical. The politician has a right to freedom of speech. B) unethical. The audience should not be lied to about the politican's experience. C) unethical. The politician is likely to be found out, so it is too risky. D) ethical. The audience is responsible for confirming the claims made by the politician. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  114. 114. Methods of Persuasive Speaking A politician gives a speech during a campaign in which she misrepresents her past in order to appear more credible. This is A) ethical. The politician has a right to freedom of speech. B) unethical. The audience should not be lied to about the politican's experience. C) unethical. The politician is likely to be found out, so it is too risky. D) ethical. The audience is responsible for confirming the claims made by the politician. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com/
  115. 115. Methods of Persuasive Speaking Ethos is a type of appeal to an audience based on A) the audience's emotional involvement in the argument. B) the speaker's personal credibility. C) logic and reason. D) the audience's understanding of a universal morality. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  116. 116. Methods of Persuasive Speaking Ethos is a type of appeal to an audience based on A) the audience's emotional involvement in the argument. B) the speaker's personal credibility. C) logic and reason. D) the audience's understanding of a universal morality. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com/
  117. 117. Methods of Persuasive Speaking How can context be used to strengthen evidence in a persuasive speech? A) The evidence must be constructed and defined based on truth. B) The evidence must be presented in a way the audience understands. C) The evidence must be defined only as comprehensively as necessary. D) The evidence must be defined within the subject matter of the speaker's appeal. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  118. 118. Methods of Persuasive Speaking How can context be used to strengthen evidence in a persuasive speech? A) The evidence must be constructed and defined based on truth. B) The evidence must be presented in a way the audience understands. C) The evidence must be defined only as comprehensively as necessary. D) The evidence must be defined within the subject matter of the speaker's appeal. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com/
  119. 119. Methods of Persuasive Speaking What is the primary role of evidence in persuasive speaking? A) Evidence builds credibility. B) Evidence builds audience support. C) Evidence provides context. D) Evidence appeals to emotion and logic. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  120. 120. Methods of Persuasive Speaking What is the primary role of evidence in persuasive speaking? A) Evidence builds credibility. B) Evidence builds audience support. C) Evidence provides context. D) Evidence appeals to emotion and logic. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com/
  121. 121. Methods of Persuasive Speaking The available body of facts or information indicating whether a belief or proposition is true or valid. A) search engine B) evidence C) database D) peer review Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  122. 122. Methods of Persuasive Speaking The available body of facts or information indicating whether a belief or proposition is true or valid. A) search engine B) evidence C) database D) peer review Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Boundless Learning. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com//communications/definition/evidence
  123. 123. Methods of Persuasive Speaking The available body of facts or information indicating whether a belief or proposition is true or valid. A) evidence B) Deductive reasoning C) logic D) fallacy Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  124. 124. Methods of Persuasive Speaking The available body of facts or information indicating whether a belief or proposition is true or valid. A) evidence B) Deductive reasoning C) logic D) fallacy Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Boundless Learning. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com//communications/definition/evidence
  125. 125. Methods of Persuasive Speaking Exact conformity to truth, or to a rule or model; degree of conformity of a measure to a true or standard value. A) statistics B) Mean C) accuracy D) Median Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  126. 126. Methods of Persuasive Speaking Exact conformity to truth, or to a rule or model; degree of conformity of a measure to a true or standard value. A) statistics B) Mean C) accuracy D) Median Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wiktionary. "accuracy." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/accuracy
  127. 127. Methods of Persuasive Speaking The available body of facts or information indicating whether a belief or proposition is true or valid. A) search engine B) database C) evidence D) peer review Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  128. 128. Methods of Persuasive Speaking The available body of facts or information indicating whether a belief or proposition is true or valid. A) search engine B) database C) evidence D) peer review Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Boundless Learning. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com//communications/definition/evidence
