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Feasibility Report of Small Hydroelectric Power Plant
Semester Project
Sulaman Muhammad
FA08-EPE-124
Submitted to: Engr. N...
Feasibility report of Small Hydroelectric power plant
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Feasibility report of Small Hydroelectric power plant
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Abstract
The aim of this project is to make the feasibility...
Feasibility report of Small Hydroelectric power plant
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Table of Contents
1. Energy crises in Pakistan-------------...
Feasibility report of Small Hydroelectric power plant
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CHAPTER
1
Energy Crises & Pakistan
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Cau...
Feasibility report of Small Hydroelectric power plant
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1.1. Introduction:
An energy crisis is any great shortfall ...
Feasibility report of Small Hydroelectric power plant
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1.2. Causes of Energy Crises:
 Growing Energy Demand over ...
Feasibility report of Small Hydroelectric power plant
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iv). Unemployment: By closure of industrial units and less ...
Feasibility report of Small Hydroelectric power plant
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Fig: shows the difference between supply and demand of elec...
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Fig: shows the generation of power from different sources ...
Feasibility report of Small Hydroelectric power plant
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plants, large coal fired plants, wind farms and solar plan...
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CHAPTER
2
How electricity can be produced from
mini power ...
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2.1 Introduction:
Hydroelectricity systems generate electr...
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2.3 Benefits of hydro system:
 Cut your carbon footprint:...
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Maintenance costs vary but are usually low as hydro system...
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Types of hydropower turbines:
The timeline of different tu...
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Fig: show different types of hydroelectric turbines
A. Imp...
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Fig: shows the design and working of pelton turbine
D. Sma...
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Turgo 50 < H < 250 50 < H < 750
Fig: shows the use of diff...
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CHAPTER
3
Site Information
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Site infor...
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3.1 Introduction:
The project of mini hydroelectric power ...
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Fig: Shows the site of project and intake from main canal
...
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3.4 Geology:
Malakand is about 2705 feet above sea level. ...
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CHAPTER
4
Power potential
4.1 Estimation of data
4.2 Calcu...
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4.1 Estimation of data
Flow of water
The flow of water is ...
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4.2 Calculations
Estimated data
Volume of water = 1.5 m3
/...
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P = (1500 kg × 9.18) × (60 m) × (0.85)
P = 702270 W
P = 70...
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Total power in 1 year
P = 702.27 × 8766
P = 6156098.82 KW
...
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References
Books:
1) Principles of power system By V.K Meh...
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Feasibility Report of Small Hydroelectric Power Plant

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The aim of this project is to make the feasibility report of small
hydroelectric power generating station in small village of district Malakand, KPK, Pakistan. Required data (available head, flow of water, density etc.) was collected during site visit, through which appropriate turbine and capacity of was plant was calculated.

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Feasibility Report of Small Hydroelectric Power Plant

  1. 1. Feasibility Report of Small Hydroelectric Power Plant Semester Project Sulaman Muhammad FA08-EPE-124 Submitted to: Engr. Naseer Khan Department of Electrical Engineering COMSATS Institute of Information & Technology Pakistan October 07, 2011
  2. 2. Feasibility report of Small Hydroelectric power plant Page | 2
  3. 3. Feasibility report of Small Hydroelectric power plant Page | 3 Abstract The aim of this project is to make the feasibility report of small hydroelectric power generating station in small village of district Malakand, KPK, Pakistan. Required data (available head, flow of water, density etc.) was collected during site visit, through which appropriate turbine and capacity of was plant was calculated.
