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Ales 204: Kaustav Guest Lecture on Academic Writing in Science
 

Ales 204: Kaustav Guest Lecture on Academic Writing in Science

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    Ales 204: Kaustav Guest Lecture on Academic Writing in Science Ales 204: Kaustav Guest Lecture on Academic Writing in Science Presentation Transcript

    • Scientific Article – Reading and Writing
      KaustavMajumder
      ALES-204,
      19th October, 2011
    • Organization of a Scientific Article
      An article layout
      Title
      Abstract
      Introduction
      Materials and Methods
      Results
      Discussion
      Conclusion
      Tables and Figures
      Table titles and Figure legends
      References
    • Reading a Scientific Article
      Effective reading or Selection of an article
      Title and Abstract
      How relevant the title is?
      Connection between the title and the abstract.
      Introduction
      Scan the initial paragraphs.
      Put emphasis on the concluding paragraphs.
      Understand the logical flow between earlier studies and the present one.
      Relevance of the article
      Rationale of the article
    • Reading a Scientific Article Contd..
      Tables and Figures
      Read the titles of the table and/or figure legends.
      Relationship with abstract.
      Conclusion
      Identify the achievement, correlation and the future prospects.
      Workflow of the article
      Take home messages
      Serve Your Purpose
      Acceptance or Rejection of the Article
    • Reading a Scientific Article Contd..
      Article is closely related with your purpose
      Results and Discussion
      Most important section of an article.
      Identify the novel elements discussed in this section.
      Understand the relationship and the context of the study.
      Materials and methods
      Identify the newly developed method.
      Source of the materials.
      References
      Look when it is required.
      Depth of the article
      Quality and compactness of the article
    • Critical Reading of a Scientific Article
      Type of the article
      Individual experiment type.
      Cohort or population based study.
      Randomized control and trial study.
      Review article
      Narrative
      Systematic
      Meta- analysis
    • Critical Reading of a Scientific Article contd..
      What questions does the article address?
      What was the research design? Is it appropriate?
      What are the main conclusions of the article?
      What evidence supports those conclusions?
      Do the data actually support the conclusions?
      What is the quality of the evidence?
      Why are the conclusions important?
      These questions are specifically for individual study, cohort study and random trial study
      NOT for Review article
    • Critical Reading of a Scientific Article contd..
      What questions does the article address?
      Type of questions
      Descriptive: What is there? What did the authors observe?
      Comparative: How does it compare to other organisms/animals/population? Are the findings general? Reproducibility and applicability?
      Analytical: Underlying mechanism of action or the story behind the study?
    • Critical Reading of a Scientific Article contd..
      What was the research design?
      Is it appropriate?
      The design of the study can answer the addressed question
      The statistical strength of the design and relevant statistical analysis
      Correct use of an animal model/ cell-line or proper use of a computer simulation
    • Critical Reading of a Scientific Article contd..
      What are the main conclusions of the article?
      Did the authors properly answer the questions mentioned in the abstract section?
      Relevant outcome of the study
      What evidence supports the conclusion?
      • The rationale of drawing the conclusion
      • Does the primary experiment supports the point?
    • Critical Reading of a Scientific Article contd..
      Do the data actually support the conclusions?
      Do the authors properly interpret the obtained data? – find the logical connection
      Do the data actually support/reject the hypothesis?
      Do the authors had covered required sample size to reach the statistical significance?
      Statistics is Important
    • Critical Reading of a Scientific Article contd..
      What is the quality of the evidence?
      The methods used in the study is well established
      A new method should be published on a peer-reviewed journal first..
      The methods are reproducible.
      Materials?
    • Critical Reading of a Scientific Article contd..
      Why are the conclusions important?
      Do the conclusions make a significant advance in your knowledge?
      Do the conclusions help in the advancement of future scientific research?
      Do they lead to new insights, or even new research directions?
    • Critical Reading of a Review Article
      Narrative or Classical Review
      The “traditional” or “classic” review
      Articles used in the review are chosen by the author.
      Author may be biased- Major concern.
      Systematic Review
      • Comparative analysis…most common for analytical methods
      • Should include both inclusion and exclusion criteria.
      • Should support with the scientific evidences.
    • Critical Reading of a Review Article Contd..
      Meta analysis
      • Close to systematic review.
      • Often deals with numeric data.
      • Uses statistical/mathematical methods to combine numerical data from various earlier studies
    • Writing a Scientific Article
      Writing Structure
      Analysis
      Before writing anything, Analyze Your Data!
      Identify the key concepts
      Target the audience, do audience analysis.
      Indentify the actual technical material.
      Design
      Organize all information and data
      Group the key concepts.
      Structure the layout.. (Tables and figures)
    • Writing a Scientific Article Contd..
      Implementation
      Write…edit…edit…edit…
      Strive for accuracy and clarity
      Emphasize the central idea
      Identify the ‘Junks’….delete them
      Publication
      Choose the Journal
      Read the instructions to the authors.
      Maintain the style and proper format
      Select reviewers and editor.
      Submit for publication.
    • Writing a Scientific Article Contd..
      INTRODUCTION
      METHODS
      MEMORY GAME
      TITLE
      RESULTS
      REFERENCES
      MATERIALS
      ABSTRACT
      Image Courtesy: http://www.joconl.com/article/id23578
    • Publishing a Scientific Article
      Select a specific Journal
      Choose the quality of the Journal
      Impact factor
      Quality of the journal in a specific field of study
      Calculating Impact factor:
      Citation of recent items/Number of recent items. (last year Vs current year)
      Immediacy Index
      How the journal is currently operation
      Calculation of Immediacy index
      Citation of recent items/Number of recent items. (current year Vs current year)
    • Journal Databases
      General database
      PUBMED
      WEB of SCIENCE
      Specialized database
      Food and Nutrition :
      Food Science and Technology Abstracts (FSTA)
      Agricola
      CAB Abstracts
      SCOPUS
      FoodNetBase (for e-books)
      CINAHL
      EMBASE
      Natural Standard
      SCOPUS
    • Journal Databases
      Animal Science
      CAB Abstracts
      BIOSIS Previews
      AGRICULTUREnetBASE
      Knovel
      Plant Science and Soil Science
      Agricola
      Environment Complete
      CAB Abstracts
      More Plant Science Databases
    • Class Activity
      Tweet about THREE new things you learn today.
      Respond to ONE another students tweet.
      Tag #ALES204, @JessL