  129. 129. Methods of Persuasive Speaking The available body of facts or information indicating whether a belief or proposition is true or valid. A) Deductive reasoning B) logic C) evidence D) fallacy Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  130. 130. Methods of Persuasive Speaking The available body of facts or information indicating whether a belief or proposition is true or valid. A) Deductive reasoning B) logic C) evidence D) fallacy Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Boundless Learning. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com//communications/definition/evidence
  131. 131. Methods of Persuasive Speaking When crafting a speech, speakers must consider which of the following to ensure their evidence is accurate? A) Ensure that facts, statistics, and personal testimony come from credible sources. B) Ensure a comprehensive understanding about the knowledge base of the audience. C) Ensure the evidence is relevant to the argument. D) Ensure web sources are partial and biased. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  132. 132. Methods of Persuasive Speaking When crafting a speech, speakers must consider which of the following to ensure their evidence is accurate? A) Ensure that facts, statistics, and personal testimony come from credible sources. B) Ensure a comprehensive understanding about the knowledge base of the audience. C) Ensure the evidence is relevant to the argument. D) Ensure web sources are partial and biased. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com/
  133. 133. Methods of Persuasive Speaking painstaking and careful not to miss or omit any detail A) thorough B) fallacy C) evidence D) Motivated sequence Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  134. 134. Methods of Persuasive Speaking painstaking and careful not to miss or omit any detail A) thorough B) fallacy C) evidence D) Motivated sequence Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wiktionary. "thorough." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/thorough
  135. 135. Methods of Persuasive Speaking Exact conformity to truth, or to a rule or model; degree of conformity of a measure to a true or standard value. A) accuracy B) abstract C) direct D) objectivity Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  136. 136. Methods of Persuasive Speaking Exact conformity to truth, or to a rule or model; degree of conformity of a measure to a true or standard value. A) accuracy B) abstract C) direct D) objectivity Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wiktionary. "accuracy." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/accuracy
  137. 137. Methods of Persuasive Speaking An error in reasoningoften due to a misconception or a presumption; used in informal discourse tomean an argument which is problematic for any reason A) motivation B) fallacy C) evidence D) logic Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  138. 138. Methods of Persuasive Speaking An error in reasoningoften due to a misconception or a presumption; used in informal discourse tomean an argument which is problematic for any reason A) motivation B) fallacy C) evidence D) logic Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia. "fallacy." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/fallacy
  139. 139. Methods of Persuasive Speaking An error in reasoningoften due to a misconception or a presumption; used in informal discourse tomean an argument which is problematic for any reason A) microeconomics B) fallacy C) Factors of production D) Circular flow diagram Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  140. 140. Methods of Persuasive Speaking An error in reasoningoften due to a misconception or a presumption; used in informal discourse tomean an argument which is problematic for any reason A) microeconomics B) fallacy C) Factors of production D) Circular flow diagram Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia. "fallacy." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/fallacy
  141. 141. Methods of Persuasive Speaking Which of the following must a public speaker do to ensure that the evidence in his or her speech withstands audience scrutiny? A) All of these answers. B) The speaker must consider the viability of opposing viewpoints before rejecting them. C) The speaker must allow others to criticize his or her viewpoints. D) The speaker must convince the audience of something that he or she believes to be true. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  142. 142. Methods of Persuasive Speaking Which of the following must a public speaker do to ensure that the evidence in his or her speech withstands audience scrutiny? A) All of these answers. B) The speaker must consider the viability of opposing viewpoints before rejecting them. C) The speaker must allow others to criticize his or her viewpoints. D) The speaker must convince the audience of something that he or she believes to be true. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com/
  143. 143. Methods of Persuasive Speaking All humans require oxygen to survive. Mary is human. Therefore, Mary requires oxygen to survive. This is an example of A) deductive reasoning. B) inductive reasoning. C) associative reasoning. D) All of these answers. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  144. 144. Methods of Persuasive Speaking All humans require oxygen to survive. Mary is human. Therefore, Mary requires oxygen to survive. This is an example of A) deductive reasoning. B) inductive reasoning. C) associative reasoning. D) All of these answers. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com/
  145. 145. Methods of Persuasive Speaking The process of reasoning that uses given true premises to reach a conclusion that is also true. _______ contrasts with inductive reasoning. A) Invention B) fallacy C) Deductive reasoning D) red herring Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  146. 146. Methods of Persuasive Speaking The process of reasoning that uses given true premises to reach a conclusion that is also true. _______ contrasts with inductive reasoning. A) Invention B) fallacy C) Deductive reasoning D) red herring Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia. "Deductive reasoning." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deductive+reasoning
