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The Art of Public Speaking
         —and—
 How to Write an Effective
         Speech
    (copy all RED!!!)
Steps to Writing
           a
         Speech
Brainstorming
•Write down as many ideas as you can
 about your topic.

• Do not erase anything.




                •Then go back later and eliminate
                                things that do not seem to fit just right.

                •Think to yourself:
                                 Who will hear my speech and why?
Sloppy Copy




• Organize your ideas and write a rough,
              rough draft!
Editing




 Peer editing, sharing and conferencing!
Be sure to add new ideas and information,
                               if needed.
Proofreading




Check for CONTENT and
then for grammar, sound quality, etc…
                      Check for excellence!
Publishing




A copy of your speech, or note cards are necessary.
Sizing Up Your Audience
To determine which approach you will take in your presentation. Different
        group attitudes require different methods of presentation!




• What is the size of your audience?
• Will they have a sense of humor?
• Do they want to hear what you have to say?
Multiple Intelligences
                   • Different people
                     learn in different
                      ways and have
                       different kinds
                              of
                      quot;intelligences.quot;
                       Knowing this,
                           you can
                        assume that
                       your audience
                        has certain
                       strengths and
                     weaknesses, as
                      well as different
                      learning styles.
The Audience—Rules for Feedback




-Describe the speaker's mistakes; do not get personal.
-Offer specific comments.

-Only comment on things that the speaker has control over,
  such as tone, content or speed.
The Audience as Evaluators
-Share feelings and thoughts with the speaker.
-Make quot;Iquot; statements quot;I think your speech wasquot; or
  quot;I feel you need toquot;)
-Be specific.
-Be constructive, not destructive.
-Remember that each speaker is unique.
-Comment only on the speech - not on the
  speaker.
-Do not project your own biases onto the speech.
The Audience as Listeners



 -Do not judge the person by his or her speech.
  Be genuine and sincere.
-Do not practice or think about your comments,
  or presentation while the person is speaking.
-Try to understand the speaker from his or her
  point of view.
Experiential Learning and
             Processing


• After each speech the teacher and audience should
  assess your efforts so that you can take an honest
  look at your presentation, help you decide what you
  did well and what you need to improve.
• While speaking experiences will help you to become
  accustomed to public speaking, processing your
  efforts with your peers will help you to develop the
  confidence to communicate!
Hidden Agendas




 The group must be careful to avoid hidden agendas
 in its critiques. A hidden agenda is a message or a
 purpose beneath the message being communicated
     to the speaker. An example of this might be if
    someone in the group is madly in love with the
speaker, his or her critique might be overly kind, even
              if a more terse critique was due.
A Sad Fact

People do not always listen closely
 enough to the words of a speech so
that only approximately 10% - 15% of
 what you know and you learn comes
         from what you hear.



Now…can anyone repeat what        I
          just said???
So, If you happen to NOT be
               listening….DON’T
                                          Try to show-off by listing
                                         trivial concerns or
• Drift off                                        to nit-pick.

during the speech
and then pretend
 to have all of the
right comments                          Make comments
                                        directed at speaker's
                                             personality.




• Let someone quot;get awayquot; with a flawed speech.
Basic Speech Organization Skills
 quot;Tell 'em what you're going to tell, 'em; tell 'em;
        and then tell 'em what you told 'em.quot;




The Introduction
                     The body         The conclusion
  (tell 'em what
                                       (tell 'em what
you are going to     (tell 'em)        you told 'em)
     tell 'em)
The Introduction
(tell 'em what you are going to tell 'em)
   The Introduction has three major roles:
1. to catch the listener's interest
2. to move the topic from general
    to specific
3. and to deliver the
Speech Focusing Statement
           Whatever you do, do not
             start your speech by
          merely stating your topic!
Catching the Listeners' Interest
            You could ask a rhetorical
            question (Is humankind really
            heading towards disaster?).



            Or, you could start with a short
            story that will pull the listener
            in, such time you were in a
            really great establishment.
It really does not matter what technique you use to
attract the listener as long as you follow two basic rules:
1) The story or question you choose is
                 specific to your topic




2) You finish the story or answer your
     question in your conclusion
Moving Down the Funnel
Think of the process like a funnel sitting on a bottle. You start
with a wide discussion at the top, and then constrict your
discussion sliding down to the specifics of your topic. By the
time you hit the neck of the funnel, the audience knows exactly
where you are heading and what the elements of your topic will
be.



