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Scientific Article – Reading and Writing<br />KaustavMajumder<br />ALES-204, <br />19th October, 2011<br />
Organization of a Scientific Article<br />An article layout<br />Title<br />Abstract<br />Introduction<br />Materials and ...
Reading a Scientific Article<br />Effective reading or Selection of an article <br />Title and Abstract<br />How relevant ...
Reading a Scientific Article Contd..<br />Tables and Figures<br />Read the titles of the table and/or figure legends.<br /...
Reading a Scientific Article Contd..<br />Article is closely related with your purpose<br />Results and Discussion<br />Mo...
Critical Reading of a Scientific Article<br />Type of the article<br />Individual experiment type.<br />Cohort or populati...
Critical Reading of a Scientific Article contd..<br />What questions does the article address?<br />What was the research ...
Critical Reading of a Scientific Article contd..<br />What questions does the article address?<br />Type of questions<br /...
Critical Reading of a Scientific Article contd..<br />What was the research design? <br />Is it appropriate? 	<br />The de...
Critical Reading of a Scientific Article contd..<br />What are the main conclusions of the article?	<br />Did the authors ...
Does the primary experiment supports the point?</li></li></ul><li>Critical Reading of a Scientific Article contd..<br />Do...
Critical Reading of a Scientific Article contd..<br />What is the quality of the evidence?	<br />The methods used in the s...
Critical Reading of a Scientific Article contd..<br />Why are the conclusions important?	<br />Do the conclusions make a s...
Critical Reading of a Review Article<br />Narrative or Classical Review 	<br />The “traditional” or “classic” review<br />...
Should include both inclusion and exclusion criteria.
Should support with the scientific evidences.</li></li></ul><li>Critical Reading of a Review Article Contd..<br />Meta ana...
Often deals with numeric data.
Uses statistical/mathematical methods to combine numerical data from various earlier studies </li></li></ul><li>Writing a ...
Writing a Scientific Article Contd..<br />Implementation<br />Write…edit…edit…edit…<br />Strive for accuracy and clarity<b...
Writing a Scientific Article Contd..<br />INTRODUCTION<br />METHODS<br />MEMORY GAME<br />TITLE<br />RESULTS<br />REFERENC...
Publishing a Scientific Article<br />Select a specific Journal<br />Choose the quality of the Journal<br />Impact factor<b...
Journal Databases<br />General database<br />PUBMED<br />WEB of SCIENCE<br />Specialized database<br />Food and Nutrition ...
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Ales 204: Kaustav Guest Lecture on Academic Writing in Science

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Transcript of "Ales 204: Kaustav Guest Lecture on Academic Writing in Science"

  1. 1. Scientific Article – Reading and Writing<br />KaustavMajumder<br />ALES-204, <br />19th October, 2011<br />
  2. 2. Organization of a Scientific Article<br />An article layout<br />Title<br />Abstract<br />Introduction<br />Materials and Methods<br />Results<br />Discussion<br />Conclusion<br />Tables and Figures<br />Table titles and Figure legends <br />References<br />
  3. 3. Reading a Scientific Article<br />Effective reading or Selection of an article <br />Title and Abstract<br />How relevant the title is?<br />Connection between the title and the abstract. <br />Introduction<br />Scan the initial paragraphs.<br />Put emphasis on the concluding paragraphs.<br />Understand the logical flow between earlier studies and the present one.<br />Relevance of the article <br />Rationale of the article <br />
  4. 4. Reading a Scientific Article Contd..<br />Tables and Figures<br />Read the titles of the table and/or figure legends.<br />Relationship with abstract. <br />Conclusion<br />Identify the achievement, correlation and the future prospects. <br />Workflow of the article <br />Take home messages<br />Serve Your Purpose<br />Acceptance or Rejection of the Article<br />
  5. 5. Reading a Scientific Article Contd..<br />Article is closely related with your purpose<br />Results and Discussion<br />Most important section of an article.<br />Identify the novel elements discussed in this section.<br />Understand the relationship and the context of the study.<br />Materials and methods<br />Identify the newly developed method.<br />Source of the materials.<br />References<br />Look when it is required.<br />Depth of the article <br />Quality and compactness of the article <br />
  6. 6. Critical Reading of a Scientific Article<br />Type of the article<br />Individual experiment type.<br />Cohort or population based study.<br />Randomized control and trial study.<br />Review article<br />Narrative <br />Systematic <br />Meta- analysis <br />
  7. 7. Critical Reading of a Scientific Article contd..<br />What questions does the article address?<br />What was the research design? Is it appropriate? <br />What are the main conclusions of the article?<br />What evidence supports those conclusions?<br />Do the data actually support the conclusions?<br />What is the quality of the evidence?<br />Why are the conclusions important?<br />These questions are specifically for individual study, cohort study and random trial study<br />NOT for Review article<br />
