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Group dynamics


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Group dynamics

  1. 1. GROUP DYNAMICS <br />
  2. 2. DEFINITION<br />GROUP:<br />A group may be defined as a number of individuals who join together to achieve a goal. People join groups to achieve goals that cannot be achieved by them alone. Johnson & Johnson (2006)<br />A collection of people who interact with one another, accept rights and obligations as members and who share a common identity.<br />
  3. 3. GROUP DYNAMICS<br />A branch of social psychology which studies problems involving the structure of a group. <br />The interactions that influence the attitudes and behavior of people when they are grouped with others through either choice or accidental circumstances. <br />
  4. 4. TYPEOFGROUPS<br />Formal groups: refers to those which are established under the legal or formal authority with the view to achieve a particular end results. Eg: trade unions.<br />Informal groups: refers to aggregate of personal contact and interaction and network of relationship among individual. Eg: friendship group.<br />
  5. 5. TYPE OF GROUPS<br />Primary groups: are characterized by small size, face to face interaction and intimacy among members of group. Eg: family, neighbourhood group.<br />Secondary groups: characterized by large size, individual identification with the values and beliefs prevailing in them rather than cultural interaction. Eg: occupational association and ethnic group.<br />
  6. 6. TYPE OF GROUPS<br />Task groups: are composed of people who work together to perform a task but involve cross-command relationship. Eg: for finding out who was responsible for causing wrong medication order would require liaison between ward in charge, senior sister and head nurse.<br />Social groups: refers to integrated system of interrelated psychological group formed to accomplish defined objectives. Eg: political party with its many local political clubs. Friendship group.<br />
  7. 7. TYPE OF GROUPS<br />Reference groups: one in which they would like to belong.<br />Membership groups: those where the individual actually belongs.<br />Command groups: formed by subordinates reporting directly to the particular manager are determined by formal organizational chart. <br />
  8. 8. TYPE OF GROUPS<br />Functional groups: the individuals work together daily on similar tasks.<br />Problem solving groups: it focuses on specific issues in their areas of responsibility, develops potential solution and often empowered to take action.<br />
  9. 9. CRITERIA FOR A GROUP<br />Formal social structure<br />Face-to-face interaction<br />2 or more persons<br />Common fate<br />Common goals<br />Interdependence<br />Self-definition as group members<br />Recognition by others<br />
  10. 10. OBJECTIVES OF GROUP DYNAMICS<br />To identify and analyze the social processes that impact on group development and performance.<br />To acquire the skills necessary to intervene and improve individual and group performance in an organizational context.<br />To build more successful organizations by applying techniques that provides positive impact on goal achievement.<br />
  11. 11. PRINCIPLES OF GROUP DYNAMICS <br />The members of the group must have a strong sense of belonging to the group.<br />Changes in one part of the group may produce stress in other person, which can be reduced only by eliminating or allowing the change by bringing about readjustment in the related parts<br />The group arises and functions owing to common motives.<br />
  12. 12. PRINCIPLES OF GROUP DYNAMICS<br />Groups survive by placing the members into functional hierarchy and facilitating the action towards the goals<br />The intergroup relations, group organization and member participation is essential for effectiveness of a group.<br />Information relating to needs for change plans for change and consequences of changes must be shared by members of a group.<br />
  14. 14. ROLES<br />TASK ROLES (which helps the group accomplish its task)<br />Initiator: proposing tasks or goals; defining a group problem; suggesting ways to solve a problem. <br />Information/opinion seeker: requesting facts; asking for expressions of feeling; requesting a statement; seeking suggestions and ideas.<br />Information or opinion giver: offering facts; providing relevant information; stating an opinion; giving suggestions and ideas.<br />