  4. 4. Feasibility report of Small Hydroelectric power plant Page | 4 Table of Contents 1. Energy crises in Pakistan---------------------------------------------- 08 1.1. Introduction------------------------------------------------------ 09 1.2. Causes of energy crises --------------------------------------- 10 1.3. Consequences of energy crises ------------------------------- 10 1.4. Installed capacity----------------------------------------------- 11 1.5. Power vision in Pakistan--------------------------------------- 13 1.6. Conclusion ------------------------------------------------------- 13 2. How electricity can be produced from small power plant---------- 15 2.1. Introduction ------------------------------------------------------ 16 2.2. How do hydropower system works --------------------------- 16 2.3. Benefits of hydro system --------------------------------------- 17 2.4. Is hydro system sustainable for homes ----------------------- 17 2.5. Cost & saving ---------------------------------------------------- 17 2.6. Hydro turbines --------------------------------------------------- 18 3. Site Information ---------------------------------------------------------- 23 3.1. Introduction ------------------------------------------------------- 24 3.2. Site information-------------------------------------------------- 24 3.3. Access to site ----------------------------------------------------- 25 3.4. Geology ------------------------------------------------------------ 26 3.5. Hydrology--------------------------------------------------------- 26 3.6. Preliminary Layout ---------------------------------------------- 26 4. Power Potential----------------------------------------------------------- 27 4.1. Estimation of data ----------------------------------------------- 28 4.2. Calculations------------------------------------------------------ 29 4.3. Power output at different periods of time-------------------- 30 5. References ----------------------------------------------------------------- 32
  5. 5. Feasibility report of Small Hydroelectric power plant Page | 5 CHAPTER 1 Energy Crises & Pakistan 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Causes of energy crises 1.3 Consequences of energy crises 1.4 Installed capacity 1.5 Power Vision in Pakistan 1.6 Conclusion
  6. 6. Feasibility report of Small Hydroelectric power plant Page | 6 1.1. Introduction: An energy crisis is any great shortfall (or price rise) in the supply of energy resources to an economy. It usually refers to the shortage of oil and additionally to electricity or other natural resources. The crisis often has effects on the rest of the economy, with many recessions being caused by an energy crisis in some form. In particular, the production costs of electricity rise, which raises manufacturing costs. For the consumer, the price of gasoline (petrol) and diesel for cars and other vehicles rises, leading to reduced consumer confidence and spending, higher transportation costs and general price rising. Pakistan has been facing an unprecedented energy crisis since the last few years. The problem becomes more severe during summers. However, this winter was no different. During the peak crisis there was a power outage of 3-4 hours every day. Those without generators and UPS faced tremendous problems. The prices of both continued to increase due to a sharp increase in their demand. Almost two years ago the then WAPDA chairman who happens to be a caretaker minister admitted that WAPDA cannot meet the current demand for electricity. It’s surprising that such a senior and experienced person took so long to find this out. On top of that the government which talked about Pakistan’s supposedly booming economy failed to understand the gravity of the situation. General Musharraf (R) after becoming Chief Executive used to talk about building dams especially Kalabagh Dam. This was one of the many promises he failed to keep. Even after that very few power plants have been set up to meet the demand for electricity. During the second government of Benazir some independent power plants were set up. Had they not been setup then we would have had a much bigger crisis with life almost coming to a standstill. I come from the software industry which has been badly hit by the present power crisis. On an average the generator at my office is on for three hours. Our work is not much affected but overall the company’s operating expenses have increased. The policy makers of Pakistan have so far failed to understand one thing. They do talk about making dams and setting up nuclear power plants but why do they not understand the importance and benefits of alternate energy sources such as solar, windmill energy etc. They are cheap and quick methods for producing electricity. Pakistan is a very blessed country because solar energy is available in most cities all year round similarly wind energy is readily available in the coastal areas. These energy sources if tapped can be of great help in reducing the current demand supply gap. Pakistan is facing power shortage, natural crisis and oil crisis. In a report it is claimed that Pakistan has faced 1000 to 2000 MW shortage of power. And it will likely face 3000MW next year. Pakistan is facing 80 million tons of oil shortageaccording to its need. And is lacking behind the needs of natural gas at about 27 million ton of energy in current year and this ratio will raise in upcoming years.
