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  1. 1. Leadership & Management The Chain of Command and Leadership Triad
  2. 2. Chain of Command <ul><li>Both structure and process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conceptual framework, governs how we function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishes functional relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Institution, not individuals in it </li></ul><ul><li>Defines: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Levels of Decision-Making </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lines of Authority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Areas of Responsibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Levels of Accountability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flow of information </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Chain of Command <ul><li>Effectiveness determined by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to uphold as an institution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Earned by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrated abilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loyalty </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ensures everyone is informed and provides support for completion of the responsibility </li></ul>
  4. 4. Naval Tradition “Special Trust and Confidence” <ul><li>With responsibility goes authority and with them both goes accountability </li></ul>
  5. 5. Leadership Triad Responsibility Obligation Accountability Being answerable for actions/failure to take action Authority Control or power to act on responsibilities
  6. 6. <ul><li>Obligation to complete a task </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assigned, assumed, or conferred </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exists individually and at all levels of an organization </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibility CAN be delegated but CANNOT be transferred </li></ul>Responsibility
  7. 7. “ Responsibility is a unique concept. It can only reside and inhere in a single individual. You may share it with others, but your portion is not diminished. You may delegate it, but it is still with you. You may disclaim it, but you cannot divest yourself of it. Even if you do not recognize it or admit its presence, you cannot escape it. If responsibility is rightfully yours, no evasion or ignorance or passing the blame can pass the burden to someone else. Unless you can point your finger at the man responsible when something goes wrong, then you have never had anyone really responsible.” – H. G. Rickover
  8. 8. <ul><li>Right to use assigned resources, including personnel, to accomplish a task or objective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Right to issue orders and expect obedience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power or control to act on responsibility </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CAN and should be delegated </li></ul><ul><li>Sources : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positional and/or Personal Power </li></ul></ul>Authority
  9. 9. <ul><li>Being answerable for responsibilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Actions OR Failure to act </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Linked to responsibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Results NOT “intentions” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasizes necessity to consider all possible consequences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CAN NEVER be delegated </li></ul>Accountability
  10. 10. Men will not long trust leaders who feel themselves beyond accountability for what they do
  11. 11. <ul><li>Assignment of new responsibilities (and authority to carry out tasking) </li></ul><ul><li>A form of power sharing (Empowerment) </li></ul>Delegation Not just telling people what to do
  12. 12. <ul><li>Improved Decision Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced subordinate commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Time management </li></ul><ul><li>Job enrichment </li></ul><ul><li>Development of subordinates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates learning opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ID potential leaders </li></ul></ul>Potential Advantages
  13. 13. What to Delegate <ul><li>Tasks better done by subordinate </li></ul><ul><li>Urgent, not high priority tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Tasks relevant to a subordinate’s career </li></ul><ul><li>Tasks of appropriate difficulty </li></ul><ul><li>Both pleasant and unpleasant tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Tasks not central to the manager’s role </li></ul>
  14. 14. How to Delegate <ul><li>Clear, concise expectations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Results/Objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Priorities/Deadlines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provide adequate authority, specify limits of discretion </li></ul><ul><li>Specify reporting requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What/How often/Format </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ensure subordinates accept responsibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Check for comprehension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doubts/concerns/questions </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Inform others who need to know </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor progress: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TRUST, BUT VERIFY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure subordinate receives necessary info </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide support/assistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid Reverse Delegation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Make mistakes a learning experience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opportunity to train </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What do you want next time? </li></ul></ul>How to Delegate (CONT)
  16. 16. Why We Fail to Delegate <ul><li>Need for power/control </li></ul><ul><li>Insecurity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fear of subordinate failure (Trust) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of control/Being in charge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Situational constraints </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confidential information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Manager has expertise, self-confidence, and desire to maintain high quality </li></ul>
  17. 17. Questions?