Finally, once you are sliding down the neck of the funnel and
have announced the specifics of your speech, you deliver your
Speech Focusing Statement. The Speech Focusing
Statement is your quot;tell 'em what you're going to tell 'em.quot;
The body (tell 'em)
• After you have your introduction, you have
  to move along to the quot;meatquot; of your speech
  - the body. The body tells
•    all of the facts and explains all the
        details of your Speech Focusing
        Statement. If you tell your listeners that
  you are going to discuss issues A, B and C
  in your introduction, then you must discuss
  A, B, C, not B, C, A or C, B, A, etc.
• While the order of your topics is an
  important issue, the logical design and
  construction you employ is equally as
  important. In other words, what reasoning
  did you use for ordering your speech? Are
  you showing how something developed
  over time? Are you explaining why
  something happened the way it did? Are
  you detailing how to do something?
Methods of Presentation
    Once you have decided on the logical development of your
     topic, you can consider some of the various methods to
                 present the order of your ideas:

                      Chronological
                      -
Cause to effect -    order - the time       -Anti-climax order
show how your        order in which          - work from the
 topic was the         events took             most to least
    result of             place                  important
   essential                                   information.
    events.



Climax order - work from
    the least important
 information to the most        Spatial order - describe the
         important.             physical setup of your topic.
The Conclusion
    (tell 'em what you told 'em)



To begin, never say, quot;in conclusion,quot; or quot;at last,quot;
      in your speech. This gives the listener
  permission to tune you out. It is a much better
 idea to simply restate your introduction and tell
   the audience why it was important that they
listened, and what you want them to do or to get
              out of the presentation.
Nerves: Fight vs. Flight




Standing before a group and delivering a speech can be one
 of the most intimidating experiences of your life. Your heart
  starts to race, the blood leaves your fingers and toes, your
throat goes dry, you shake, and you really wonder why in the
   world you are doing this. Well, don't worry. This is quite
     normal. Your body is undergoing what is known as a
             psychosomatic or psychological stress.
065c vvvvvvbgk m,/n
One Way to Plan Out Your Speech

            3 ideas to be discussed




                Main Idea


                        Copy whole chart.
Now to the Assignment



   Develop a 5-minute speech with a visual
 presenting your business to the class. Each
student will deliver their speech in front of the
class while the rest of the students assess the
speaker and provide feedback on the speech.
CREATIVITY IS ALWAYS ENCOURAGED!!!
There are several important aspects of
    presentation to keep in mind.
1) Body language - make sure that you
have proper posture. If your shoulders are
 sagging, you will not appear as sincere.
     You MUST stand and deliver!!!
2) Articulation – You need to speak loud and clear.
3) Pronunciation - Pronounce each word,
avoid slang,
and do not
slur words.
You must
avoid saying
―um‖&
quot;you know.quot;
4) Pitch –
pitch refers to
the highs and
  lows of the
     voice.
Whatever you
do, you must
    avoid a
  monotone!
5) Speed - the speed, or pace, is an important
 variable to control. Try not to speak too fast or
                     too slow.
6) Pause - When you
    want to emphasize
a certain word, pause
for one second before;
   this highlights the
     word. If you really
    want to punch it,
    pause before and
     after the word!
7) Volume – If you scream all the way through your
 speech, people will become accustomed to it and it
 will lose its effectiveness. On the other hand, a few
well-timed shouts can liven up the speech! You must
try to quot;projectquot; or throw your voice out over the entire
             class - or speak to the last row.
8) Quality - Quality of voice is the net caliber of
 your voice, its character and attributes. You
 must try to keep the vocal quality high; it is what
 separates your voice from everyone else's.
9) Variance – Let your words speak for themselves. If
    you use the word quot;strangle,quot; say it with a hint of
menace in your voice. If you say quot;heave,quot; let the class
   feel the onomatopoeic force behind it. If you say
quot;bulldozer,quot; make it sound like a titan earthmover, not
              like a baby with a shovel.. .
How you say something and how you physically
    present yourself are just as important
             as what you say.




   Don’t be afraid to be expressive and show
                  emotion!!!!
Evaluation Activity

Let’s decide as a group how we will
  evaluate each other!!!
7 Groups
  • Using the notes, discussions, and activities that we have done so
      far, decide on a scale of 0-3 what is good and what is not for the
                                following areas:
1. Introduction
2. Body
3. Conclusion
4. Visual Aids
5. Body Language
6. Voice Quality (articulation,
     pronunciation, pause, variance)
7. Voice Quality
(pitch, speed, volume)

• We will all use this rubric when evaluating each of the speakers.
For Example:
 Aspect            Excellent                Good             Satisfactory       Needs Improvement 0
                       3                      2                    1
Enthusiasm   Facial expression and    Facial expression   Facial expression   Apparent disinterest in the
                body language             and body            and body                  topic
                 convey strong            language         language seem
                enthusiasm and       sometimes convey         contrived
                    interest         strong enthusiasm
                                         and interest
THANK YOU
For being awesome!!!!