  147. 147. Methods of Persuasive Speaking A kind of reasoning that constructs or evaluates general propositions that are derived from specific examples. _______ contrasts with deductive reasoning, in which specific examples are derived from general propositions. A) Invention B) fallacy C) red herring D) Inductive reasoning Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  148. 148. Methods of Persuasive Speaking A kind of reasoning that constructs or evaluates general propositions that are derived from specific examples. _______ contrasts with deductive reasoning, in which specific examples are derived from general propositions. A) Invention B) fallacy C) red herring D) Inductive reasoning Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia. "Inductive reasoning." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inductive+reasoning
  149. 149. Methods of Persuasive Speaking An inference in which one proposition (the conclusion) follows necessarily from two other propositions, known as the premises. A) Invention B) syllogism C) fallacy D) red herring Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  150. 150. Methods of Persuasive Speaking An inference in which one proposition (the conclusion) follows necessarily from two other propositions, known as the premises. A) Invention B) syllogism C) fallacy D) red herring Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wiktionary. "syllogism." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/syllogism
  151. 151. Methods of Persuasive Speaking Which of the following types of persuasive appeals focuses on appealing to the audience's sense of logic and reason? A) pathos B) logos C) ethos D) All of these answers. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  152. 152. Methods of Persuasive Speaking Which of the following types of persuasive appeals focuses on appealing to the audience's sense of logic and reason? A) pathos B) logos C) ethos D) All of these answers. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com/
  153. 153. Methods of Persuasive Speaking the formulation of arguments based on logos--rational appeal or logic. A) Invention B) Deductive reasoning C) syllogism D) fallacy Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  154. 154. Methods of Persuasive Speaking the formulation of arguments based on logos--rational appeal or logic. A) Invention B) Deductive reasoning C) syllogism D) fallacy Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia. "Invention." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Invention
  155. 155. Methods of Persuasive Speaking An error in reasoningoften due to a misconception or a presumption; used in informal discourse tomean an argument which is problematic for any reason A) motivation B) evidence C) logic D) fallacy Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  156. 156. Methods of Persuasive Speaking An error in reasoningoften due to a misconception or a presumption; used in informal discourse tomean an argument which is problematic for any reason A) motivation B) evidence C) logic D) fallacy Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia. "fallacy." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/fallacy
  157. 157. Methods of Persuasive Speaking An error in reasoningoften due to a misconception or a presumption; used in informal discourse tomean an argument which is problematic for any reason A) microeconomics B) fallacy C) Factors of production D) Circular flow diagram Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  158. 158. Methods of Persuasive Speaking An error in reasoningoften due to a misconception or a presumption; used in informal discourse tomean an argument which is problematic for any reason A) microeconomics B) fallacy C) Factors of production D) Circular flow diagram Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia. "fallacy." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/fallacy
  159. 159. Methods of Persuasive Speaking The dog is panting and the cat is sleeping, therefore the cat sleeps because the dog pants. This is an example of a logical fallacy known as A) straw man. B) a formal fallacy. C) two events co-occurring is not causation. D) converse fallacy of accidental or hasty generalization. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  160. 160. Methods of Persuasive Speaking The dog is panting and the cat is sleeping, therefore the cat sleeps because the dog pants. This is an example of a logical fallacy known as A) straw man. B) a formal fallacy. C) two events co-occurring is not causation. D) converse fallacy of accidental or hasty generalization. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com/
  161. 161. Methods of Persuasive Speaking An insubstantial concept, idea, endeavor or argument, particularly one deliberately set up to be weakly supported, so that it can be easily knocked down; especially to impugn the strength of any related thing or idea. A) straw man B) microeconomics C) Factors of production D) market for the factors of production Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  162. 162. Methods of Persuasive Speaking An insubstantial concept, idea, endeavor or argument, particularly one deliberately set up to be weakly supported, so that it can be easily knocked down; especially to impugn the strength of any related thing or idea. A) straw man B) microeconomics C) Factors of production D) market for the factors of production Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wiktionary. "straw man." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/straw+man
