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Energy and dairy in India: Opportunities in the context of demand

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Presented by Jimmy Smith at the XV Agricultural Science Congress―Energy and agriculture: Challenges in the 21st century, 15 November 2021


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Energy and dairy in India: Opportunities in the context of demand

  1. 1. Better lives through livestock Energy and dairy in India: opportunities in the context of demand Jimmy Smith, Director General International Livestock Research Institute With contributions from: Habibar Rahman and Vijayalakshmy Kennady XV Agricultural Science Congress: Energy and agriculture: challenges in the 21st century 15 November 2021
  2. 2. Dairy sector in context Production Contribution to national economy Projected demand Current production system
  3. 3. Dairy production 188 million tonnes of milk produced in India 2019 (almost all – 97% cow and buffalo) This is over one fifth of the world production
  4. 4. 4 2.9 1.47 4.55 4.11 11.5 11.7 1 15 13.46 28.1 25.6 25.7 60.6 7.92 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Afghanistan Bangladesh Bhutan India Nepal Pakistan Sri Lanka Contribution of livestock in National GDP (%) Contribution of livestock in Agricultural GDP (%) % Contribution of Livestock to National and Agricultural GDP in South Asian Countries Multiple sources
  5. 5. 5 India agricultural commodity values 2018 0 10000000 20000000 30000000 40000000 50000000 60000000 70000000 80000000 90000000 100000000 Milk, whole fresh Rice, paddy Wheat Mangoes, mangosteens, guavas Vegetables, fresh nes Seed cotton Meat indigenous, chicken Potatoes Bananas Soybeans Current thousand USD Dairy market India: INR 11,360 billion in 2020 INR 21,971 billion in 2024 https://www.imarcgroup.com/dairy-industry-in-india FAOSTAT
  6. 6. 6 Dairy demand in India 0 50000 100000 150000 200000 250000 2010 2030 2050 000 M tonnes Source: Impact model predictions under moderate climate change in 2050 with assumption of moderate economic and population growth, with thanks to Dolapo Enahoro (ILRI)
  7. 7. 7 Most dairy farms in India have less than ten animals But produce 70% of the dairy IFCN World Dairy Map Version downloaded from www.dairyreport.online ©IFCN 2020
  8. 8. 8 Dairy production Inputs Land Labour Capital Water Feed Energy ….etc Outputs GDP Food Income Livelihoods
  9. 9. 9 Energy and dairy in India: opportunities in the context of demand • Maximize positive contributions to energy • Manure • Biogas • Draught power • Improve production efficiency so energy is used optimally • Productivity improving technologies • Institutional and policy context • Energy efficient processing, storage • Explore opportunities to better capture (wasted) energy • Improve use of crop residues • Utilization of manufacturing by-products
  10. 10. 10 Maximize positive contributions to energy • Manure • Biogas • Draught power
  11. 11. 11 Manure Manure applied to soil – Nitrogen content (million tonnes) world India - non dairy India - dairy 1.3 million tonnes of Nitrogen applied to soil in India is from dairy (cattle and buffalo) 18.8 million tonnes of Nitrogen fertilizer applied Opportunities: - Improve storage and use of manure to reduce nutrient losses FAOSTAT
  12. 12. 12 Biogas One tonne of dairy cattle manure can generate biogas equivalent to ~125 kWh of electricity Challenges: - Small scale technology, financing, materials - Information sharing and uptake (incentives) Opportunities: - Clean energy - Digestate is still nutrient rich for soil application - Lowers women’s workload (firewood, cooking) - New, small-scale technologies are emerging to use biogas for dairy cooling etc https://energypedia.info/wiki/Sustainable_Energy_Use_in_the_Dairy_Value_Chain
  13. 13. 13 13 5% 70% 25% Sources of Energy Consumption by Crop Farming Draught power Mechanical Power Electrical Power Draught power • Although decreasing, estimates are that there are 60 million work-animals in India (almost all cattle and buffalo) • Equivalent to 20,000 MegaWatts electrical power valued at around 10000 crores (1351 million USD) • India would require 6 million tractors consuming 13 million tonnes of diesel to completely replace the working animals Natarajan, A. Chander, M and Bharati, N. (2016). Relevance of Draught Cattle Power and its Future prospects in India: A Review. Agricultural Reviews 37: 49-54 and Phaniraja, P.L. and Panchasara, H.H. (2009). Indian Draught Animals Power. Veterinary World 2: 404-407.
  14. 14. 14 Improve production efficiency so energy is used optimally • Productivity improving technologies • Institutional and policy context • Energy efficient processing, storage
  15. 15. 15 The win-win opportunity Emission intensity and milk yield FAO and GDP. 2018. Climate change and the global dairy cattle sector – The role of the dairy sector in a low-carbon future. Rome. 36 pp. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA- 3.0 IGO Doubling milk yield through better feeding, genetics and health could reduce India’s total methane emissions by 25%