  7. 7. Feasibility report of Small Hydroelectric power plant Page | 7 1.2. Causes of Energy Crises:  Growing Energy Demand over the years there is greater need of energy because of: • Increase in population, • Enhancement in lifestyle • Industrial and agricultural growth • Greater transportation needs  Lack of proactive and integrated planning for production of energy: Pakistan has had wider potentials to tap energy, however, due to lack of any integrated/proactive planning, very less number of power producing plant were installed to meet futuristic demands. Resultantly, over the years, the gap between energy demand and supply drastically grew and now against demand of 20000 MW, we are having around 11500 MW.  Imbalanced energy mix: Energy mix in Pakistan is quite imbalance in comparison to other countries, with greater reliance on non-renewable resources of gas (43.7 %) and oil (29 % – majority of which is imported). Prices of petroleum products/crude oil fluctuate and in current Afro-Arab political crisis, the oil prices are likely to increase manifold affecting oil prices in Pakistan. A rational energy mix planning ought to be developed giving greater dependency to renewable (hydal power), indigenous (coal) and alternative energy resources (wind and solar energy). 1.3. Consequences of Energy Crises I). Economic Factors: Energy is pivotal for running all other resources and crisis of energy directly influences all other sectors of the economy. The economic progress is hampered by decline in agricultural productivity as well as by halting in operations of industries. One important factor of lower GDP and inflation of commodity prices in recent years is attributed to shortfalls in energy supply. ii). Agriculture Sector: Agricultural productivity of Pakistan is decreasing due to provision of energy for running tube wells, agricultural machinery and production of fertilizers and pesticides. Thus higher energy means higher agricultural productivity. iii). Industrial Sector: Nearly all Industrial units are run with the energy and breakage in energy supply is having dire consequences on industrial growth. As a result of decline in energy supply, industrial units are not only being opened, but also the existing industrial units are gradually closing.
  8. 8. Feasibility report of Small Hydroelectric power plant Page | 8 iv). Unemployment: By closure of industrial units and less agricultural productivity, new employment opportunities ceased to exist and already employed manpower is shredded by the employers to increase their profit ratios. Thus energy crisis contributes towards unemployment. v). Social Issues: This factor is primarily related to the domestic usage of energy (cooking, heating and water provision). Load shedding cause unrest and frustration amongst the people and results in agitation against the government. vi). Poverty: Declination in economic growth, lower agricultural productivity, unemployment and shackling industrial growth result in increasing poverty. Currently, around forty percent of our population is living beyond poverty line and this ratio is increasing day by day. Ample control of energy crisis will surely yield in curbing the menace of poverty. 1.4. Installed Capacity: Electricity – total installed capacity: 19,505 MW (2010) Electricity Source 2010  fossil fuel – 12,580 MW – 65% of total  hydro – 6,463 MW – 33% of total  nuclear – 462 MW – 2% of total Supply & Demand of Electricity in Pakistan Year 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Existing Generation 15903 15903 15903 15903 15903 15903 15903 15903 Proposal 430 4235 7226 10115 10556 13307 13520 14607 Total Existing 16484 20138 23129 26018 26459 29210 29413 30510 Expected Generation 13146 16110 18503 20814 21167 23168 23538 24408 Demand (peak) 16484 17868 19352 20874 22460 24126 2591 28029 Surplus generation -3338 -1758 -849 -60 -1293 -758 -2381 -3621 Private power and infrastructure board. Government of Pakistan Fig: shows the detailed supply and demand of power in Pakistan The current shortfall is 7500 Megawatts, the table above is an old estimate made in 2008.
  9. 9. Feasibility report of Small Hydroelectric power plant Page | 9 Fig: shows the difference between supply and demand of electricity in Pakistan In Pakistan the main source of power generation is water because this is the cheapest source of generation of electricity. About 46% of the electricity in Pakistan is been generated by hydro power plants. The main hydroelectric power plants are Tarbaila power plant and Ghazi Bharota power plant. The capacity of Tarbaila power plant is about 3500 MW and the capacity of Ghazi Bharota power plant is 1450 MW. There are many other small hydro power plants which are generating power and many are under construction but they are of small scale i.e. less than 500 MW.
