Hydro power-plant


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Hydro power-plant

  1. 1. INTRODUCTIONHYDRO POWER1) One of the most widely used renewable source of energy for generatingelectricity on large scale basis is hydropower2) The power obtained from river or ocean water is called as hydropower3) Hydropower is the renewable source of energy since water is available inlarge quantities from rain, rivers, and oceans and this is will be available forunlimited time to come
  2. 2. HISTORY- Nearly 2000 years ago the Greeks used water wheels to grind wheat intoflour- In the 1700s, hydropower was broadly used for milling of lumber and grainand for pumping irrigation water- Appleton, Wisconsin became the first operational hydroelectric generatingstation in the United States, in 1882, producing 12.5 kilowatts (kW) of power- The total electrical capacity generated was equivalent to 250 lights- The largest and last masonry dam built by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamationwas the Roosevelt Dam in Arizona between 1905-1911; its power output hasincreased from 4,500 kW to 36,000 kW- Still in use today, Niagra Falls was the first hydropower site developed for avast quantity of electricity
  3. 3. TYPES OF HYDRO POWER PLANT1) Water wheels2) Hydro power plants3) Wave energy from oceans4) Tidal energy5) Damless hydro power Based on Quantity of Water Available1) Run-off river hydro plants with pond2) Run-off river hydro plants with pond 3) Reservoir hydroelectric power plants
  4. 4. Based on the Head of Water Available1) Low head hydroelectric power plants2)Medium head hydroelectric power plants3) High head hydroelectric power plants Based on the Nature of Load 1) Base load hydroelectric power plants 2) Peak load hydroelectric power plants
  5. 5. PRINCIPLE OF HYDRO POWER PLANTWATE CYCL R EThe continuous cycle in which water changes from water vapor in theatmosphere to liquid water through condensation and precipitation and thenback to water vapor through evaporation, transpiration, and respiration Water cycle in nature: Water surface evaporation Precipitation of clouds Collected back to the oceans VAPORATION  PRECIPITION  RAIN
  6. 6. Water cycle in the hydraulic power plantWater energies: Kinetic energy , Potential energyPROCESS / STAGES 1) Water in reservoir 2) Fall in turbine blade 3) Shaft rotation 4) Electric generation 5) Flow back of water
  7. 7. COMPONENT AND WORKING OF HYDRO POWER PLANT1) Dam What is dam LocationClassification of dams Storage dams Dam structure and design Diversion dams Detention dams Overflow dams Rockfill dams Gravity dams Gravity dam
  8. 8. Storage damsTo impound waterPurpose - Irrigation - Flood control - Power generationDiversion damsFor diversionTo provide sufficient pressureDetention damsTo Minimize the effect of sudden floodsTo trap sedimentOverflow damsThey carry water discharge over their crestsRockfill damsRock instead of earthEmbankment dams hold back water by the force of gravity acting upontheir massGravity damsMost gravity dams are made from concrete, a mixture of port land cement,water, and aggregatesThey are much thicker at the base than the top
  9. 9. 2) Water reservoirPlace behind the damHeight of waterPotential energy3) Intake or control gatesGates inside of the dam.Inlet gates4) The penstockTo carries the waterControlled by the control gates5) Water turbinesConvert HYDROLIC energy to MECHANICAL energy6) GeneratorsConvert MECHANICAL energy in ELECTRICAL energy
  10. 10. 7) TransformerConverts the alternating current to high voltage current.Two coils: the supply coil and the outlet coil.Voltage required for various applications is 110V or 230V.Numbers of turns in outlet coil are double of supply coil, the voltageproduced is also double.8) TailracePipeline to drain the waterThe potential energy of water in the tailrace has been used to generateelectricity
  11. 11. CASE STUDY OF “HIRAKUND DAM”INTRODUCTIONBuilt across the Mahanadi riverLocatedabout 15 km from Sambalpur in the state of Orissa in India.HISTORY Built in 1956 Length is about (26 km) It was the first major multipurpose river valley project started after Indias independence.
  12. 12. Construction history Project was proposed by Sir M. Visveswararya Foundation stone was laid by sir HOWTHRONE LEWIS on 15 march 1946 Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru laid the first batch of concrete on 12 April 1948. The dam was completed in 1953 and was formally inaugurated by Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru on 13 January 1957 The total cost of the project was Rs. 100.02 crores (in 1957). Power generation along with agricultural irrigation started in 1956, achieving full potential in 1966 Geography Hirakund is located at 21°31′N 83°52′E21.52°N 83.87°E It has an average elevation of 160 meters (524 feet) Demographics As of 2001 India census Hirakund had a population of 26,397 Hirakund has an average literacy rate of 70%Power generationNearly about 307 MW
  13. 13. StructureThe Hirakud Dam is a composite structure of earth, concrete and masonryTen km north of Sambalpur, it is the longest major earthen dam in the worldThe main dam has an overall length of 4.8 km spanning between twohills; the Lamdungri on the left and the Chandili Dunguri on the right.It also forms the biggest artificial lake in Asia, with areservoir holding 743 km² at full capacity, with a shoreline ofover 640 km..People affected from the Dam ConstructionNearly 1.5 lakh people got affected by the Hirakudproject.Nearly 22,000 family were displaced under the Hirakuddam project,an amount of Rs 12 crores was provided for payment ofcompensation to the affected people
  14. 14. DetailsTotal length of Dam : 15,748 Feet or 4800 MeterConcrete Dam : 3,937 Feet or 1200 MeterEarth Dam : 11,811 Feet or 3600 MeterLeft Dyke : 32,274 Feet or 9837 MeterRight Dyke : 35,299 Feet or 10759 Meter Maximum Height of Masonary Dam :200 Feet or 61 Meter Maximum Height of Earth Dam :195 Feet or 59.5 Meter Catchment Area : 83,400 km² Total Power Capacity :275.5 MW
  15. 15. SALIENT FEATURES (A) HYDROLOGICAL :-(a) Catchment - 83400 Sq. Kms (32200 sq miles)(b) Rain fall(mm) - Original Revised (B) DAM AND RESERVOIR Top dam level R.L 195.680M. (R.L.642 ft.) Dead storage level R.L 197.830 M (R.L 590 Ft) (c) SPILLWAY Spillway capacity 42450 cumecs (15 lakhs cusecs) Crest level - R.L. 185.928 M ( R.L. 610 ft.) (D) POWER GENERATION: Installed Capicity At Burla - 5 x 37.5 - 2x24.0 = 235.50 MW At Chiplima - 3x24 = 72.00 MW Total = 307.50 MW
  16. 16. ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES OF HYDRO POWER PLANTAdvantages1) No fuel required2) Cost of electricity is constant3) No air-pollution is created4) Long life5) Cost of generation of electricity6) Can easily work during high peak daily loads7) Irrigation of farms8) Water sports and gardens9) Prevents floods
  17. 17. DISADVANTAGES1) Disrupts the aquatic ecosystems2) Disruption in the surrounding areas3) Requires large areas4) Large scale human displacement5) Very high capital cost or investment6) High quality construction7) Site specific8) Effects on environment9) Safety of the dams