     XXXOOO

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Public Speaking

  • 1. The Art of Public Speaking —and— How to Write an Effective Speech (copy all RED!!!)
  • 2.
  • 3. Steps to Writing a Speech
  • 4. Brainstorming •Write down as many ideas as you can about your topic. • Do not erase anything. •Then go back later and eliminate things that do not seem to fit just right. •Think to yourself: Who will hear my speech and why?
  • 5. Sloppy Copy • Organize your ideas and write a rough, rough draft!
  • 6. Editing Peer editing, sharing and conferencing! Be sure to add new ideas and information, if needed.
  • 7. Proofreading Check for CONTENT and then for grammar, sound quality, etc… Check for excellence!
  • 8. Publishing A copy of your speech, or note cards are necessary.
  • 9. Sizing Up Your Audience To determine which approach you will take in your presentation. Different group attitudes require different methods of presentation! • What is the size of your audience? • Will they have a sense of humor? • Do they want to hear what you have to say?
  • 10. Multiple Intelligences • Different people learn in different ways and have different kinds of quot;intelligences.quot; Knowing this, you can assume that your audience has certain strengths and weaknesses, as well as different learning styles.
  • 11.
  • 12. The Audience—Rules for Feedback -Describe the speaker's mistakes; do not get personal. -Offer specific comments. -Only comment on things that the speaker has control over, such as tone, content or speed.
  • 13. The Audience as Evaluators -Share feelings and thoughts with the speaker. -Make quot;Iquot; statements quot;I think your speech wasquot; or quot;I feel you need toquot;) -Be specific. -Be constructive, not destructive. -Remember that each speaker is unique. -Comment only on the speech - not on the speaker. -Do not project your own biases onto the speech.
  • 14. The Audience as Listeners -Do not judge the person by his or her speech. Be genuine and sincere. -Do not practice or think about your comments, or presentation while the person is speaking. -Try to understand the speaker from his or her point of view.
  • 15. Experiential Learning and Processing • After each speech the teacher and audience should assess your efforts so that you can take an honest look at your presentation, help you decide what you did well and what you need to improve. • While speaking experiences will help you to become accustomed to public speaking, processing your efforts with your peers will help you to develop the confidence to communicate!
  • 16. Hidden Agendas The group must be careful to avoid hidden agendas in its critiques. A hidden agenda is a message or a purpose beneath the message being communicated to the speaker. An example of this might be if someone in the group is madly in love with the speaker, his or her critique might be overly kind, even if a more terse critique was due.
  • 17. A Sad Fact People do not always listen closely enough to the words of a speech so that only approximately 10% - 15% of what you know and you learn comes from what you hear. Now…can anyone repeat what I just said???
  • 18. So, If you happen to NOT be listening….DON’T Try to show-off by listing trivial concerns or • Drift off to nit-pick. during the speech and then pretend to have all of the right comments Make comments directed at speaker's personality. • Let someone quot;get awayquot; with a flawed speech.
  • 19. Basic Speech Organization Skills quot;Tell 'em what you're going to tell, 'em; tell 'em; and then tell 'em what you told 'em.quot; The Introduction The body The conclusion (tell 'em what (tell 'em what you are going to (tell 'em) you told 'em) tell 'em)
  • 20. The Introduction (tell 'em what you are going to tell 'em) The Introduction has three major roles: 1. to catch the listener's interest 2. to move the topic from general to specific 3. and to deliver the Speech Focusing Statement Whatever you do, do not start your speech by merely stating your topic!
  • 21. Catching the Listeners' Interest You could ask a rhetorical question (Is humankind really heading towards disaster?). Or, you could start with a short story that will pull the listener in, such time you were in a really great establishment.
  • 22. It really does not matter what technique you use to attract the listener as long as you follow two basic rules:
  • 23. 1) The story or question you choose is specific to your topic 2) You finish the story or answer your question in your conclusion
  • 24. Moving Down the Funnel Think of the process like a funnel sitting on a bottle. You start with a wide discussion at the top, and then constrict your discussion sliding down to the specifics of your topic. By the time you hit the neck of the funnel, the audience knows exactly where you are heading and what the elements of your topic will be. Finally, once you are sliding down the neck of the funnel and have announced the specifics of your speech, you deliver your Speech Focusing Statement. The Speech Focusing Statement is your quot;tell 'em what you're going to tell 'em.quot;
