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  2. 2. INTRODUCTION  Hydropower is the most significant renewable energy source. Hydropower is the only renewable energy source that is in some measure competitive with fossil fuels. Hydropower is the force of energy of moving water. Hydropower is clean renewable energy source that doesn't pollute environment. Hydropower uses the Earth's water cycle to generate electricity because movement of water as it flows downstream creates kinetic energy that can be then converted into electricity.
  3. 3. INTRO… CONTD..  Hydropower, hydraulic power, hydrokinetic power or water power, has been exploited for millenia.  The amount of power that can be obtained from a stream depends on:  - the amount of water flow  - the height which the water falls (head)  - the efficiency of the plant to convert mechanical energy to electrical energy.  The most common type of hydroelectric power plant uses a dam on a river to store water in a reservoir. But hydroelectric power doesn't necessarily require a large dam. Some hydroelectric power plants just use a small canal to channel the river water through a turbine.
  4. 4. HISTORY OF HYDROPOWER  Hydropower is one of the oldest sources of energy. It was used thousands of years ago to turn a paddle wheel for purposes such as grinding grain. Our Nation's first industrial use of hydropower to generate electricity occurred in 1880, when 16 brush-arc lamps were powered using a water turbine at the Wolverine Chair Factory in Grand Rapids, Michigan.  In the late 19th century, hydropower became a source for generating electricity. The first hydroelectric power plant was built at Niagara Falls in 1879. In 1881, street lamps in the city of Niagara Falls were powered by hydropower. In 1882 the world’s first hydroelectric power plant began operating in the United States in Appleton, Wisconsin.
  5. 5. DIFFERENT FORMS OF HYDROPOWER  Riverine hydropower  A conventional dammed - hydro facility is the most common type of hydroelectric power generation.  Conventional hydroelectric, referring to hydroelectric dams.  Run-of-the-river hydroelectricity, which captures the kinetic energy in rivers or streams, without the use of dams.  Pumped-storage hydroelectricity, to pump up water, and use its head to generate in times of demand.
  6. 6. CONTD…  Pumped-storage  This method produces electricity to supply high peak demands by moving water between reservoirs at different elevations.  At times of low electrical demand, excess generation capacity is used to pump water into the higher reservoir. When there is higher demand, water is released back into the lower reservoir through a turbine.  Pumped-storage schemes currently provide the most commercially important means of large- scale grid energy storage.  Run-of-the-river  Run-of-the-river hydroelectric stations are those with small or no reservoir capacity, so that the water
  7. 7. CONTD…  Marine energy  Marine current power, which captures the kinetic energy from marine currents.  Osmotic power, which channels river water into a container separated from sea water by a semi-permeable membrane.  Ocean thermal energy, which exploits the temperature difference between deep and shallow water.  Wave power, the use ocean surface waves to generate power.
  8. 8. CONTD..  Tide : makes use of the daily rise and fall of ocean water due to tides; highly predictable.  Tidal power, which captures energy from the tides in horizontal direction.  Tidal stream power, usage of stream generators, somewhat similar to that of a wind turbine.  Tidal barrage power, usage of a tidal dam.  Dynamic tidal power, utilizing large areas to generate head  Underground: makes use of a large natural height difference between two waterways, such as a waterfall or mountain lake.
  9. 9. TIDAL POWER  Tides are caused by the gravitational pull of the moon and sun, and the rotation of the Earth. Near shore, water levels can vary up to 40 feet due to tides.  A large enough tidal range — 10 feet — is needed to produce tidal energy economically. Dam of the Tidal Power Plant on the Estuary of the Rance River, Bretagne, France
  10. 10. TIDAL BARRAGES  A simple generation system for tidal plants involves a dam, known as a barrage, across an inlet. Sluice gates (gates commonly used to control water levels and flow rates) on the barrage allow the tidal basin to fill on the incoming high tides and to empty through the turbine system on the outgoing tide, also known as the ebb tide. Tidal turbines are basically wind turbines in the water that can be located anywhere there is strong tidal flow. Because water is about 800 times denser than air, tidal turbines have to be much sturdier than wind turbines. Tidal turbines are heavier and more expensive to build but capture more energy.
