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ppt on hydro power. how electricity can be generated by various methods using water

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  1. 1. • How Hydropower Works • Attributes of Hydropower • Forms of Hydropower •Sizes of Hydro Plants
  2. 2. • TTyyppeess ooff hhyyddrrooppoowweerr ppllaannttss • Major components • TTyyppeess ooff hhyyddrroo ppllaanntt turbines • Hydro turbine parameters •Cost •HHyyddrrooeelleeccttrriicc ppoowweerr ppaanntt
  3. 3. Hydropower is the leading source of renewable energy. Provides more than 97% of all electricity generated by renewable sources.
  4. 4. The sun provides the water by evaporation from the sea, and will keep on doing so. The water on the earth is continuously replenished by precipitation. The fall and movement of water is part of a continuous natural cycle called the hydrologic cycle. Wh y is it renewable ?
  5. 5. Hydropower plants capture the energy of falling water to generate electricity. A dam impounds water to form a reservoir and raises the water level to create head. Reservoir Power Water from the reservoir flows due to gravity to drive the turbine. Power generated is transmitted over power lines. Turbine Turbine is connected to a generator.
  6. 6. •Emissions-free •Renewable resource with high conversion efficiency to electricity ( 80+ %). •Scalable from 10 kWe to 10,000 MWe •Low operating and maintenance costs •Long lifetime – 50+ years typical
  7. 7. •Frequently involves impoundment of large amounts of water •Variable output – dependent on rainfall and snowfall •Impacts on river flows and aquatic ecology •Migration of people •High initial capital costs •Long lead time in construction of mega-sized projects
  8. 8. Waterwheels Hydroelectric used for hundreds of years to power mills and machinery ity Dam less hydro usually referring to hydroelectri c dams, or run-of-the-river setups. which captures the kinetic energy in rivers, streams and oceans
  9. 9. Tidal power which captures energy from the tides in horizontal direction Wave power Marine current power which captures the kinetic energy from marine currents. which uses the energy in waves
  10. 10. Pico HP -Up to 10kW Capacity more than 100 MW Capacity 15MW - 100 MW Capacity above 1MW Small HP Micro HP Large Medium HP Mini HP Capacity 300kW to 1MW Capacity 0kW to 300kW
  11. 11. Hydro plants can be classified according to water flow/storage characteristics Impoundment Diversion Pump storage Types
  12. 12. Water in the reservoir is located at the Reservo height above the rest of the dam structure. ir …built at location where the height of the river is sufficiently high so as to get maximum possible potential energy from water. Dam Passages through which water is conveyed from dam to power house. Inlet water ways A building that houses turbines, generators and other auxiliaries . Power-house Trail race A passage for discharging water leaving the turbine
  13. 13. Penstock - closed pressure pipes Tunnel – made by cutting mountains Spillways - provide discharge of surplus water Inlet water ways include … Tunnel Spillways
  14. 14. Impulse Reactio n Reaction Pelton turbines are suited to high head, low flow applications . …contains a runner that has water passages through it formed by curved vanes or blades having an output of 750 MW. Kaplan turbines are well suited to situations in which there is a low head and a large amount of discharge.
  15. 15. Power Discharge Head Specific speed Efficiency
  16. 16. Hydropower is an efficient way to generate electricity. Modern hydro turbines can convert as much as 90% of the available energy into electricity. The best fossil fuel plants are only about 50% efficient.
  17. 17. Escudero Hydroelectric Power Plant
  18. 18. Impoundment HP Plant, Ashland, NH
  19. 19. Diversion HP plant, Campton, NH
  20. 20. Hydro Plant: reservoir Kenyir Bersia
  21. 21. Hydro Plant: dams Kenyir Bersia
  22. 22. Hydro Plant: tunnel Pergau
  23. 23. Hydro Plant: sPillways Pergau Kenyir Temengor
  24. 24. Hydro Plant: turbine-generator Woh : Generator Pergau : turbine pit
  25. 25. Hydro Plant: Pelton turbine
  26. 26. Hydro Plant: Francis turbine
  27. 27. Hydro Plant: KaPlan turbine
  28. 28. wwaatteerr wwHHeeeell
  29. 29. hydroelectricity
  30. 30. hydrokinetic turbine
  31. 31. tidal power
  32. 32. wave power
  33. 33. the hydro wing
  34. 34. Agus V Agus II Maria Cristina Agus VII
  35. 35. Mahagnao Burauen, Leyte
  36. 36. General Facts Video/animation OTHERS: Philippine HP 01 02 • x.php? option=com_content&task =view&id=7 03 •http://www.hydropower .org/publications/leaflets _and_factsheets.html 04 • 7658/hydro/hydhistoryht.html 05 •http://science.howstuff htm 06 • ids/energy.cfm? page=hydropower_home-basics 07 •http://www.youtub 08 •http://www.eas.asu.ed u/~holbert/eee463/hydr oelectric.html 09 • urses/APEnvSci/course %20files/multimedia/lesson68/ani mations/4e_hydroelectric_power. html 10 • ec/demo/HydroelectricDam. html 11 • u/hyhowworks.html 12 • earthguide/diagrams/waterc ycle/index.html 13 • /escudero.html 14 • /surge/p77.htm 15 •http://www.power-technology. com/project s/sanlorenzo/ 16 •http://www.napocor.g 17 • hydro-philippines.htm 18 • ataan-nuclear-ps.html •