  15. 15. TASK ROLES<br />Clarifierand elaborator: interpreting ideas or suggestions; clearing up confusion; defining terms; indicating alternatives and issues before the group.<br />Summarizor: pulling together related ideas; restating suggestions after the group has discussed them; offering a decision or conclusion for the group to accept or reject.<br />
  16. 16. TASK ROLES<br />Energizer; who stimulates and prods the group to act and raise the level of their actions.<br />Coordinator: who clarifies and coordinates ideas, suggestions and activities of the group members.<br />
  17. 17. RELATIONSHIP ROLES (which helps group members get along better)<br />Harmonizer: who mediates, harmonizes and resolve conflicts.<br />Gate keeper: helping to keep communication channels open; facilitating the participation of others; suggesting procedures that permit sharing remarks.<br />Encourager; being friendly, warm, and responsive to others; indicating by facial expression or remarks the acceptance of others' contributions.<br />
  18. 18. RELATIONSHIP ROLES<br />Compromiser: when one's own idea or status is involved in a conflict, offering a compromise which yields status; admitting error.<br />Follower: who accepts the group’s ideas and listens to their discussion and decisions<br />
  19. 19. SELF-ORIENTED ROLES(which contributes to neither group task nor group relationship)<br />Dominator: interrupts others; launches on long monologues; is over-positive; tries to lead group and assert authority; is generally autocratic. <br />Negativist: rejects ideas suggested by others; takes a negative attitude on issues; argues frequently and unnecessarily; is pessimistic, refuses to cooperate; pouts.<br />
  20. 20. SELF-ORIENTED ROLES<br />Aggressor: tries to achieve importance in group; boasts; criticizes or blames others; tries to get attention; shows anger or irritation against group or individuals; deflates importance or position of others in group.<br />Playboy: is not interested in the group except as it can help him or her to have a good time.<br />
  21. 21. SELF-ORIENTED ROLES<br />Storyteller: likes to tell long "fishing stories" which are not relevant to the group; gets off on long tangents.<br />Interrupter: talks over others; engages in side conversations; whispers to neighbour.<br />
  22. 22. STAGES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT<br />BRUCE W TUCKMAN is a respected educational psychologist who first described the four stages of group development in 1965<br />The four-stage model is called as  Tuckman's Stages for a group.<br />
  23. 23. Stage 1: Forming <br />
  24. 24. Stage 2: Storming<br />
  25. 25. Stage 3: Norming<br />
  26. 26. Stage 4: Performing<br />
  27. 27. Stage 5: Adjourning<br />
  28. 28. DIMENSIONS OF GROUP PROCESS<br />Patterns of communication and coordination<br />Patterns of influence<br />Roles / relationship<br />Patterns of dominance (e.g. who leads, who defers)<br />Balance of task focus Vs social focus<br />Level of group effectiveness<br />
  29. 29. GROUP DYNAMICS PROCESS<br />GROUP FORMATION<br />Participation<br />Factors which affect member’s participation are;<br />The content or task of the group- is it of interest, importance and relevance?<br />The physical atmosphere - is it comfortable physically, socially and psychologically?<br />The psychological atmosphere - is it accepting, non-threatening?<br />Member’s personal preoccupations - are there any distracting thoughts in their mind?<br />The level of interaction and discussions - is adequate information provided for everyone to understand? - is it at a level everyone understands?<br />Familiarity - between group members- do members know each other from before?<br />
  30. 30. GROUP DYNAMICS PROCESS<br />Communication<br />Helpful hints for effective communication<br />Have a circular seating arrangement so that everyone can see and interact with everyone else<br />If there are two facilitators, they should sit apart so that communication flow is not in one direction<br />Respect individuals- let everyone call everyone else by name respectfully<br />Encourage and support the quiet members to voice their opinions<br />Try and persuade the people who speak too much to give others a chance<br />Ensure that only one person speaks at a time or no one else will be heard<br />Discourage sub groups from indulging in side talk <br />
  31. 31. GROUP DYNAMICS PROCESS<br />Problem solving<br />Leadership<br />
  33. 33. C. FACILITATING A GROUP<br />To facilitate effectively the facilitator needs to:<br />Understand what is happening within the group<br />Be aware of his/her own personality <br />Know how to facilitate<br />
  34. 34. Thank You<br />