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The Art of Managing
1
G Panneer Selvam; Rahul Dukale; Rakesh B. R.; Anand S. Thokal
What is Delegation?
Delegation is the assignment of responsibility to
another person for the purpose of carrying out specific
job-related activities. Delegation is a shift of decision-
making authority from one organizational level to
another.
Overview of Delegation Theory
Also known as Principal-Agent Theory
Delegating involves
a 'principal'
 An individual who delegates authority over a
particular policy area (or function) to another
And an 'agent'.
 The “other” person who receives the delegated
authority
The first focus is concerned with 'agency loss'
 Agency loss is the extent to which decisions/policy outcomes
arrived at by the agent differ from the goals of the principal.
 Because of this concern for disconnects, it has lead to further
theories concerning how to minimize agency loss while still
maintaining the benefits of delegation.
 Such theories tend to emphasize the use of ex ante (before) and
ex post (after) controls which can help ensure compliance,
 Every principal-agent approach stresses that principals and agents
always have separate interests and as such a beneficial delegation
will always result in some element of agency loss.
There are basically two areas of
primary focus in delegation
The second focus is on 'informational asymmetries'
 Here the agent is assumed to possess an advantage in terms
of expertise in the particular area which they are delegated
authority in.
 After a suitable amount of time the ‘agent’ would possess
expertise the area that would put them in an advantageous
position relative to the principal.
 As such the agent could use this informational advantage to
shape the relations between themselves and the principal to
achieve more favorable outcomes
Both of these focuses are negative and do not take into
consideration trust.
 Delegation works as trust develops
 Both the principal and the agent will benefit
 Delegation works most effectively if certain monitors and
assumptions are put in place
For a supervisor or manager to be able to effectively
delegate, they must ensure that:
The ‘agent’ knows what they want
That the ‘agent’ will have the authority to achieve it
And the ‘agent’ knows how to do it.
Leadership vs. Delegation
Similar skills needed
Goal setting
Coaching
Performance recognition
Similar aims
Accomplish organizational ends
Enhance abilities
Increase confidence
Develop initiative
Benefits of Delegation
Manager / Supervisor Benefits
Reduced stress
Improved time management
Increased trust
Employee Benefits
Professional knowledge and skill development
Elevated self-esteem and confidence
Sense of achievement
Organizational Benefits
Increased teamwork
Increased productivity and efficiency
Why do people fail to delegate?
Insufficient time
Job is too important to take risks
The “principal” can do it better
The “principal” enjoys the tasks
Lack of confidence in subordinates
Control
Subordinate might do a better job
Boss will think “principal” is not working
In actuality, the reasons why “principals” say they
can’t (or won’t) delegate is really a mirror of
themselves
One reason that has not been mentioned … they don’t
know how.
Delegation takes
Planning
Communication
Patience
And yes, it does take time
 The time saved in the end will be well worth the time spent
in the beginning.
It is ironic that many times the principal as well
as the agent learn from the delegation process in
practical…
Knowing When to Delegate
Delegating can be especially helpful in the following
situations:
When the task offers valuable training to an employee
When an employee has more knowledge or experience
related to the task than you
When the task is recurring and all employees should be
prepared or trained
When the task is of low priority and you have high
priority tasks that require your immediate attention
Other factors that contribute to the
delegability of a task include:
1. The project's timelines/deadlines.
How much time is there available to do the job?
Is there time to redo the job if it's not done properly the first time?
What are the consequences of not completing the job on time?
1. Your expectations or goals for the project or task(s),
including:
How important is it that the results are of the highest possible
quality?
Is an "adequate" result good enough?
Would a failure be crucial?
How much would failure impact other things?
14
To Whom Should You
Delegate?
When deciding who to select for the task, you must
consider:
The current work load of the employee
The employee’s strengths and weaknesses
The training and experience levels of the employee
Eight plus One Ingredients for Effective
Delegation
1. Select the right person.
 Assess the skills and capabilities of subordinates and
assign the task to the most appropriate one.