  11. 11. WAVE POWER THE PELAMIS WAVE POWER DEVICE IN USE IN PORTUGAL Source: Marine and Hydrokinetic Technologies Program, U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (Public Domain)
  12. 12. WAVEENERGYSITE  Source: Adapted from NEED Underwater Wave Energy Device Source: Tuscanit, Wikimedia Commons author (GNU Free Documentation License) (Public Domain) Wave Energy Site
  13. 13.  One way to harness wave energy is to bend or focus the waves into a narrow channel, increasing their power and size. The waves can then be channeled into a catch basin or used directly to spin turbines.
  14. 14. PRINCIPLE OF HYDROPOWER GENERATION  Hydropower is generated from the water flowing in the river or oceans. There are two water cycles involved in the generation of electricity : -  1) Water cycle in nature. 2) Water cycle in the hydraulic power plant : 2) Water cycle in the hydraulic power plant .  Source: National Energy Education Development Project (Public Domain) water turbines may depend on the impulse of the working fluid on the turbine blades or the reaction between the working fluid and the blades to turn the turbine shaft which in Source: National Energy Education Development Project (Public Domain)
  17. 17. 1. Water in a reservoir behind a hydropower dam flows through an intake screen, which filters out large debris, but allows fish to pass through. 2. The water travels through a large pipe, called a penstock. 3. The force of the water spins a turbine at a low speed, allowing fish to pass through unharmed. 4. Inside the generator, the shaft spins coils of copper wire inside a ring of magnets. This creates an electric field, producing electricity. 5. Electricity is sent to a switchyard, where a transformer increases the voltage, allowing it to travel through the electric grid. 6. Water flows out of the penstock into the downstream river.
  18. 18. HOW HYDROPOWER WORKS  Hydropower plants capture the energy of falling water to generate electricity. A turbine converts the kinetic energy of falling water into mechanical energy. Then a generator converts the mechanical energy from the turbine into electrical energy.
  19. 19. Mechanical Energy Is Harnessed from Moving Water  The amount of available energy in moving water is determined by its flow or fall.  In either instance, the water flows through a pipe, or penstock, then pushes against and turns blades in a turbine to spin a generator to produce electricity. In a run-of-the-river system, the force of the current applies the needed pressure, while in a storage system, water is accumulated in reservoirs created by dams, then released as needed to generate electricity.
  20. 20.  Most hydroelectric power comes from the potential energy of dammed water. The power extracted from the water depends on the volume and on the difference in height between the source and the water's outflow. This height difference is called the head. The amount of potential energy in water is proportional to the head.  Most hydroelectric power comes from the potential energy of dammed water. The power extracted from the water depends on the volume and on the difference in height between the source and the water's outflow. This height difference is called the head. The amount of potential energy in water is proportional to the head.
  21. 21. Here are two pictures of the actual generators in hydroelectric power plants.
  22. 22. HOW MUCH ELECTRICITY CAN A HYDROELECTRIC PLANT MAKE?  How Far the Water Falls. The farther the water falls, the more power it has. Generally, the distance that the water falls depends on the size of the dam. The higher the dam, the farther the water falls and the more power it has. Scientists would say that the power of falling water is "directly proportional" to the distance it falls.  Amount of Water Falling. More water falling through the turbine will produce more power. The amount of water available depends on the amount of water flowing down the river. Bigger rivers have more flowing water and can produce more energy. Power is also "directly proportional" to river flow. A river with twice the amount of flowing water as another
  23. 23. MATHEMATICS  Engineers have found that we can calculate the power of a dam using the following formula:  Power = (Height of Dam) x (River Flow) x (Efficiency) / 11.8  Power  The electric power in kilowatts (one kilowatt equals 1,000 watts).  Height of Dam  The distance the water falls measured in feet.  River Flow  The amount of water flowing in the river measured in cubic feet per second.  Efficiency  How well the turbine and generator convert the power of falling water into electric power. For older, poorly maintained hydroplants this might be 60% (0.60) while for newer, well operated plants this might be as high as 90% (0.90).  11.8  Converts units of feet and seconds into kilowatts.
  24. 24. CONTD..  For the dam in an area, lets say a turbine and generator with an efficiency of 80%.  Then the power for dam will be:  Power = (10 feet) x (500 cubic feet per second) x (0.80) / 11.8 = 339 kilowatts  To get an idea what 339 kilowatts means, let's see how much electric energy can be made in a year.  Since electric energy is normally measured in kilowatt-hours, multiply the power from dam by the number of hours in a year.  Electric Energy = (339 kilowatts) x (24 hours per day) x (365 days per year) = 2,969,000 kilowatt hours.  The average annual residential energy use in the U.S. is about 3,000 kilowatt-hours for each person. So, figure out how many people that dam could serve by dividing the annual energy production by 3,000.  People Served = 2,969,000 kilowatts-hours / 3,000 kilowatt-hours per person) = 990 people.  So here local irrigation or recreation dam could provide enough renewable energy to meet the residential needs of 990 people if added a turbine and generator.
