Hydropower

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Hydro energy is simply energy that is taken from water and converted to electricity. Hydro energy can be obtained by using many methods of capture. The most common method of using energy from water is a hydroelectric dam, where water coming down through an area causes turbines to rotate and the energy is captured to run a generator.

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Hydropower

  1. 1. 1Hydro energy
  2. 2. 2Hydro Energy Hydro energy is simply energy that is taken fromwater and converted to electricity. Hydro energycan be obtained by using many methods ofcapture. The most common method of usingenergy from water is a hydroelectric dam, wherewater coming down through an area causesturbines to rotate and the energy is captured torun a generator. Power can also be generatedfrom the energy of tidal forces or wave power,which uses the energy created by waves.
  3. 3. 3Hydrologic Cycle
  4. 4. 4Hydropower to Electric PowerPotentialEnergyKineticEnergyElectricalEnergyMechanicalEnergyElectricity
  5. 5. 5Sources of Electric Power – US
  6. 6. 6Renewable Energy Sources
  7. 7. 7World Trends in Hydropower
  8. 8. 8World hydro production
  9. 9. 9World’s Largest DamsRanked by maximum power.Name Country YearMaxGenerationAnnualProductionThree Gorges China 2009 18,200 MWItaipú Brazil/Paraguay 1983 12,600 MW 93.4 TW-hrsGuri Venezuela 1986 10,200 MW 46 TW-hrsGrand Coulee United States 1942/80 6,809 MW 22.6 TW-hrsSayano Shushenskaya Russia 1983 6,400 MWRobert-Bourassa Canada 1981 5,616 MWChurchill Falls Canada 1971 5,429 MW 35 TW-hrsIron Gates Romania/Serbia 1970 2,280 MW 11.3 TW-hrs
  10. 10. 10Three Gorges Dam (China)
  11. 11. 11Three Gorges Dam Location Map
  12. 12. 12Arch DamsAldeadávila Dam (in Spain)Water ForcesWeight Forces
  13. 13. 13Gravity DamsGuri Dam (in Venezuela)Water forcesWeight Forces
  14. 14. 14Arch-Gravity damsHoover Dam (between the U.S. States of Arizona and Nevada)Hoover Dam (between the U.S. States of Arizona and Nevada)
  15. 15. 15Uses of Dams – US
  16. 16. 16Types of Hydroelectric Installation
  17. 17. 17ExampleHoover Dam (US)
  18. 18. 18Turbine DesignFrancis TurbineKaplan TurbinePelton TurbineTurgo TurbineNew Designs
  19. 19. 19Types of Hydropower Turbines
  20. 20. 20Classification of Hydro Turbines Reaction Turbines Derive power from pressure drop across turbine Totally immersed in water Angular & linear motion converted to shaft power Propeller, Francis, and Kaplan turbines Impulse Turbines Convert kinetic energy of water jet hitting buckets No pressure drop across turbines Pelton, Turgo, and crossflow turbines
  21. 21. 21Kaplan Turbine Schematic
  22. 22. 22Vertical Kaplan Turbine Setup
  23. 23. 23Horizontal Kaplan Turbine
  24. 24. 24Pelton Wheel Turbine
  25. 25. 25Turgo Turbine
  26. 26. 26Major Hydropower Producers Canada, 341,312 GWh (66,954 MW installed) USA, 319,484 GWh (79,511 MW installed) Brazil, 285,603 GWh (57,517 MW installed) China, 204,300 GWh (65,000 MW installed) Russia, 173,500 GWh (44,700 MW installed) Norway, 121,824 GWh (27,528 MW installed) Japan, 84,500 GWh (27,229 MW installed) India, 82,237 GWh (22,083 MW installed) France, 77,500 GWh (25,335 MW installed)1999 figures, including pumped-storage hydroelectricity
  27. 27. 27World Energy Sources
  28. 28. 28Problems with Hydro Electricity About 50% of the United States potential for hydroelectricenergy has been tapped. However, further advances areunlikely. The Wild and Scenic River Act and the Endangered SpeciesAct have inhibited development of some sites Silt collection in hydroelectric Dam storage volumes overtime causes maintenance issues, as well as environmentalconcerns The loss of free flowing streams and land due to floodingbehind the dam disturbs the life of species: eg – Salmon Possibility of dam failure
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