  163. 163. Methods of Persuasive Speaking A clue or information that is or is intended to be misleading, that diverts attention from a question;often thought to relate to using smelly fish to train dogs to recognize the real scent of something they were suppose to be tracking. A) market for the factors of production B) Circular flow diagram C) scientific method D) red herring Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  164. 164. Methods of Persuasive Speaking A clue or information that is or is intended to be misleading, that diverts attention from a question;often thought to relate to using smelly fish to train dogs to recognize the real scent of something they were suppose to be tracking. A) market for the factors of production B) Circular flow diagram C) scientific method D) red herring Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia. "red herring." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/red+herring
  165. 165. Methods of Persuasive Speaking A fallacy; a clearly defined error in reasoning used to support or refute an argument, excluding simple unintended mistakes. A) logical fallacy B) manipulation C) ethics D) Pathos Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  166. 166. Methods of Persuasive Speaking A fallacy; a clearly defined error in reasoning used to support or refute an argument, excluding simple unintended mistakes. A) logical fallacy B) manipulation C) ethics D) Pathos Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wiktionary. "logical fallacy." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/logical+fallacy
  167. 167. Methods of Persuasive Speaking Emotional appeals are effective as a rhetorical device but considered a logical fallacy because A) they often appeal to the prejudices of listeners rather than offer logical assessments. B) they are associated with lots of pathos, ethos, and logos. C) they are used to develop the foundation of an appeal to fact-based arguments. D) None of these answers. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  168. 168. Methods of Persuasive Speaking Emotional appeals are effective as a rhetorical device but considered a logical fallacy because A) they often appeal to the prejudices of listeners rather than offer logical assessments. B) they are associated with lots of pathos, ethos, and logos. C) they are used to develop the foundation of an appeal to fact-based arguments. D) None of these answers. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com/
  169. 169. Methods of Persuasive Speaking To create an effective emotional appeal in a speech, the speaker must use words that are heavily associated with A) rhetoric. B) anecdotes. C) All of these answers. D) pathos. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  170. 170. Methods of Persuasive Speaking To create an effective emotional appeal in a speech, the speaker must use words that are heavily associated with A) rhetoric. B) anecdotes. C) All of these answers. D) pathos. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com/
  171. 171. Methods of Persuasive Speaking A habit, a preparation, a state of readiness, or a tendency to act in a specified way. A) manipulation B) logical fallacy C) ethos D) Disposition Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  172. 172. Methods of Persuasive Speaking A habit, a preparation, a state of readiness, or a tendency to act in a specified way. A) manipulation B) logical fallacy C) ethos D) Disposition Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia. "Disposition." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disposition
  173. 173. Methods of Persuasive Speaking The art of using language, especially public speaking, as a means to persuade. A) Manipulation B) Rhetoric C) Persuasion D) Logical Fallacy Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  174. 174. Methods of Persuasive Speaking The art of using language, especially public speaking, as a means to persuade. A) Manipulation B) Rhetoric C) Persuasion D) Logical Fallacy Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wiktionary. "rhetoric." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/rhetoric
  175. 175. Methods of Persuasive Speaking An appeal to the audience's emotions. A) ethics B) Pathos C) logical fallacy D) manipulation Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  176. 176. Methods of Persuasive Speaking An appeal to the audience's emotions. A) ethics B) Pathos C) logical fallacy D) manipulation Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia. "Pathos." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pathos
  177. 177. Methods of Persuasive Speaking When a speaker suggests to audience members that they do not care enough, are too selfish, or have it easy, the speaker is employing which of the following manipulative techniques? A) Shaming B) Vilifying the victim C) Playing the victim D) Guilt tripping Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  178. 178. Methods of Persuasive Speaking When a speaker suggests to audience members that they do not care enough, are too selfish, or have it easy, the speaker is employing which of the following manipulative techniques? A) Shaming B) Vilifying the victim C) Playing the victim D) Guilt tripping Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com/
  179. 179. Methods of Persuasive Speaking The study of principles relating to right and wrong conduct. A) extemporaneous B) teleprompter C) ethics D) concept map Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  180. 180. Methods of Persuasive Speaking The study of principles relating to right and wrong conduct. A) extemporaneous B) teleprompter C) ethics D) concept map Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wiktionary. "ethics." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/ethics