  25. 25. The photo shows the Alexander Hydroelectric Plant on the Wisconsin River, a medium-sized plant that produces enough electricity to serve about 8,000 people.
  26. 26. HYDROELECTRIC POWER GENERATION EFFICIENCY  Smaller plants with output powers less than 5 MW may have efficiencies between 80 and 85 %.  Pmax =½ηρQv2 where v is the velocity of the water flow and Q is the volume of water flowing through the turbine per second. Q is given by : Q = A v where A is the swept area of the turbine blades.  Thus the power generated by one cubic metre of water flowing at one metre per second through a turbine with 100% efficiency will be 0.5 kW or slightly less taking into account the inefficacies in the system.  To generate the same power with the same volume of water from a run of river installation the speed of the water flow should be 4.5 m/sec.
  27. 27. CALCULATION OF EFFICIENCY  A hydroelectric power plant operates under the following conditions: Water flow rate: 1.25 m3/s River inlet: 1 atm., 4.7°C Discharge: 1 atm., 5.1°C, 254 m below intake. Assuming that water inlet and discharge ducts have the same areas, and that no heat is transferred to or absorbed from the surroundings. Given: acceleration of gravity = 9.81m/s2 Heat Capacity of Water = 4.17 kJ/(kg.K)  Solution : - 1.25 m³ of water flows. density of water = 0.998 g/cm³ = 998 kg/m³ 1.25m³ x 998 kg/m³ = 1248 kg PE of the water is 1248 kg x 9.81 x 254 = 3.108e6 joules E lost due to heating is E = 4.17 kJ/(kg.K) x 1248 kg x 0.4K = 2082 kJ Subtracting E gained = 3108 kJ - 2082 kJ = 1026 kJ eff = 1026/3108 = 33%
  28. 28. PRESENT SCENARIO IN INDIA  India is blessed with immense amount of hydro-electric potential and ranks 5th in terms of exploitable hydropotential on global scenario.  Present Hydro Capacity:- 36497.76 MW (As on 31.10.2008)  The sector wise Hydro Capacity as on 30.10.2008 are as under:  • Central : 8592.00 MW  • State : 26825.76 MW  • Private : 1230.00 MW  India is endowed with economically exploitable and viable hydro potential assessed to be about 84,000 MW at 60% load factor (1,48,701 MW installed capacity). In addition, 6780 MW in terms of installed capacity from Small, Mini, and Micro Hydel schemes have been assessed.
  29. 29. Name Location Operator Babail Uttar Pradesh Uttar Pradesh Jal Vidyut Nigam Ltd Bhandardara-1 Maharashtra Dodson-Lindblom Hydro Power Pvt Ltd Belka Uttar Pradesh Uttar Pradesh Jal Vidyut Nigam Ltd Chenani-1 Jammu & Kashmir Jammu & Kashmir Power Development Corp Bhatgar Maharashtra Maharashtra State Power Generation Co Ltd Indira Sagar Madhya Pradesh Narmada Hydroelectric Development Corp Ltd Little Ranjit West Bengal West Bengal State Electricity Distribution Co Ltd
  30. 30. WORLD HYDRO POWER - OVERVIEW  Worldwide the total hydro capacity in operation is 807GW excluding pump storage.  Annual hydro production currently stands at more than 3030TWh per year.  There is at least 150GW of hydro under construction in 106 countries worldwide.  Hydro is contributing more than 50% of national electricity supply in about 60 countries.  In all parts of the world, except Australia, electricity production from hydropower has increased.  In Asia hydropower has risen from 933 TWH per
  31. 31. CONTD..  Hydroelectric power provides almost one-fifth of the world's electricity.  China, Canada, Brazil, the United States, and Russia were the five largest producers of hydropower in 2004.  One of the world's largest hydro plants is at Three Gorges on China's Yangtze River. The reservoir for this facility started filling in 2003.  The biggest hydro plant in the United States is located at the Grand Coulee Dam on the Columbia River in northern Washington. More than 70 percent of the electricity made in Washington State is produced by hydroelectric
  32. 32. CONTD…  Asia has the greatest amount of hydro development under way. At present the Hydro capacity under construction has increased by about 27%.  In the United States today, hydropower projects provide 81 percent of the nation’s renewable electricity generation and about 10 percent of the nation’s total electricity.  Canada, the leading country in North America is producing about 60% of electricity needs from hydropower and was described as, ―Emerging Energy Superpower,‖ at recent G8
  34. 34. An experimental OTEC Plant on the Kona Coast of Hawaii, U.S.A. Source: U.S. Department of Energy (Public Domain)
