" Delegation is defined as the transfer of responsibility for the performance of a task from one person to another "
"The transfer of responsibility for the performance of an activity from individual to another while retaining accountability for the outcome". (American Nurses Association)
Delegation is appointing a person to act on one's behalf
Principles of delegation
There are four fundamental principles which serves as guides for effective delegation
Assignment of duties in terms of expected results
parity of authority and responsibility while assigning duties to subordinates there should be equality of authority and responsibility
3. clarifications of limits of authority :it is clear limit of authority that permits subordinates to exercise initiative to develop their personal capacity through freedom of action and to know their area of operation.
4. unit of command :as employee should receive orders from one superior only.so subordinates should always be placed under the guidance,control and supervision of one supervisior /superior who will set up work priorities and will arrange for cooperation.
Clarifications of limits of authority :it is clear limit of authority that permits subordinates to exercise initiative to develop their personal capacity through freedom of action and to know their area of operation.
Unit of command :as employee should receive orders from one superior only.
Strategies for effective delegating
Identify necessary skill and levels
Select most capable person
Communicate goal clearly
Empower the delegate
Set deadlines and monitor progress
Model the role: provide guidance
The five rights of delegation
Right Task One that is delegable for a specific patient .
Right Circumstances Appropriate patient setting, available resources, and other relevant factors considered.
Right Person Right person is delegating the right task to the right person to be performed on the right person .
Right Direction/Communication Clear, concise description of the task, including its objective, limits and expectations .
Right Supervision Appropriate monitoring, evaluation, intervention, as needed, and feedback.
Define the task
Decide on the delegate
Determine the task
Reach an agreement
Monitor performance and
Common delegation errors
Lack of experience
Lack of trust
Desire to complete the whole job
Fear of subordinates( resent having work delegated to them.)
Poor management of time
Feel insecure in their ability to perform a task
Delegation as a function of professional nursing
RNs asked to assume the role of supervisor and delegator need preparation to assume these leadership task .some experts argue that that RN. although well trained in the role of direct care provider, is often inadequately prepared for the role of direct care provider is often inadequately prepared for the role of delegator.
Nursing schools and health care organizations needs to do a better job for preparing professional RNs for the delegator role.
DELEGATING TO UNLICENCED ASSISTIVE PERSONEL.
No task may be delegated to a UAP that
requires substantial knowledge or technical skill. For example:
Sterile technique or procedure on patient
Delegation to UAP
Checked off on repetitive tasks
In writing inform supervisor & staff development“Based on this, I am requesting further education
“ I will not work with this person until I have assurance in writing......”
DELEGATING TO INTERDISCIPLINARY TEAMS
interdisciplinary team members are generally highly trained, self- directed professionals, the team must have a leader to coordinate team members efforts and to facilitate communication between members. The nurse leader/manager is often called upon as the individual to coordinate such a team. In coordinating the efforts of the inter disciplinary team or in delegating to members of the team, the leader/ manager must be sure to recognize the unique expertise of each team members and to delegate accordingly.
DELEGATING TO A TRANS CULTURAL WORK TEAM
Poole and colleagues 1995 suggest that six cultural phenomena must be considered when delegating to staff from a culturally diverse background ;communication space ,social organization, time environmental control, and biological variations
Subordinate resistance to delegation
Some subordinates resist delegation simply because they believe they are incapable of completing the task
Another cause of resistance to delegation is an inherent resistance to authority. in this case the delegator must be calm but assertive about his expectation & provide work guidelines
Explicit work guidelines if necessary ,to maintain an appropriate authority power gap. It is an ongoing leadership challenge to instill a team spirit between delegator and their subordinates.
Barriers to delegation
The belief that “i can do it better myself”
Lack of confidence and trust in workers
Low self confidence, insecurity
Vague job description
Lack of adequate recruitment and selection
Time involved in explaining the task
Fear of loss of power
Subordinate resistance to delegation
Failure of the delegator to see the subordinates perspectives
Workload assigned are highly challenging both physically and mentally
Belief of employees that they are incapable of completing the delegated task.
Inherent resistance to authority
Due to over delegatio n
ADVANTAGES OF DELEGATION
Successful delegation results in
Makes work easier.
Increases employee effectiveness.
Ensures that the right people do the right jobs
Frailty of human life
Eye wash delegation
Unfamiliarity with art of delegation
Incapacity of subordinates
Reasons for nurses why attempted delegation fails to produce desired results
Nurses fails to recognize and incorporate the principles of effective delegation
Nurses do not recognize that habits ingrained from old practice patterns prevent improvement in delegation skills.
Nurses are unwilling or unable to view delegation from the perspective of the delegate.
Delegation is the transfer of authority to perform a specific nursing task in a specific situation to a competent individual.
Delegation is the entrusting of authority, power and responsibility to another.
When used appropriately, delegation is a vital tool for the professional nurse and should ensure safe, competent nursing care.
Delegation and responsibility are considered closely related concepts