  8. 8. Critical Reading of a Scientific Article contd..<br />What questions does the article address?<br />Type of questions<br />Descriptive: What is there? What did the authors observe?<br />Comparative: How does it compare to other organisms/animals/population? Are the findings general? Reproducibility and applicability?<br />Analytical: Underlying mechanism of action or the story behind the study?<br />
  9. 9. Critical Reading of a Scientific Article contd..<br />What was the research design? <br />Is it appropriate? <br />The design of the study can answer the addressed question<br />The statistical strength of the design and relevant statistical analysis<br />Correct use of an animal model/ cell-line or proper use of a computer simulation <br />
  10. 10. Critical Reading of a Scientific Article contd..<br />What are the main conclusions of the article? <br />Did the authors properly answer the questions mentioned in the abstract section?<br />Relevant outcome of the study <br />What evidence supports the conclusion? <br /><ul><li>The rationale of drawing the conclusion
  11. 11. Does the primary experiment supports the point?</li></li></ul><li>Critical Reading of a Scientific Article contd..<br />Do the data actually support the conclusions? <br />Do the authors properly interpret the obtained data? – find the logical connection<br />Do the data actually support/reject the hypothesis?<br />Do the authors had covered required sample size to reach the statistical significance? <br />Statistics is Important<br />
  12. 12. Critical Reading of a Scientific Article contd..<br />What is the quality of the evidence? <br />The methods used in the study is well established<br />A new method should be published on a peer-reviewed journal first..<br />The methods are reproducible.<br />Materials?<br />
  13. 13. Critical Reading of a Scientific Article contd..<br />Why are the conclusions important? <br />Do the conclusions make a significant advance in your knowledge? <br />Do the conclusions help in the advancement of future scientific research? <br />Do they lead to new insights, or even new research directions?<br />
  14. 14. Critical Reading of a Review Article<br />Narrative or Classical Review <br />The “traditional” or “classic” review<br />Articles used in the review are chosen by the author.<br />Author may be biased- Major concern.<br />Systematic Review <br /><ul><li>Comparative analysis…most common for analytical methods
  15. 15. Should include both inclusion and exclusion criteria.
  16. 16. Should support with the scientific evidences.</li></li></ul><li>Critical Reading of a Review Article Contd..<br />Meta analysis <br /><ul><li>Close to systematic review.
  17. 17. Often deals with numeric data.
  18. 18. Uses statistical/mathematical methods to combine numerical data from various earlier studies </li></li></ul><li>Writing a Scientific Article<br />Writing Structure<br />Analysis<br />Before writing anything, Analyze Your Data!<br />Identify the key concepts<br />Target the audience, do audience analysis.<br />Indentify the actual technical material.<br />Design<br />Organize all information and data<br />Group the key concepts.<br />Structure the layout.. (Tables and figures)<br />
  19. 19. Writing a Scientific Article Contd..<br />Implementation<br />Write…edit…edit…edit…<br />Strive for accuracy and clarity<br />Emphasize the central idea<br />Identify the ‘Junks’….delete them <br />Publication<br />Choose the Journal<br />Read the instructions to the authors.<br />Maintain the style and proper format<br />Select reviewers and editor.<br />Submit for publication.<br />
  20. 20. Writing a Scientific Article Contd..<br />INTRODUCTION<br />METHODS<br />MEMORY GAME<br />TITLE<br />RESULTS<br />REFERENCES<br />MATERIALS<br />ABSTRACT<br />Image Courtesy: http://www.joconl.com/article/id23578<br />
  21. 21. Publishing a Scientific Article<br />Select a specific Journal<br />Choose the quality of the Journal<br />Impact factor<br />Quality of the journal in a specific field of study<br />Calculating Impact factor:<br />Citation of recent items/Number of recent items. (last year Vs current year)<br /> Immediacy Index<br />How the journal is currently operation<br />Calculation of Immediacy index<br />Citation of recent items/Number of recent items. (current year Vs current year)<br />
  22. 22. Journal Databases<br />General database<br />PUBMED<br />WEB of SCIENCE<br />Specialized database<br />Food and Nutrition : <br />Food Science and Technology Abstracts (FSTA)<br />Agricola<br />CAB Abstracts<br />SCOPUS<br />FoodNetBase (for e-books)<br />CINAHL<br />EMBASE<br />Natural Standard<br />SCOPUS<br />
  23. 23. Journal Databases<br />Animal Science<br />CAB Abstracts<br />BIOSIS Previews<br />AGRICULTUREnetBASE<br />Knovel<br />Plant Science and Soil Science<br />Agricola<br />Environment Complete<br />CAB Abstracts<br />More Plant Science Databases<br />
  24. 24. Class Activity<br />Tweet about THREE new things you learn today.<br />Respond to ONE another students tweet.<br />Tag #ALES204, @JessL<br />
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