  16. 16. Yield gaps: technical, market and institutional 0 10 20 30 40 50 S.Asia dairy E.Africa dairy W.Africa beef W.Africa s.ruminants S'n Africa small ruminants % potential gain from interventions Genetics Health Feed 0 10 20 30 40 50 S.Asia dairy E.Africa dairy W.Africa beef W.Africa s.ruminants S'n Africa small ruminants % potential gain from interventions Mkt access Input delivery Staal, S., Poole, J., Baltenweck, I., Mwacharo, J., Notenbaert, A., Randolph, T., Thorpe, W., Nzuma, J. and Herrero, M. 2009. Targeting strategic investment in livestock development as a vehicle for rural livelihoods. Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation – ILRI Knowledge Generation Project Report. Nairobi, Kenya: ILRI.
  17. 17. 17 Energy consumption for dairy (cooperatives, private plants) Dairy sector energy consumption 0.29 million Metric Tons of Oil Equivalent MTOE (= 3.4 billion kWh) 1065 registered dairy plants: - 80% small-scale - Represent only 30% of energy consumption - Each individual contribution very small Estimated energy saving potential for typical dairy plants - 15 to 20% using a mandatory energy efficiency scheme like Perform Achieve and Trade (PAT) (PAT Scheme of Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE), Ministry of Power, Government of India) Cleaning in place 13% Utilities, services 32% Processing 13% Refrigeration, storage 30% Packaging 12% Shakti Sustainable Energy Foundation (SSEF) and CII – Godrej GBC’s
  18. 18. 18 Opportunities for energy efficiency in dairy • Energy-efficient buildings: ventilation, cooling etc • Milk cooling • Renewable energy options • Essential for food safety • Options that work for small-scale enterprises • Biogas • Solar
  19. 19. 19 Explore opportunities to better capture (wasted) energy • Improve use of crop residues • Utilization of manufacturing by- products
  20. 20. 20 South Asia: regional average feed rations 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% dairy cattle dairy buffalo Fresh grass Hay Crop residues Sugarcane tops Leaves Bran Oilseed meals Energy into crop production -fertilizer -mechanical Could crop residues be more efficiently used for feed? Are manufacturing by-products being well used for feed? What about rice residues? Livestock: On our plates or eating at our table? A new analysis of the feed/food debate Anne Mottet, Cees de Haan, Alessandra Falcucci, Giuseppe Tempio, Carolyn Opio, Pierre Gerber http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gfs.2017.01.001
  21. 21. 21 Opportunity: more and better feed options from crop residues • Small changes in crop residue quality have a significant impact on milk production ‘..a 1% increase in digestibility of sorghum stover fed to dairy cows leads to a 6-8 % increase in milk production…’ • Improve feed quality: • Inclusion of feed quality parameters in crop breeding parameters (conventional breeding; genomic selection) • Significant increase in crop variety uptake, milk yields • Improve feed utilization through processing • Feed block manufacture • Leveraging spin-off technologies from 2nd generation biofuel for deconstructing ligno- cellulosic biomass (2-CCT = 2-Chemical Combination Treatment; developed by ILRI with the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research-Indian Institute of Chemical Technology)
  22. 22. 22 Would rice straw with a digestibility of more than 60% still be burnt? Possible with 2-CC treatment? 160 million tonnes rice straw At least 60% burnt producing 7,300 kg CO2 eq/ha/year Wasted energy inputs Negative climate impact
  23. 23. 23 Key messages Dairy plays a major role in India’s economy and for the nutrition and livelihoods of millions Demand for dairy continues to grow Along with the growth, improving energy efficiency: opportunities especially at the feed-energy interface • Maximize positive contributions of dairy to energy • Improve production efficiency so energy is used optimally • Explore opportunities to better capture (wasted) energy
  24. 24. THANK YOU
  25. 25. 25 Image credits Slide 1, 2,23: https://www.tota.world/article/423/ ‘Bhaskara Ragaputra, page from a Dispersed Ragamala Series’, c. 1750, courtesy of The Brooklyn Museum Slide 1, 3: https://blog.farmery.in/why-do-we-domesticate-cows/ Slide 1, 9, 10: Image via the blog ‘Naya Rajasthan’, 12 Jan 2017: https://nayarajasthan.wordpress.com/2017/01/12/bhamashah-pashu-bima-yojana-a-boon-to-animal-husbandry/) Slide 1, 12:Tribal art on show at ‘Adi Chitra’, Shriram Bharatiya Kala Kendra, 2013, organised by the Tribal Cooperative Marketing Development Federation of India https://energypedia.info/wiki/Sustainable_Energy_Use_in_the_Dairy_Value_Chain Slide 1, 9, 14: Pichawai for temple steps, Gujarat, India, 19th century painted cotton Slide 1, 9, 19: Rider and four-legged bovine creature, 1900s, Eastern India, Bihar State, Mithila or Madhubani School, 20th century (Cleveland Museum of Art)