  181. 181. Methods of Persuasive Speaking A rhetorical appeal to an audience based on the speaker/writer's credibility. A) perception B) ethos C) classification D) comparison Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  182. 182. Methods of Persuasive Speaking A rhetorical appeal to an audience based on the speaker/writer's credibility. A) perception B) ethos C) classification D) comparison Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia. "ethos." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ethos
  183. 183. Methods of Persuasive Speaking The study of principles relating to right and wrong conduct. A) ethics B) active listening C) open-minded D) recuse Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  184. 184. Methods of Persuasive Speaking The study of principles relating to right and wrong conduct. A) ethics B) active listening C) open-minded D) recuse Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wiktionary. "ethics." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/ethics
  185. 185. Methods of Persuasive Speaking The usage of psychological influence over a person or situation to gain a positive outcome. A) Pathos B) rhetoric C) logical fallacy D) manipulation Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  186. 186. Methods of Persuasive Speaking The usage of psychological influence over a person or situation to gain a positive outcome. A) Pathos B) rhetoric C) logical fallacy D) manipulation Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wiktionary. "manipulation." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/manipulation
  187. 187. Methods of Persuasive Speaking According to Maslow, which of the following must be met on the Hierarchy of Needs before satisfying self-esteem, recognition, and achievement? A) Love and friendship needs B) Physiology needs C) Self-actualization needs D) Safety and security needs Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  188. 188. Methods of Persuasive Speaking According to Maslow, which of the following must be met on the Hierarchy of Needs before satisfying self-esteem, recognition, and achievement? A) Love and friendship needs B) Physiology needs C) Self-actualization needs D) Safety and security needs Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com/
  189. 189. Methods of Persuasive Speaking Willingness of action especially in behavior A) evidence B) fallacy C) motivation D) emotional appeal Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  190. 190. Methods of Persuasive Speaking Willingness of action especially in behavior A) evidence B) fallacy C) motivation D) emotional appeal Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wiktionary. "motivation." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/motivation
  191. 191. Methods of Persuasive Speaking a technique for organizing persuasive speeches that inspires people to take action, developed by Alan Monroe. Includes five steps—attention, need, satisfaction, visualization, and action. A) Inductive reasoning B) syllogism C) emotional appeal D) Motivated sequence Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  192. 192. Methods of Persuasive Speaking a technique for organizing persuasive speeches that inspires people to take action, developed by Alan Monroe. Includes five steps—attention, need, satisfaction, visualization, and action. A) Inductive reasoning B) syllogism C) emotional appeal D) Motivated sequence Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wikipedia. "Motivated sequence." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Motivated+sequence
  193. 193. Methods of Persuasive Speaking An incentive to act; a reason for doing something; anything that prompted a choice of action. A) fallacy B) persuasion C) motive D) evidential appeal Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  194. 194. Methods of Persuasive Speaking An incentive to act; a reason for doing something; anything that prompted a choice of action. A) fallacy B) persuasion C) motive D) evidential appeal Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Wiktionary. "motive." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/motive
  195. 195. Methods of Persuasive Speaking After showing how the speech topic applies to the psychological needs of the audience members, the speaker must then A) get the audience's attention. B) present an action plan. C) solve the issue. D) provide a visual. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  196. 196. Methods of Persuasive Speaking After showing how the speech topic applies to the psychological needs of the audience members, the speaker must then A) get the audience's attention. B) present an action plan. C) solve the issue. D) provide a visual. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com/