 Start with smaller tasks at first so the subordinate
can develop confidence
2. Delegate the whole task to one person.
 This gives the person the responsibility and increases
their motivation.
 Communicate to others that this person will be the
person carrying out the task
3. Clearly specify your preferred results.
 Give information on what, why, when, who,
where and how.
 Write this information down.
 Do not overly restrict the person but at the
same time give clear boundaries
4. Delegate responsibility and authority
 Assign the task, not the method to accomplish
it.
 Let the subordinate complete the task in the
manner they choose, as long as the results are
what the supervisor specifies and it is done with
integrity.
 Let the employee have strong input as to the
completion date of the project.
– Note that you may not even know how to complete
the task yourself -- this is often the case with higher
levels of management
5. Ask the employee to summarize back to
you.
 Ask to hear their impressions of the project and
the results that you prefer.
 Ask for their understanding of the job.
 Ensure deadlines are clear and comprehended
6. Get ongoing non-intrusive feedback about
progress on the project.
 This is a good reason to continue to get weekly,
written status reports from all direct reports.
 Reports should cover what they did last week, plan
to do next week and any potential issues and
solutions.
 Regular staff meetings provide this ongoing
feedback, as well
7. Maintain open lines of communication.
 Don't micromanage the subordinate, but sense what
they're doing and support their checking in with you
along the way.
 Indicate there is administrative backup and moral
support available
8. If you're not satisfied with the progress, don't
immediately take the project back.
 Continue to work with the employee and ensure they
perceive the project as their responsibility.
 Remember you are trying to achieve some initiative
in your subordinates … don’t squash it.
A Job Well Done
Evaluate and reward performance.
 Evaluate results, not methods.
 Recognize successes with other opportunities and
motivators
 Always credit the subordinate for the work they
did when addressing others
 Address insufficient performance
 Hopefully if the communication has been
adequate there will not be unsatisfactory
performance
Communication
How much of delegation do you think is tied to
communication?
Actually, effective delegation hinges on
communication
 Giving the right information and expectations in the
beginning.
 Communicating back and forth during the task
 Providing coaching communication when required
 Communicating satisfaction and recognition at the
end.
Steps in Delegation
I – Introduce the task
D- Demonstrate clearly what needs to be done
E - Ensure understanding
A - Allocate authority, information and resources
L - Let go
S - Support and Monitor
Introduce the Task
Determine the task
to be delegated
Determine the tasks
to retain
Select the delegate
Introduce the Task
Determine the task to
be delegated
Determine the tasks to
retain
Select the delegate
Those tasks you
completed prior to
assuming new role
Those tasks your
delegates have more
experience with
Routine activities
Those things not in your
core competency
Introduce the Task
Determine the task to
be delegated
Determine the tasks
to retain
Select the delegate
Supervision of the
subordinates
Long-term planning
Tasks only you can do
Assurance of program
compliance
Dismissal of
volunteers/members/par
ents, etc.
Introduce the Task
Determine the task to
be delegated
Determine the tasks to
retain
Select the delegate
Look at the individual
strengths/weaknesses
Determine the areas of
interest
Determine the need for
development of the
delegate
Introduce the Task
Use What-Why
Statements:
I want you to do…..
Because you……
What-Why
Statements
In your groups, brainstorm 5 tasks you are
currently doing that could be delegated.
Determine who would serve as your best
delegate for each of the tasks.
Compose what – why statements for each
of the 5 tasks brainstormed.
Demonstrate Clearly
Show examples of previous
work
Explain objectives
Discuss timelines, set deadlines
Ensuring Understanding
Clear communication
Ask for clarification
Secure commitment
Don’t say no to them
Follow-up
Delegated tasks must be:
1.Specific
2.Measurable
3.Agreed
4.Realistic
5.Time bound
6.Ethical
7.Recorded
SMARTER
Delegated tasks must be:
1.Specific
2.Measurable
3.Agreed
4.Realistic
5.Time bound
6.Ethical
7.Recorded
SMARTER
Allocate…
authority, information, resources
Grant authority to determine process, not desired
outcomes
Provide access to all information sources
Refer delegate to contact persons or specific
resources that have assisted previously
Provide appropriate training to ensure success
Let go…
Communicate delegate’s authority
Step back, let them work
Use constrained access
Don’t allow for reverse delegation
Support and Monitor
Schedule follow-up meetings
Review progress
Assist, when requested
Avoid interference
Publicly praise progress and completion
Encourage problem solving
Delegation Stressors
Loss of control?
