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Investment options for integrating water-livestock-crop production in sub-Saharan Africa
 

Investment options for integrating water-livestock-crop production in sub-Saharan Africa

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Presentation prepared by D. Peden, A. Freeman, A. Astatke, A. Notenbaert and D. Sheikh for the AFDB meeting in Tunis, April 18, 2005.

Presentation prepared by D. Peden, A. Freeman, A. Astatke, A. Notenbaert and D. Sheikh for the AFDB meeting in Tunis, April 18, 2005.

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    Investment options for integrating water-livestock-crop production in sub-Saharan Africa Investment options for integrating water-livestock-crop production in sub-Saharan Africa Presentation Transcript

    • Investment options for integrating water-livestock-crop production in sub-Saharan Africa Prepared by D. Peden, A. Freeman, A. Astatke, A. Notenbaert & D. Sheikh International Livestock Research Institute In collaboration with the International Water Management Institute For the AfDB meeting in Tunis 18 April 2005, AfDB April 2005
    • Outline
      • Development context for agricultural water and livestock.
      • Spatial analyses of SSA.
      • Investment options for integrating water, crop and livestock development
      AfDB April 2005
    • DEVELEOPMENT CONTEXT SSA History of livestock in and around irrigation
      • Plans to accommodate animals in irrigation planning rare.
      • Gezira: supports 1.7 million animals that make up 30% of income, but no policy or planning for first 60 years.
      • Irrigation often produces much crop residue, but potential for animal production often ignored in irrigation planning.
      • Without watering facilities, drinking animals degrade water and adjacent land and jeopardize human health.
      • Agricultural water development often marginalizes herders.
      • Lack of planning for water borne & zoonotic diseases.
      • Lack of assessment of market potential for livestock.
      • Lack of planning for integration of manure production and animal power into irrigated crop production.
      AfDB April 2005
    • DEVELEOPMENT CONTEXT Demand water for animal products to 2005 Meat & Milk consumption in SSA is increasing rapidly!
      • Similar forces drive demand for irrigation and animal products.
      • Meeting this demand can help poor people generate income
      AfDB April 2005
    • DEVELEOPMENT CONTEXT Livestock densities in SSA (TLU/km 2 )
      • Agricultural intensification attracts livestock production
      • Irrigation is associated with highest livestock densities
      AfDB April 2005
    • DEVELEOPMENT CONTEXT Livestock, annual cropping & sedimentation
      • Sources of soil loss and sedimentation in Ethiopia
      • Annual croplands contribute greatly to siltation of water resources
      • Improved INRM including livestock is needed
      Source: Hurni, 1989 AfDB April 2005
    • DEVELEOPMENT CONTEXT Livestock, annual cropping & sedimentation
      • Areas in Africa with greatest risk to agricultural water caused by poor livestock keeping practices.
      • Includes the most important livestock countries: Sudan, Ethiopia and Nigeria.
      • Risky areas usually associated with mixed crop-livestock production rather than grazing.
      • Annual croplands contribute greatly to siltation of water resources
      • Improved INRM with livestock needed
      AfDB April 2005
    • DEVELEOPMENT CONTEXT Poorly planned expansion of irrigation and rainfed farming sparks conflict with herders
      • “ Conflict … rooted in the soil.
      • 6 Million … farmers & herders.
      • Graziers migrate from arid North to South after August rains.
      • Traditional tribal laws settled conflict & people co-existed.
      • Persistent drought in 1980s forced herders into arable land.
      • Competition for resources turned violent.
      4 Oct 2004 An SSA-wide problem!!! AfDB April 2005
    • DEVELEOPMENT CONTEXT Reasons to integrate investments in agricultural water livestock livestock
      • Help achieve MDGs (2015):
        • 50% cut in poverty
        • 50% cut in hunger
      • Safeguard assets: livestock are key assets.
      • Improve child nutrition for physical & mental growth.
      • Enable poor farmers to access expanding urban markets for selling high value animal products.
      • Protect water resources through better husbandry.
      • Support animal power: an alternative to petroleum .
      • Increase sustainability of irrigation systems.
      • Reduce potential for conflict.
      AfDB April 2005
    • Spatial Analyses of SSA Where to invest in water for livestock? 15 Water-Livestock Development Domains Ag. Production systems Available Discret. water Market access Plus Urban livestock Human pop. density
    • Spatial Analyses of SSA Water-livestock investment domains
      • WLDs highly diversified and specific interventions for each are needed.
      • Cover 16.3 million km 2 – 54% of Africa
      • Contain 625 million people – 78% of Africa
      • 139 million poor livestock keepers
      • 249 million Livestock TLU
      • Feed production requires about 112 million m 3 of water for maintenance only
        • About double this for profitable animal production
        • Associated evaporation uses up to six times more H 2 0
        • Increasing demand for animal production will also increase demand for agricultural water needed for irrigation.
      AfDB April 2005
    • Selected investment options Improve irrigation system design
      • Livestock are closely associated with irrigation.
      • Include pastoralists in irrigation planning processes:
        • Historically, marginalized and loss of access to water.
        • Provide grazing & watering corridors in irrigation systems.
        • Offset losses from reduced dry season grazing through increased access to residues from irrigated crops.
        • Use crop residues in chain linking herders to markets.
      • Consider market potential for livestock and animal products as one option for optimizing irrigation systems outputs.
        • Use of dual purpose food-feed crops.
        • Near markets, use of water for irrigated feed production may be profitable.
      AfDB April 2005
    • Selected investment options Provide drinking water in irrigation systems
      • Less than 5 % of animal water used but it is very important
      • Provide continuous supply to increase animal and milk production:
        • Reduces heat stress on animals.
        • Increase efficiency of feed conversion.
      • Prevents damage to canals.
      • Prevents water contamination.
      • Helps control helminthic and
      • other water-borne diseases.
      • Support for livestock that
      • farmers and labourers acquire
      • as they step out of poverty:
      • (Animals need a place to live)
    • Selected investment options Effective feed sourcing strategies
      • Increase water productivity by feeding crop residues to animals because no extra water is used.
      • But, protect soil by returning some residue and manure.
      • Added value of animal production with little use of water increases profitability and provides farm power.
      Teff for feed Teff for Feed
    • Selected investment options Reduce negative impact of livestock on water resources
      • Keep animals away from irrigation canals and reservoirs
        • Providing drinking troughs & protect riparian vegetation.
        • Expand mandate of water users associations to include common property grazing land in catchments.
      • Introduce livestock keeping practices that help protect upslope soil and reduce sedimentation
        • Conservation tillage.
        • Zero grazing.
        • Increasing per animal productivity through better health, nutrition breeding and husbandry to enable de-stocking.
        • Develop markets to farmers need to build up herd sizes.
        • Encourage alternative forms of wealth savings.
      AfDB April 2005
    • Summary
      • Opportunities lost because of lack of integration of livestock into water planning and development.
      • Integrating investments ag. water & livestock may help reduce poverty and overcome vulnerability of the poor.
      • Needs:
        • Multi-sectoral & multi-regional approach.
        • Balanced mix of supply & demand management.
        • Effective use of existing technology and knowledge.
        • Effective inclusion of communities and all stakeholders.
        • Gender and ethnic equity.
      • Diverse water development domains require specific solutions
      • Significant increases in water productivity in SSA possible.
      AfDB April 2005
    • Thank you