Hydro Electric Power Sam C


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  • A constant supply of fast-flowing water may be obtained from evenly spread rainfall throughout the year Location must be a valley so that a dam can be formed. This can also provide a water supply as water can be stored in large reservoirs Bedrock must be stable and impermeable Lots of precipitation Initial costs are high so there must be a high demand to ensure profitability Easy ability to transport the energy
  • Must be narrow and deep Strong and impermeable rocks Large head of water Non-residential, space for hydro plant Lack of restrictions
  • Investment needed to build new power stations and dams, install turbines, pylons/cables needed for transport if electricity -but once up and running, the “natural, continual, renewable” flow of water makes its electricity cheaper than fossil fuels There are a lot of requirements for HEP to work and not many places fit these The plant needs to run at full capacity to be economic so need to be where there is high demand. Often are set up near aluminum smelters which use up the available energy Diagram: as you can see a lot of advanced technology and construction used so initial costs are very high
  • It is the most widely used renewable energy source, and despite the disadvantages and the many requirements it needs it can be slightly adapted in size. Many developing countries are using HEP on a small scale. Due to creation of reservoirs areas cleared and where new reservoirs drown vegetation the surrounding lakes can become more acidic and anaerobic Flood risk – if they overflow
  • Hydro Electric Power Sam C

    1. 1. Hydro-electric Power Energy
    2. 2. What is it? <ul><li>Renewable form of energy that harnesses fast-flowing water with a sufficient head </li></ul><ul><li>HEP supplies 20% of world electricity. </li></ul><ul><li>Norway produces almost all of its electricity from HEP </li></ul><ul><li>Iceland & Austria produce over 70% of their electricity requirements from hydro plants. </li></ul>
    3. 3. How it works
    4. 4. Location Requirements <ul><li>River regime </li></ul><ul><li>Relief </li></ul><ul><li>Geology </li></ul><ul><li>Climate </li></ul><ul><li>Market Demand </li></ul><ul><li>Transport facilities </li></ul>
    5. 5. Site Requirements <ul><li>Local valley shape </li></ul><ul><li>Local geology </li></ul><ul><li>Lake potential </li></ul><ul><li>Local land use </li></ul><ul><li>Local planning </li></ul>
    6. 6. Things to consider <ul><li>Initial cost is very high </li></ul><ul><li>Not suitable everywhere </li></ul><ul><li>Markets critical </li></ul>
    7. 7. Good or bad? <ul><li>Clean </li></ul><ul><li>Renewable </li></ul><ul><li>Large or small scale </li></ul><ul><li>Large areas of vegetation cleared </li></ul><ul><li>Acidification of lakes </li></ul><ul><li>Wildlife habitats and agricultural land lost </li></ul><ul><li>Displacement of people </li></ul><ul><li>Flood risk </li></ul><ul><li>Increased earthquake activity </li></ul>
    8. 8. Example – Large Scale <ul><li>China – The Three Gorges Dam </li></ul><ul><li>The dam over 2 km long, 100km wide </li></ul><ul><li>The lake 600km long </li></ul><ul><li>Over 1 million will be displaced </li></ul><ul><li>Yangtze provides 66% of China’s rice and contains 400 million people </li></ul><ul><li>Yangtze drains 1.8 millions km2 and discharges 700km3 of water annually </li></ul>
    9. 9. China – The Three Gorges Dam <ul><li>Generates 22,000 megawatts of electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce China’s dependency on coal </li></ul><ul><li>Protect 10 million people from flooding </li></ul><ul><li>Improved transport on the river </li></ul><ul><ul><li>25% decrease in shipping cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased traffic capacity 6 times </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Generated thousands of jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Alerted government about pollution in the river </li></ul>
    10. 10. China – The Three Gorges Dam <ul><li>1.2 million people had to be moved to make place for dam </li></ul><ul><li>Animal habitats destroyed – Siberian Crane/ White Flag Dolphin </li></ul><ul><li>Sediment problems –silt carried by river deposited in reservoir </li></ul><ul><li>Area prone to landslides and on seismic fault </li></ul>
    11. 11. Summary <ul><li>Currently working in (on various scales): Norway, Austria, Scotland, Nepal, India, China </li></ul><ul><li>Good because it can provide electricity for a lot of people if located in the right place continuously (as it is renewable) </li></ul><ul><li>Bad because high initial cost and very damaging to surrounding environment (habitats, soil, displacement of people) </li></ul><ul><li>If can be used (enough investment and right conditions) it can be very effective </li></ul>