If you train your subordinates to apply the same
criteria as you would yourself, then they will be
exercising your control on your behalf.
Delegation Stressors
Too much time spent on explaining the tasks
The amount of time spent up front is, in fact, great.
But, continued use of delegation may free you up to
complete more complex tasks and/or gain you some
time for yourself.
Delegation Stressors
Compromising your own value
By successfully utilizing appropriate delegation, your
value to the group/organization will grow at a greater
rate as you will have more time to do more things…….
Delegation Obstacles
Lack of support
 Managers and employees must be fully supportive of the
delegation efforts in order to be successful
Failure to plan
 Taking the time to follow the steps for delegation can avoid
any pitfalls that might otherwise be overlooked
Lack of communication
 Communicating the plan in a clear and precise manner
prevents errors caused by miscommunication
Delegation Obstacles (cont’d.)
Fear of relinquishing control
 Management may be resistant to delegating at first, but
delegation can build trust and morale among managers and
employees
Micromanagement
 Micromanagement prevents employees from completing
their assigned tasks and defeats the purpose of delegation
Signs of Micromanagement
Micromanaging occurs when a manager assigns a task
to an employee, but prevents the employee from
successfully completing the task on his/her own
Micromanagers usually:
Resist delegating
Prevent employees from making decisions
Revoke tasks after they have been assigned
Avoid letting employees work independently
How to Avoid Micromanagement
Clearly define the roles and responsibilities of
managers and employees
Create a written plan and timeline
Include scheduled meetings and evaluations rather
than frequent ‘check ins’ that can be viewed as
micromanaging
Allow employees and managers to openly
communicate any concerns or questions they may
have
Consequences of poor delegating
Information and decision-making not shared by the group
Leaders become tired out
When leaders leave groups, no one has experience to carry
on
Group morale becomes low and people become frustrated
and feel powerless
The skills and knowledge of the group/organization are
concentrated in a few people
New members don’t find any ways to contribute to the
work of the group.
REVERSE DELEGATION
Reverse Delegation
There are two ways, forced and unforced, that this may take
place.
In the forced way, the push back comes directly from the
direct report that received the delegated task, whereas
In the unforced way, the manager voluntarily takes back the
delegated task and work on it.
46
Reverse delegation is a term that describes a situation whereby a
manager delegates a task to his or her direct report, but only to take
it back, for one reason or another, to work on it sometime later.
And, finally…..
“The secret of success is not in doing your own work
but in recognizing the right [person] to do it.”
~Andrew Carnegie
Case Study
Abstract:
Sushma Gupta worked as the Assistant Manager (AM) of Operations for
Mega Shopping Arena (MSA). Sushma loved her job and had worked
hard to get to the position of AM. In March, as she had expected, Sushma
was promoted and made Manager. Ever since Sushma had been
promoted, she had been working late, sometimes till midnight. However,
most of the work that she was doing was something that she should have
delegated to her juniors
Issues:
» Delegation of authority
» Motivation
48
Introduction:
Sushma Gupta worked as the Assistant Manager (AM) of Operations for Mega
Shopping Arena (MSA). MSA, a popular store, sold everything from food,
clothes, and shoes to stationery, furniture, household items, electronics, and
toys. The store advertised itself as a one-stop shop where the customer could
find everything he or she needed. Sushma was happy that she was working with
such a reputed, well-established store.
Sushma loved her job and had worked hard to get to the position of AM. Her life
revolved around her work, so much so that she had to be forced to take leave or
a vacation. Her seniors were happy with her work, and Sushma was looking
forward to the performance appraisals in March...
Questions:
1. What in your opinion was Sushma doing wrong? What do you suggest she do
now in order to rectify the situation?