  10. 10. Feasibility report of Small Hydroelectric power plant Page | 10 Fig: shows the generation of power from different sources in Pakistan 1.5. Power Vision in Pakistan: WATER and power are no more synonymous. However, WAPDA makes us believe that water and power are inseparable and that the present energy crisis in the country is because we have failed to build large dams. Due to this reason WAPDA and the other proponents of big dams use this argument in favor of building Kalabagh and other such large dams. We need to look at the larger picture and think out of the box. Pakistan produces about 19,500 MW of electric power; WAPDA provides about 11,363 MW, or 58 per cent of this. The remaining power is supplied by the KESC, nuclear and IPPs. There is currently load shedding of up to 700 MW a day because of shortage and poor transmission capabilities. Electricity demand is expected to grow by eight per cent a year during the period 2005 — 2015, requiring an annual installation capacity of about 2000 MW for the next 10 years. The worldwide electricity production, as per the World Bank, is as follows: coal: 40 per cent; gas 19 per cent; nuclear 16 per cent; hydro 16 per cent; oil seven per cent. Pakistan’s power production is gas 48 per cent; hydro 33 per cent; oil 16 per cent; nuclear two per cent, and coal 0.2 per cent. There has been a global trend to shift away from oil because of its rising price expected to reach $100 a barrel by the end of this year depending on the international geopolitical situation. Despite the lowest cost of hydroelectric power, there have been environmental, ecological and geopolitical concerns over the building of large dams. The supply of natural gas in Pakistan has been depleting over the years, and the country is now looking at the option of importing gas from Qatar and Central Asia. This leaves the possibility of exploring nuclear, coal and other alternative energy. Nuclear energy and coal form the lowest source of power production in Pakistan. On the other hand, the world average for nuclear energy is 16 per cent and for coal 40%. Pakistan has potential of hydro resources to generate 41000 to 45000 MW; however, only 6555 MW is currently being generated by this important renewable resource. Four large hydropower dams namely Kalabagh 3600 MW, Bhasha 4500 MW, Bunji 5400 MW and Dasu 3800 MW can be constructed to generate hydroelectricity. Similarly, many small to medium hydro plants can be installed on rivers and canals etc. 1.6. Conclusion: Pakistan needs to aggressively pursue ways to increase its power-generating capacity. The best options available today are nuclear and coal, followed by wind and solar. Hydroelectricity can only be pursued after all environmental, ecological and geopolitical issues are settled with a consensus among all four provinces. Pakistan needs to set up at least a dozen nuclear power
  11. 11. Feasibility report of Small Hydroelectric power plant Page | 11 plants, large coal fired plants, wind farms and solar plants in the next 10 years to generate about 20,000 MW of electricity. We need to invest at least a billion dollars a year in developing the infrastructure and establishing power plants using nuclear, coal, wind and solar technology. We need to cut back on non-development expenditures by at least one billion dollars a year to invest in energy needs. Industrialization around the world has taken place because of the abundance of reliable and cheap electrical power (infrastructure, human resource and government incentives follow). Reliable and cheap availability of electric power in Pakistan will lead to large-scale investment in industry, creation of jobs, elimination of unemployment and poverty, greater manufacturing and exports, trade surplus and the reduction of deficits. It will lead to a prosperous Pakistan.