Editor's Notes

  • https://www.tota.world/article/423/

    Image credit: ‘Bhaskara Ragaputra, page from a Dispersed Ragamala Series’, c. 1750, courtesy of The Brooklyn Museum.
  • https://blog.farmery.in/why-do-we-domesticate-cows/


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  • https://nayarajasthan.wordpress.com/2017/01/12/bhamashah-pashu-bima-yojana-a-boon-to-animal-husbandry/

    Image via the blog ‘Naya Rajasthan’, 12 Jan 2017: https://nayarajasthan.wordpress.com/2017/01/12/bhamashah-pashu-bima-yojana-a-boon-to-animal-husbandry/)
  • https://energypedia.info/wiki/Sustainable_Energy_Use_in_the_Dairy_Value_Chain
    Tribal art on show at ‘Adi Chitra’, Shriram Bharatiya Kala Kendra, 2013, organised by the Tribal Cooperative Marketing Development Federation of India
  • Pichawai for temple steps, Gujarat, India, 19th century painted cotton
  • Staal, S., Poole, J., Baltenweck, I., Mwacharo, J., Notenbaert, A., Randolph, T., Thorpe, W., Nzuma, J. and Herrero, M. 2009. Targeting strategic investment in livestock development as a vehicle for rural livelihoods. Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation – ILRI Knowledge Generation Project Report. Nairobi, Kenya: ILRI.
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  • Rider and four-legged bovine creature, 1900s, Eastern India, Bihar State, Mithila or Madhubani School, 20th century (Cleveland Museum of Art)
  • Livestock: On our plates or eating at our table? A new analysis of the feed/food debate
    Anne Mottet, Cees de Haan, Alessandra Falcucci, Giuseppe Tempio, Carolyn Opio, Pierre Gerber http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gfs.2017.01.001
  • Kristjanson P.M. and Zerbini E. 1999. Genetic Enhancement of Sorghum and Millet Residues Fed to Ruminants. An ex ante assessment of returns to research. ILRI Impact Assessment Series 2. ILRI (International Livestock Research Institute), Nairobi, Kenya. 52pp.
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    1J.Bisena1D.BhaduriaS.PriyadarsiniaS.MundaaM.ChakrabortiaT.AdakaP.PanneerselvamaA.K.MukherjeeaS.L.SwainaP.K.DashaS.R.PadhyaA.K.NayakaH.PathakaSunnyKumarbP.Nimbrayanc
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    https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969721009633
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