2. Should the company have trained Sushma for her new role? What should the
seniors do now?
49
Thank You
50

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Delegation - the art of managing

  • 1. The Art of Managing 1 G Panneer Selvam; Rahul Dukale; Rakesh B. R.; Anand S. Thokal
  • 2. What is Delegation? Delegation is the assignment of responsibility to another person for the purpose of carrying out specific job-related activities. Delegation is a shift of decision- making authority from one organizational level to another.
  • 3. Overview of Delegation Theory Also known as Principal-Agent Theory Delegating involves a 'principal'  An individual who delegates authority over a particular policy area (or function) to another And an 'agent'.  The “other” person who receives the delegated authority
  • 4. The first focus is concerned with 'agency loss'  Agency loss is the extent to which decisions/policy outcomes arrived at by the agent differ from the goals of the principal.  Because of this concern for disconnects, it has lead to further theories concerning how to minimize agency loss while still maintaining the benefits of delegation.  Such theories tend to emphasize the use of ex ante (before) and ex post (after) controls which can help ensure compliance,  Every principal-agent approach stresses that principals and agents always have separate interests and as such a beneficial delegation will always result in some element of agency loss. There are basically two areas of primary focus in delegation
  • 5. The second focus is on 'informational asymmetries'  Here the agent is assumed to possess an advantage in terms of expertise in the particular area which they are delegated authority in.  After a suitable amount of time the ‘agent’ would possess expertise the area that would put them in an advantageous position relative to the principal.  As such the agent could use this informational advantage to shape the relations between themselves and the principal to achieve more favorable outcomes
  • 6. Both of these focuses are negative and do not take into consideration trust.  Delegation works as trust develops  Both the principal and the agent will benefit  Delegation works most effectively if certain monitors and assumptions are put in place
  • 7. For a supervisor or manager to be able to effectively delegate, they must ensure that: The ‘agent’ knows what they want That the ‘agent’ will have the authority to achieve it And the ‘agent’ knows how to do it.
  • 8. Leadership vs. Delegation Similar skills needed Goal setting Coaching Performance recognition Similar aims Accomplish organizational ends Enhance abilities Increase confidence Develop initiative
  • 9. Benefits of Delegation Manager / Supervisor Benefits Reduced stress Improved time management Increased trust Employee Benefits Professional knowledge and skill development Elevated self-esteem and confidence Sense of achievement Organizational Benefits Increased teamwork Increased productivity and efficiency
  • 10. Why do people fail to delegate? Insufficient time Job is too important to take risks The “principal” can do it better The “principal” enjoys the tasks Lack of confidence in subordinates Control Subordinate might do a better job Boss will think “principal” is not working
  • 11. In actuality, the reasons why “principals” say they can’t (or won’t) delegate is really a mirror of themselves One reason that has not been mentioned … they don’t know how.
  • 12. Delegation takes Planning Communication Patience And yes, it does take time  The time saved in the end will be well worth the time spent in the beginning. It is ironic that many times the principal as well as the agent learn from the delegation process in practical…
  • 13. Knowing When to Delegate Delegating can be especially helpful in the following situations: When the task offers valuable training to an employee When an employee has more knowledge or experience related to the task than you When the task is recurring and all employees should be prepared or trained When the task is of low priority and you have high priority tasks that require your immediate attention
  • 14. Other factors that contribute to the delegability of a task include: 1. The project's timelines/deadlines. How much time is there available to do the job? Is there time to redo the job if it's not done properly the first time? What are the consequences of not completing the job on time? 1. Your expectations or goals for the project or task(s), including: How important is it that the results are of the highest possible quality? Is an "adequate" result good enough? Would a failure be crucial? How much would failure impact other things? 14
  • 15. To Whom Should You Delegate? When deciding who to select for the task, you must consider: The current work load of the employee The employee’s strengths and weaknesses The training and experience levels of the employee
  • 16. Eight plus One Ingredients for Effective Delegation 1. Select the right person.  Assess the skills and capabilities of subordinates and assign the task to the most appropriate one.  Start with smaller tasks at first so the subordinate can develop confidence