  • 25. The body (tell 'em) • After you have your introduction, you have to move along to the quot;meatquot; of your speech - the body. The body tells • all of the facts and explains all the details of your Speech Focusing Statement. If you tell your listeners that you are going to discuss issues A, B and C in your introduction, then you must discuss A, B, C, not B, C, A or C, B, A, etc. • While the order of your topics is an important issue, the logical design and construction you employ is equally as important. In other words, what reasoning did you use for ordering your speech? Are you showing how something developed over time? Are you explaining why something happened the way it did? Are you detailing how to do something?
  • 26. Methods of Presentation Once you have decided on the logical development of your topic, you can consider some of the various methods to present the order of your ideas: Chronological - Cause to effect - order - the time -Anti-climax order show how your order in which - work from the topic was the events took most to least result of place important essential information. events. Climax order - work from the least important information to the most Spatial order - describe the important. physical setup of your topic.
  • 27. The Conclusion (tell 'em what you told 'em) To begin, never say, quot;in conclusion,quot; or quot;at last,quot; in your speech. This gives the listener permission to tune you out. It is a much better idea to simply restate your introduction and tell the audience why it was important that they listened, and what you want them to do or to get out of the presentation.
  • 28. Nerves: Fight vs. Flight Standing before a group and delivering a speech can be one of the most intimidating experiences of your life. Your heart starts to race, the blood leaves your fingers and toes, your throat goes dry, you shake, and you really wonder why in the world you are doing this. Well, don't worry. This is quite normal. Your body is undergoing what is known as a psychosomatic or psychological stress.
  • 30. One Way to Plan Out Your Speech 3 ideas to be discussed Main Idea Copy whole chart.
  • 31. Now to the Assignment Develop a 5-minute speech with a visual presenting your business to the class. Each student will deliver their speech in front of the class while the rest of the students assess the speaker and provide feedback on the speech. CREATIVITY IS ALWAYS ENCOURAGED!!!
  • 32. There are several important aspects of presentation to keep in mind.
  • 33. 1) Body language - make sure that you have proper posture. If your shoulders are sagging, you will not appear as sincere. You MUST stand and deliver!!!
  • 34. 2) Articulation – You need to speak loud and clear.
  • 35. 3) Pronunciation - Pronounce each word, avoid slang, and do not slur words. You must avoid saying ―um‖& quot;you know.quot;
  • 36. 4) Pitch – pitch refers to the highs and lows of the voice. Whatever you do, you must avoid a monotone!
  • 37. 5) Speed - the speed, or pace, is an important variable to control. Try not to speak too fast or too slow.
  • 38. 6) Pause - When you want to emphasize a certain word, pause for one second before; this highlights the word. If you really want to punch it, pause before and after the word!
  • 39. 7) Volume – If you scream all the way through your speech, people will become accustomed to it and it will lose its effectiveness. On the other hand, a few well-timed shouts can liven up the speech! You must try to quot;projectquot; or throw your voice out over the entire class - or speak to the last row.
  • 40. 8) Quality - Quality of voice is the net caliber of your voice, its character and attributes. You must try to keep the vocal quality high; it is what separates your voice from everyone else's.
  • 41. 9) Variance – Let your words speak for themselves. If you use the word quot;strangle,quot; say it with a hint of menace in your voice. If you say quot;heave,quot; let the class feel the onomatopoeic force behind it. If you say quot;bulldozer,quot; make it sound like a titan earthmover, not like a baby with a shovel.. .
  • 42. How you say something and how you physically present yourself are just as important as what you say. Don’t be afraid to be expressive and show emotion!!!!
  • 43. Evaluation Activity Let’s decide as a group how we will evaluate each other!!!
  • 44. 7 Groups • Using the notes, discussions, and activities that we have done so far, decide on a scale of 0-3 what is good and what is not for the following areas: 1. Introduction 2. Body 3. Conclusion 4. Visual Aids 5. Body Language 6. Voice Quality (articulation, pronunciation, pause, variance) 7. Voice Quality (pitch, speed, volume) • We will all use this rubric when evaluating each of the speakers.
  • 45. For Example: Aspect Excellent Good Satisfactory Needs Improvement 0 3 2 1 Enthusiasm Facial expression and Facial expression Facial expression Apparent disinterest in the body language and body and body topic convey strong language language seem enthusiasm and sometimes convey contrived interest strong enthusiasm and interest
  • 46. THANK YOU For being awesome!!!! XXXOOO