  12. 12. Feasibility report of Small Hydroelectric power plant Page | 12 CHAPTER 2 How electricity can be produced from mini power plant 2.1 Introduction 2.2 How do hydropower system work 2.3 Benefits of hydro system 2.4 Is hydro system sustainable for home 2.5 Cost & saving 2.6 Hydro turbines
  13. 13. Feasibility report of Small Hydroelectric power plant Page | 13 2.1 Introduction: Hydroelectricity systems generate electricity from running water - usually a small stream. Small or "micro" hydroelectricity systems can produce enough electricity for lighting and electrical appliances in an average home. Hydroelectricity systems are also called hydro power systems or just hydro systems. 2.2 How do hydropower system works: Hydro power systems use running water to turn a small turbine which generates electricity. The faster the water flows and the more water there is, the more electricity can be generated. The amount of electricity a system actually generates depends on how efficiently it converts the power of the moving water into electrical power. Fig: shows working of small hydroelectric plant
  14. 14. Feasibility report of Small Hydroelectric power plant Page | 14 2.3 Benefits of hydro system:  Cut your carbon footprint: hydroelectricity is green, renewable energy and doesn't release any harmful carbon dioxide or other pollutants.  Cut your electricity bills: hydroelectricity is free, so once you've paid for the initial installation you'll reduce or even eliminate your electricity bills.  A lower cost option: installing a hydro system can be expensive, but in many cases it's less than the cost of getting a connection to the National Grid.  Cheap heating and hot water: a hydro system may generate more electricity than you need for lighting your home and powering your electrical appliances - so you can use the excess to heat your home and your hot water too. 2.4 Is hydro system sustainable for home? To tell if a hydro system is right for you, there are a few key questions to consider:  Is there a river or steam close to your home? You'll need access to a fairly fast flowing water course, and the right to build around it  Does the water flow vary significantly during the year? If so, the hydro system may not be able to supply you with all the electricity you need during dry months. If you're not connected to the electricity grid, you'll need a backup power system.  Do you want to sell excess energy? Hydro systems can be connected to the National Grid if a suitable connection point is available. Any electricity you generate but don't use can then be sold to electricity companies 2.5 Cost and saving: Costs for installing a hydro system vary a lot, depending on the location and the amount of electricity it can generate. A typical 5kW scheme suitable for an average home might cost £20,000 - £25,000including installation. Savings depend on the amount of hydroelectricity that is used in place of electricity bought from another source. If the hydro system replaces electricity bought from the National Grid then typical savings could be substantial. Hydro systems are also eligible to receive generation and export payments through the Feed in Tariff. A 15kW system or smaller could get up to 19.9p/kWh generated.
  15. 15. Feasibility report of Small Hydroelectric power plant Page | 15 Maintenance costs vary but are usually low as hydro systems are very reliable. From 1st April 2010 you could be eligible to receive cash for each unit of electricity you generate using this technology. Find out more about the Feed in Tariff. Planning Tip The companion guide to Planning Policy Statement 22 on Renewable Energy recommends that if you are intending to install a small hydro system for example, that you make early contact with the developer, planning authorities, the Environment Agency and statutory consulters, such as natural. To help you with this process a tool the Planning Performance Agreement (PPA) has been developed. The PPA is a framework agreed between a local planning authority and a planning applicant for the management of complex development proposals within the planning process. The benefit of the PPA is that it allows both the developer and the local planning authority to agree a project plan and programmed, which ensures that the planning application is committed to a firm timetable, and one which is unconstrained by a 13-week target. It will also make clear, in advance, what will be required of each party. 2.6 Hydro turbines: Introduction: Hydro turbine is a rotary engine that takes energy from the flow of water. Hydro power sector is a mature technology field. Every Hydro power plant is unique hydro power plant. Comparing one hydro power plant to other is like comparing Orange with apple. To harness water discharge of a river to the maximum, the selection of hydro turbine is very important. Once a hydro power project site’s discharge flow rate, and power requirements is determined, we can use following graph to assist in determining which turbine suits the situation. It is important to note that this is a logarithmic graph and thus the scale is not linear. You can find the power output on a third axis at 45 degrees to the flow and head axis. Power generated from any hydro turbine is a function of the amount of head and flow available. Net Head (ft) X Flow (GPM) / 10 = Output Power Theory of Operation: Flowing water is directed on to the blades of a turbine runner, creating a force on the blades. Since the runner is spinning, the force acts through a distance (force acting through a distance is the definition of work). In this way, energy is transferred from the water flow to the turbine Water turbines are divided into two groups; reaction turbines and impulse turbines.The precise shape of water turbine blades is a function of the supply pressure of water, and the type of impeller selected