  • 17. 2. Delegate the whole task to one person.  This gives the person the responsibility and increases their motivation.  Communicate to others that this person will be the person carrying out the task
  • 18. 3. Clearly specify your preferred results.  Give information on what, why, when, who, where and how.  Write this information down.  Do not overly restrict the person but at the same time give clear boundaries
  • 19. 4. Delegate responsibility and authority  Assign the task, not the method to accomplish it.  Let the subordinate complete the task in the manner they choose, as long as the results are what the supervisor specifies and it is done with integrity.  Let the employee have strong input as to the completion date of the project. – Note that you may not even know how to complete the task yourself -- this is often the case with higher levels of management
  • 20. 5. Ask the employee to summarize back to you.  Ask to hear their impressions of the project and the results that you prefer.  Ask for their understanding of the job.  Ensure deadlines are clear and comprehended
  • 21. 6. Get ongoing non-intrusive feedback about progress on the project.  This is a good reason to continue to get weekly, written status reports from all direct reports.  Reports should cover what they did last week, plan to do next week and any potential issues and solutions.  Regular staff meetings provide this ongoing feedback, as well
  • 22. 7. Maintain open lines of communication.  Don't micromanage the subordinate, but sense what they're doing and support their checking in with you along the way.  Indicate there is administrative backup and moral support available
  • 23. 8. If you're not satisfied with the progress, don't immediately take the project back.  Continue to work with the employee and ensure they perceive the project as their responsibility.  Remember you are trying to achieve some initiative in your subordinates … don’t squash it.
  • 24. A Job Well Done Evaluate and reward performance.  Evaluate results, not methods.  Recognize successes with other opportunities and motivators  Always credit the subordinate for the work they did when addressing others  Address insufficient performance  Hopefully if the communication has been adequate there will not be unsatisfactory performance
  • 25. Communication How much of delegation do you think is tied to communication? Actually, effective delegation hinges on communication  Giving the right information and expectations in the beginning.  Communicating back and forth during the task  Providing coaching communication when required  Communicating satisfaction and recognition at the end.
  • 26. Steps in Delegation I – Introduce the task D- Demonstrate clearly what needs to be done E - Ensure understanding A - Allocate authority, information and resources L - Let go S - Support and Monitor
  • 27. Introduce the Task Determine the task to be delegated Determine the tasks to retain Select the delegate
  • 28. Introduce the Task Determine the task to be delegated Determine the tasks to retain Select the delegate Those tasks you completed prior to assuming new role Those tasks your delegates have more experience with Routine activities Those things not in your core competency
  • 29. Introduce the Task Determine the task to be delegated Determine the tasks to retain Select the delegate Supervision of the subordinates Long-term planning Tasks only you can do Assurance of program compliance Dismissal of volunteers/members/par ents, etc.
  • 30. Introduce the Task Determine the task to be delegated Determine the tasks to retain Select the delegate Look at the individual strengths/weaknesses Determine the areas of interest Determine the need for development of the delegate
  • 31. Introduce the Task Use What-Why Statements: I want you to do….. Because you……
  • 32. What-Why Statements In your groups, brainstorm 5 tasks you are currently doing that could be delegated. Determine who would serve as your best delegate for each of the tasks. Compose what – why statements for each of the 5 tasks brainstormed.
  • 33. Demonstrate Clearly Show examples of previous work Explain objectives Discuss timelines, set deadlines
  • 34. Ensuring Understanding Clear communication Ask for clarification Secure commitment Don’t say no to them Follow-up Delegated tasks must be: 1.Specific 2.Measurable 3.Agreed 4.Realistic 5.Time bound 6.Ethical 7.Recorded SMARTER Delegated tasks must be: 1.Specific 2.Measurable 3.Agreed 4.Realistic 5.Time bound 6.Ethical 7.Recorded SMARTER
  • 35. Allocate… authority, information, resources Grant authority to determine process, not desired outcomes Provide access to all information sources Refer delegate to contact persons or specific resources that have assisted previously Provide appropriate training to ensure success
  • 36. Let go… Communicate delegate’s authority Step back, let them work Use constrained access Don’t allow for reverse delegation
  • 37. Support and Monitor Schedule follow-up meetings Review progress Assist, when requested Avoid interference Publicly praise progress and completion Encourage problem solving
  • 38. Delegation Stressors Loss of control? If you train your subordinates to apply the same criteria as you would yourself, then they will be exercising your control on your behalf.