  35. 35. THE OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) SYSTEM  The energy from the sun heats the surface water of the ocean. In tropical regions, the surface water can be much warmer than the deep water. This temperature difference can be used to produce electricity. The OTEC system must have a large temperature difference of at least 77°F to operate, limiting its use to tropical regions.  Hawaii has experimented with OTEC since the 1970s. There is no large- scale operation of OTEC today, mainly because there are many challenges. The OTEC systems are not very energy efficient. Pumping water is a major engineering challenge.  Electricity generated by the system must be transported to land. It will probably be 10 to 20 years before the technology is available to produce and transmit electricity economically from OTEC systems.  EIA does not forecast the commercialization of OTEC systems in its most recent Annual Energy Outlook. The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy has supported OTEC technology research and development, and plans to have an OTEC resource assessment completed in 2012.
  36. 36. FISH LADDER AT THE BONNEVILLE DAM ON THE COLUMBIA RIVER SEPARATING WASHINGTON AND OREGON A dam to create a reservoir may obstruct migration of fish to their upstream spawning areas. A reservoir and operation of the dam can also change the natural water temperatures, chemistry, flow characteristics, and silt loads, all of which can lead to significant changes in the ecology (living organisms and the environment) and rocks and land forms of the river upstream and downstream
  37. 37. World-wide, about 20% of all electricity is generated by hydropower. Hydropower provides about 10% of the electricity in the United States. The United States is the second largest producer of hydropower in the world. Canada is number one.
  38. 38. Recent data shows that in Wisconsin hydropower is produced for less than one cent per kwh. This is about one-half the cost of nuclear and one-third the cost of fossil fuel. Hydropower does not experience rising or unstable fuel costs. From 1985 to 1990 the cost of operating a hydropower plant grew at less than the rate of inflation. Only 2,400 of the nation's 80,000 existing dams are used to generate power.
  39. 39. ADVANTAGES  It's a clean fuel source; doesn't pollute the air like po wer plants that burn fossil fuels, such as coal or natural gas.  It's a renewable power source.  Hydropower is generally available as needed. Also our engineers can control the flow of moving water through the turbines to produce electricity on demand.  Offer a variety of recreational activities such as ;
  40. 40. DISADVANTAGES  Impact water quality and flow; can cause low dissolved oxygen levels in water; harmful to riparian habitats.  Hydropower plants can be impacted by drought. When water is not available, can’t produce electricity.  New hydropower facilities impact the local environment and compete with other uses for the land which may be more highly valued than electricity generation.
  41. 41. Critical Danger Zones at Dams A Hazard area marked by buoy lines F Slippery surfaces on dam structures and shorelines B Sudden Water discharge from dam gates G Submerged hazards above and below dams C Strong, unpredictable currents above and below dams H Open spillways which may not be visible from above the dam D Sudden turbulent discharges from automatically operated power house generators I Debris passing over or through the dam E Deceiving reverse currents below spillways J Ice that forms near a dam is often thin and unsafe
  42. 42. CONCLUSION  We can reduce our exposure to future fuel shortages and price increases, and help reduce air pollution.  There are many factors to consider when buying a system, but with the right site and equipment, careful planning, and attention to regulatory and permit requirements, small hydropower systems can provide you a clean, reliable source of power for years to come..
  43. 43. BIBLIOGRAPHY  "Hydroelectric power - energy from falling water―. Clara.net.  "Hydroelectric Power". Water Encyclopedia.  "History of Hydropower". U.S. Department of Energy.  Renewables 2011 Global Status Report, page 25, Hydropower, REN21, published 2011, accessed 2011- 11-7.  National Register of Large Dams – 2009.  Website of Central Water Commission (www.cwc.nic.in).  Website of Ministry of Power (www.powermin.nic.in)  Website of Ministry of Water Resources (www.mowr.nic.in)