  16. 16. Feasibility report of Small Hydroelectric power plant Page | 16 Types of hydropower turbines: The timeline of different turbines are given below, which shows the invention and modification of different turbines. Power turbines have basically two main types that are Impulse turbine and Reaction turbine. The further types of impulse turbine are: 1) water wheel 2) Pelton 3) Turgo 4) crossflow 5) Archimedes screw turbine. And the further types of Reaction turbines are 1) Francis turbine 2) Propeller turbine and 3) Kaplan turbine. Power Turbines Impulse Turbine Pelton Turbine Cross flow Turgo Impulse Reaction Turbine Francis Turbine Propeller Turbine Kaplan Turbine
  17. 17. Feasibility report of Small Hydroelectric power plant Page | 17 Fig: show different types of hydroelectric turbines A. Impulse Turbine The impulse turbine generally uses the velocity of the water to move the runner and discharges to atmospheric pressure. The water stream hits each bucket on the runner. There is no suction on the down side of the turbine, and the water flows out the bottom of the turbine housing after hitting the runner. An impulse turbine is generally suitable for high head, low flow applications. B. Reaction Turbine Reaction turbines are acted on by water, which changes pressure as it moves through the turbine and gives up its energy. They must be encased to contain the water pressure (or suction), or they must be fully submerged in the water flow.Newton's third law describes the transfer of energy for reaction turbines. Most water turbines in use are reaction turbines and are used in low (<30m/98 ft) and medium (30-300m/98–984 ft) head applications. In reaction turbine pressure drop occurs in both fixed and moving blades. C. Pelton Hydro Turbine A pelton wheel has one or more free jets discharging water into an aerated space and impinging on the buckets of a runner. Draft tubes are not required for impulse turbine since the runner must be located above the maximum tail water to permit operation at atmospheric pressure. A Turgo Wheel is a variation on the Pelton and is made exclusively by Gilkes in England. The Turgo runner is a cast wheel whose shape generally resembles a fan blade that is closed on the outer edges.
  18. 18. Feasibility report of Small Hydroelectric power plant Page | 18 Fig: shows the design and working of pelton turbine D. Small Hydro turbines Small hydro is the development of hydroelectric power on a scale serving a small community or industrial plant. The definition of a small hydro project varies but a generating capacity of up to 10megawatts (MW) is generally accepted as the upper limit of what can be termed small hydro. This may be stretched to 25 MW and 30 MW in Canada and the United States. Small-scale hydroelectricity production grew by 28% during 2008 from 2005, raising the total world small- hydro capacity to 85 GW. Over 70% of this was in China (65 GW), followed by Japan (3.5 GW), the United States (3 GW), and India (2 GW). Small hydro plants may be connected to conventional electrical distribution networks as a source of low-cost renewable energy. Alternatively, small hydro projects may be built in isolated areas that would be uneconomic to serve from a network, or in areas where there is no national electrical distribution network. Since small hydro projects usually have minimal reservoirs and civil construction work, they are seen as having a relatively low environmental impact compared to large hydro. This decreased environmental impact depends strongly on the balance between stream flow and power production. Turbine specifications and application: Turbine selection is based mostly on the available water head, and less so on the available flow rate. In general, impulse turbines are used for high head sites, and reaction turbines are used for low head sites. Kaplan turbines with adjustable blade pitch are well-adapted to wide ranges of flow or head conditions, since their peak efficiency can be achieved over a wide range of flow conditions.Small turbines (mostly under 10 MW) may have horizontal shafts, and even fairly large bulb-type turbines up to 100 MW or so may be horizontal. Very large Francis and Kaplan machines usually have vertical shafts because this makes best use of the available head, and makes installation of a generator more economical. Pelton wheels may be either vertical or horizontal shaft machines because the size of the machine is so much less than the available head. Some impulse turbines use multiple water jets per runner to increase specific speed and balance shaft thrust Hydro Turbine type Head (H) Range in Meters Head(H) Range in Feet Kaplan and Propeller 2 < H < 40 6 < H < 125 Francis 10 < H <350 30 < H < 375 Pelton 50 < H < 1300 150 < H < 5000 Banki – Michell 3 < H < 250 9 < H < 750
  19. 19. Feasibility report of Small Hydroelectric power plant Page | 19 Turgo 50 < H < 250 50 < H < 750 Fig: shows the use of different turbine units We can also find that which can turbine can be used in which place which depend upon the flow of water and the head of flow. From the figure below it is clear that for small hydro power plants the most appropriate turbine is Kaplan turbine which don’t require high head or excess flow of water. We have another option of cross flow turbine which can also be used up to 1 MW. For large power houses we can use the Francis turbine which can be used up to generation of 1000 MW. Fig: shows the applications of different turbine units with respect to head and flow.