  • 39. Delegation Stressors Too much time spent on explaining the tasks The amount of time spent up front is, in fact, great. But, continued use of delegation may free you up to complete more complex tasks and/or gain you some time for yourself.
  • 40. Delegation Stressors Compromising your own value By successfully utilizing appropriate delegation, your value to the group/organization will grow at a greater rate as you will have more time to do more things…….
  • 41. Delegation Obstacles Lack of support  Managers and employees must be fully supportive of the delegation efforts in order to be successful Failure to plan  Taking the time to follow the steps for delegation can avoid any pitfalls that might otherwise be overlooked Lack of communication  Communicating the plan in a clear and precise manner prevents errors caused by miscommunication
  • 42. Delegation Obstacles (cont’d.) Fear of relinquishing control  Management may be resistant to delegating at first, but delegation can build trust and morale among managers and employees Micromanagement  Micromanagement prevents employees from completing their assigned tasks and defeats the purpose of delegation
  • 43. Signs of Micromanagement Micromanaging occurs when a manager assigns a task to an employee, but prevents the employee from successfully completing the task on his/her own Micromanagers usually: Resist delegating Prevent employees from making decisions Revoke tasks after they have been assigned Avoid letting employees work independently
  • 44. How to Avoid Micromanagement Clearly define the roles and responsibilities of managers and employees Create a written plan and timeline Include scheduled meetings and evaluations rather than frequent ‘check ins’ that can be viewed as micromanaging Allow employees and managers to openly communicate any concerns or questions they may have
  • 45. Consequences of poor delegating Information and decision-making not shared by the group Leaders become tired out When leaders leave groups, no one has experience to carry on Group morale becomes low and people become frustrated and feel powerless The skills and knowledge of the group/organization are concentrated in a few people New members don’t find any ways to contribute to the work of the group. REVERSE DELEGATION
  • 46. Reverse Delegation There are two ways, forced and unforced, that this may take place. In the forced way, the push back comes directly from the direct report that received the delegated task, whereas In the unforced way, the manager voluntarily takes back the delegated task and work on it. 46 Reverse delegation is a term that describes a situation whereby a manager delegates a task to his or her direct report, but only to take it back, for one reason or another, to work on it sometime later.
  • 47. And, finally….. “The secret of success is not in doing your own work but in recognizing the right [person] to do it.” ~Andrew Carnegie
  • 48. Case Study Abstract: Sushma Gupta worked as the Assistant Manager (AM) of Operations for Mega Shopping Arena (MSA). Sushma loved her job and had worked hard to get to the position of AM. In March, as she had expected, Sushma was promoted and made Manager. Ever since Sushma had been promoted, she had been working late, sometimes till midnight. However, most of the work that she was doing was something that she should have delegated to her juniors Issues: » Delegation of authority » Motivation 48
  • 49. Introduction: Sushma Gupta worked as the Assistant Manager (AM) of Operations for Mega Shopping Arena (MSA). MSA, a popular store, sold everything from food, clothes, and shoes to stationery, furniture, household items, electronics, and toys. The store advertised itself as a one-stop shop where the customer could find everything he or she needed. Sushma was happy that she was working with such a reputed, well-established store. Sushma loved her job and had worked hard to get to the position of AM. Her life revolved around her work, so much so that she had to be forced to take leave or a vacation. Her seniors were happy with her work, and Sushma was looking forward to the performance appraisals in March... Questions: 1. What in your opinion was Sushma doing wrong? What do you suggest she do now in order to rectify the situation? 2. Should the company have trained Sushma for her new role? What should the seniors do now? 49

Editor's Notes

  1. This is a combination of the handout Form F and other experiences from delegating