  197. 197. Methods of Persuasive Speaking Attribution • Wikipedia. "Selective exposure theory." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Selective_exposure_theory • Wikipedia. "Ethos." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethos#Rhetoric • Wikispaces. CC BY-SA http://muneastafrica.wikispaces.com/Public+Speaking • Brigham Young University. CC BY-SA http://rhetoric.byu.edu/Encompassing%2520Terms/audience.htm • Wikipedia. "Persuasion." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Persuasion • Brigham Young University. "rhetorical pedagogy." CC BY-SA http://rhetoric.byu.edu/Pedagogy/Pedagogy.htm • Wikipedia. "Persuasion." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Persuasion • Wikispaces. CC BY-SA http://muneastafrica.wikispaces.com/Public+Speaking • Wikipedia. "Appeal to emotion." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Appeal_to_emotion • Blog. "Speech Coach: Fear of Speaking in Public - Speech Coach: Fear of Speaking in Public - Blog.hr." CC BY-SA http://blog.dnevnik.hr/marquisedwar6140908/2012/02/1629914331/speech-coach-fear-of-speaking-in-public.html • Wikipedia. "Persuasion." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Persuasion • Wikipedia. "Ethos." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethos#Rhetoric • Wikipedia. "Ethos." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethos#Rhetoric • Wikipedia. "Pathos." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pathos • Wikipedia. "Logos." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logos • Wikipedia. "Appeal to emotion." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Appeal_to_emotion • Wikipedia. "Persuasion." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Persuasion Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  198. 198. Methods of Persuasive Speaking • Wikipedia. "Credibility." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Credibility • Wikipedia. "Source credibility." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Source_credibility • Wikipedia. "Expertise." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Expertise • Wikipedia. "Charlatan." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlatan • Wikibooks. "Rhetoric and Composition/Rhetorical Analysis." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Rhetoric_and_Composition/Rhetorical_Analysis • Wikipedia. "Explanation." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Explanation • Wikipedia. "Epistemic." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epistemic • Wikispaces. "The Activist Toolkit Wiki - Public Speaking." CC BY-SA http://activist-toolkit.wikispaces.com/Public+Speaking • Brigham Young University. CC BY http://rhetoric.byu.edu/encompassing%2520terms/rhetoric.htm • Wikipedia. "Logos." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logos • Wikipedia. "Poverty." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poverty • Wikipedia. "Individual events (speech)." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Individual_events_(speech)#Persuasion • Brigham Young University. CC BY-SA http://rhetoric.byu.edu/encompassing%2520terms/rhetoric.htm • Brigham Young University. CC BY-SA http://rhetoric.byu.edu/Persuasive%2520Appeals/Logos.htm • Brigham Young University. CC BY-SA http://rhetoric.byu.edu/Persuasive%2520Appeals/Pathos.htm • Wikipedia. "Perjury." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perjury • Wikipedia. "Reason (argument)." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reason_(argument) • Wikipedia. "Data manipulation." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Data_manipulation • Wikipedia. "Individual events (speech)." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Individual_events_(speech)#Persuasion Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com
  199. 199. Methods of Persuasive Speaking • Brigham Young University. CC BY http://rhetoric.byu.edu/encompassing%2520terms/rhetoric.htm • Wikipedia. "Inductive reasoning." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inductive_reasoning • Wikibooks. "Survey of Communication Study/Chapter 4 - History of Communication Study." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Survey_of_Communication_Study/Chapter_4_-_History_of_Communication_Study • Wikibooks. "Survey of Communication Study/Chapter 4 - History of Communication Study." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Survey_of_Communication_Study/Chapter_4_-_History_of_Communication_Study • Wikibooks. "Effective Reasoning." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Effective_Reasoning • Wikipedia. "Reasoning." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reasoning • Wikipedia. "Reasoning." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reasoning • Wikipedia. "Association (psychology)." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Association_(psychology) • Wikipedia. "Inductive reasoning." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inductive_reasoning • Wikipedia. "Deductive reasoning." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deductive_reasoning • Wikipedia. "Inductive reasoning." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inductive_reasoning • Wikipedia. "Argument from Analogy." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Argument_from_Analogy • Wikibooks. "Cognitive Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience/Reasoning and Decision Making." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Cognitive_Psychology_and_Cognitive_Neuroscience/Reasoning_and_Decision_Making • Wikibooks. "Rhetoric and Composition/Rhetorical Analysis." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Rhetoric_and_Composition/Rhetorical_Analysis#Persuasive_Appeals • Wikipedia. "Logos." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logos • Wikibooks. "Survey of Communication Study/Chapter 4 - History of Communication Study." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Survey_of_Communication_Study/Chapter_4_-_History_of_Communication_Study • Wikibooks. "Survey of Communication Study/Chapter 7 - Rhetorical Criticism." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Survey_of_Communication_Study/Chapter_7_-_Rhetorical_Criticism • Wikibooks. "Survey of Communication Study/Chapter 4 - History ofto share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at www.boundless.com Communication Study." CC BY-SA 3.0 Free http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Survey_of_Communication_Study/Chapter_4_-_History_of_Communication_Study
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