  20. 20. Feasibility report of Small Hydroelectric power plant Page | 20 CHAPTER 3 Site Information 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Site information 3.3 Access to site 3.4 Geology 3.5 Hydrology 3.6 Preliminary layout
  21. 21. Feasibility report of Small Hydroelectric power plant Page | 21 3.1 Introduction: The project of mini hydroelectric power plant will be built in the small village Khar in Tehsil Batkhela, District Malakand, Khyber Pakhtoon Khwa. The site is accessible from all near and far places though GT road. River swat flows in the valley of Malakand so that come from Kalam swat and then into Malakand. There is a canal that flows in Batkhela near Khar village which is connected to the river swat i.e. the water in the batkhela canal comes from river swat but the flow of water is been controlled by irrigation department and they always try to keep the supply of water constant in the canal as the water is used for irrigation and generation of electricity. There are three hydroelectric power houses that runs on the water of batkhela canal, that’s why the irrigation department always try to keep the supply of water constant in this canal. There are many small streams go out of batkhela canal that irrigates the nearby crops. We will also use the water of Batkhela canal for our mini hydroelectric power plant, because one of the stream that comes out of Batkhela canal flow in village Khar near the project site. That’s why the site for the project is very feasible because there is natural head already present also the water will be available the whole year, 12 month in the year and will not dependent on season. The stream also flow near the project site. The total population of the Khar village is about 12000 and the total number of houses are about 2000. The area of the village and whole region is not plane, there are many huge ups and down in the region that’s why the region consider best for the construction of hydroelectric power plants because power houses can be built on the flow of stream and there is no need to store water. 3.2 Site Information: a) Village Khar b) Tehsil Batkhela c) District Malakand d) State KPK e) Longitude 34°36’52.76 f) Latitude 71°56’15.63
  22. 22. Feasibility report of Small Hydroelectric power plant Page | 22 Fig: Shows the site of project and intake from main canal 3.3 Access to site The project site is located in village Khar which is accessible easily from all parts of the state. Village Khar is connected to other parts of the country through main GT road, and easily accessible and there will be no issue for the transportation of construction materials to the site. From To Distance Batkhela Project site 2.50 km Dargai Project site 31.0 km Chakdara Project site 11.50 km Mardan Project site 62.50 km Peshawar Project site 122.6 km Islamabad project site 209.4 km
  23. 23. Feasibility report of Small Hydroelectric power plant Page | 23 3.4 Geology: Malakand is about 2705 feet above sea level. Geological surveys identifies that the northern part of Malakand is occupied by the main mineral thrust material also known as Melange Zone rocks. Composed of volcanic, phyllites, slates, green schist, quartzite and other oceanic metasediments. The middle part of the Malakand Protected Area comprised metasediments and granitic rocks. The granitic rocks are named as Malakand granite and Chakdara and Bazdara granite. The Malakand Power House tunnel or Benton Tunnel passes through these rock formations. In the south near Dargai is the ophite rocks, known as Dargai ophiolite. These ophite rocks contains chromite, soapstone, asbestos, manganese and magnesite. 3.5 Hydrology: a) Stream/River Batkhela canal b) Source rain fed & snow melting c) Distance from river to site 2.20 km 3.6 Preliminary layout: There is a natural head present at the site of 60 m. The total length of the penstock will be about 75 m. A small forebay will also have to be constructed. a) Head 60 meter b) Flow 50 m3 /second c) Distance from river to site 2.20 km Fig: shows the schematic diagram of power plant
  24. 24. Feasibility report of Small Hydroelectric power plant Page | 24 CHAPTER 4 Power potential 4.1 Estimation of data 4.2 Calculations 4.3 Power output at different periods of time
  25. 25. Feasibility report of Small Hydroelectric power plant Page | 25 4.1 Estimation of data Flow of water The flow of water is calculated in liter per second: liter/s But for standard I will have to convert it into cubic meter per second: m3 /s 1 liter per second = 0.001 cubic meter per second 1 ltr/s = m3 /s Density of water Density of 1 lite of water is 1 kg Density of 1 m3 of water is 1000 kg Weight of water Volume of water can be calculated through formula Weight of water = Volume of water × Density of water Height of Head Height of head of the hydropower plant can be taken in meter (m) or in feet (ft.) I will use the meter (m) for the head of hydropower plant Power output The output of power is normally taken into Megawatt (MW) But for low generation the power output is shown in Kilo watt (KW) For the small components the power is shown in watts (W) 1 KW = 1000 W 1 MW = 1000000 W 1 MW = 1000 KW To show the generation of power in some specific period of time the output is multiplied with hours To show the generation of plant for 1 hour the output will be multiplied with 1 To show the annually generation of plant the power will be multiplied with the total hours in the year i.e. with 8760 The total power that is for some specific period of time will be in kilo watt hour (KWH)
  26. 26. Feasibility report of Small Hydroelectric power plant Page | 26 4.2 Calculations Estimated data Volume of water = 1.5 m3 /sec Can also be shown into liter/second Volume of water = 1500 liter/sec Density of 1 m3 of water = 1000kg (‫؞‬ mass of 1 m3 of water is 1000 kg) Density of 1 liter of water = 1 kg (‫؞‬ mass of 1 liter of water is 1 kg) Head of power plant = 60 m Efficiency of power plant = 85% (0.85) Formula Weight of water = Volume of water × Density W = V × D Power output = Weight of water × Head of power plant × Efficiency P = W × H × Ƞ Calculations: First I will find the weight of water that will flow in the penstock W = V × D W = (1.5 m3 /s) × (1000 kg) W = 1500 kg Also have to show the volume of water with taking volume in liter per sec W = V × D W = (1500 liter/sec) × (1 kg) W = 1500 kg Now have to find the power output P = W × H × Ƞ
  27. 27. Feasibility report of Small Hydroelectric power plant Page | 27 P = (1500 kg × 9.18) × (60 m) × (0.85) P = 702270 W P = 702.27 KW This is the rough calculation of the power of the plant that is estimated that the plant will give. In one day the power house can generate total power as follow: P = 702.27 × 24 P = 16854.48 KW P = MW 4.3 Power output at different periods of time Now I will calculate the power output in different period of time. Total power in 1 day: P = 702.27 × 24 P = 16854.48 KW P = 16.85448 MW Total power in 1 week P = 702.27 × 168 P = 117981.36 KW P = 117.98136 MW Total power in 1 month P = 702.27 × 730 P = 512657.1 KW P = 512.6571 MW
  28. 28. Feasibility report of Small Hydroelectric power plant Page | 28 Total power in 1 year P = 702.27 × 8766 P = 6156098.82 KW P = 6156.09882 MW Power Generation Total power KW MW Total power in 1 day 16854.48 KW 16.85 MW Total power in 1 week 117981.36 KW 117.98 MW Total power in 1 month 512657.1 KW 512.65 MW Total power in 1 year 6156098.82 KW 6156.09 MW Fig: shows the output of plant at different periods of time
  29. 29. Feasibility report of Small Hydroelectric power plant Page | 29 References Books: 1) Principles of power system By V.K Mehta & Rohit Mehta 2) Power system protection By Ram Badri 3) Electrical technology By B.L Theraja Sites: 1) http://cornellpump.com/products/hydroturbine.html 2) http://www.rapidtables.com/convert/power/kw-to-megaw.htm 3) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Small_hydro 4) http://rehanenergy.com/altenativeenergies/microhydropower/guide-to-mini-hydro-development/ 5) http://eprints.hec.gov.pk/1695/1/1635.htm 6) http://curiosity.discovery.com/question/water-generate-electricity-hydropower-plant 7) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydroelectricity 8) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy_policy_of_Pakistan 9) http://tribune.com.pk/story/583113/science-technology-and-pakistans-energy-crisis/

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