Misra, D.C.(2009)  Emerging E Gov Challenges 2009
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Misra, D.C.(2009) Emerging E Gov Challenges 2009

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This is PowerPoint Presentation in my public lecture on "Emerging Challenges of E-governance Today" on Friday, February 20, 2009, at 5-30 p.m. at Indian Institute of Public Administration,......

This is PowerPoint Presentation in my public lecture on "Emerging Challenges of E-governance Today" on Friday, February 20, 2009, at 5-30 p.m. at Indian Institute of Public Administration, Indraprastha Estate, New Delhi-110 092. This is an annual stock-taking of e-governence which I have been undertaking for last few years. For any clarification email to me at dc_misra [at]hotmail.com.

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  • 1. EMERGING E-GOVERNANCE CHALLENGES 2009 by Dr D.C.MISRA
  • 2. Delhi Regional Branch Indian Institute of Public Administration, New Delhi Friday, February 20, 2009 (5-30 p.m.)
  • 3. Emerging E-governance Challenges Today
    • A Presentation
    • by
    • Dr D.C.Misra
    • E-governance Consultant
    • New Delhi
    • Email: dc_misra@hotmail.com
    • Web: http://in.geocities.com/drdcmisra
    • Blog: http://egov-india.blogspot.com
    • Tel: 2245 2431
    • Tel/Fax: 4244 5183
  • 4. Emerging E-governance Challenges Today What is proposed to be covered?
    • Introduction
    • Emerging E-governance Challenges
    • E-governance and Mega Trends
    • E-governance and Global Governance
    • E-governance and Efficient Public Service Delivery
  • 5. What is proposed to be covered? Emerging Challenges in E-governance
    • E-governance and Global and National League Tables
    • E-governance and Emerging New Technologies
    • E-governance and Management Information System (MIS)
    • E-governance, Knowledge Glut and its Poor Utilisation
  • 6. Emerging E-governance Challenges
    • E-governance and Search Engines
    • E-governance and Semantic Web
    • E-governance and Overloading Government Websites
    • E-governance and Wiki Technology
    • E-governance and Monitoring Investments
  • 7. Emerging E-governance Challenges
    • 13. E-governance and its Capture by Private IT Companies
    • 14. E-governance and its Legal Enablement
    • 15. E-governance and Customer Relationship Management (CRM) and Electronic CRM (E-CRM)
    • 16. E-governance and Audit
    • 17. E-governance and Open Source Software and Hardware
  • 8. Emerging E-governance Challenges
    • 18. E-governance and Cloud Computing
    • 19. E-governance and Green Computing
    • 20. E-governance and Outsourcing
    • 21. E-governance and E-civil Service
    • 22. E-governance and Public Policy Space
    • 23. E-governance and Managerial Challenge
    • 24. E-governance and Tech- savvy Politicos
    • III Conclusion:
    • A Summing Up
  • 9. I. Introduction
    • What is
    • Computer ?
  • 10. What is Computer?
    • An electronic, digital device that receives, sends, stores and processes information .
    • But it is something more …….
  • 11. It is a tool for …….
    • Increasing efficiency and productivity
    • ( Solow’s Paradox ).
  • 12. It is a tool for …….
    • Communication and Exchange of Information
    • ( Global Village-Marshal McLuhan ).
    • (Medium is the Message).
  • 13. It is a tool for …….
    • Augmenting intellect
    • ( Vannevar Bush )
  • 14. It is a tool for …….
    • Colllective Intelligence
    • ( Pierre L é vy )
  • 15. It is a tool for …….
    • Social networking and Social Graph
    • ( Facebook, MySpace, Orkut, LinkedIn, Ryze, etc .)
  • 16. Current Status
    • There are 1.2 billion computers to-day. Overall global PC penetration: 165 PCs per 1,000 population worldwide (Gartner 2008)
    • Internet users worldwide has crossed one billion mark in December 2008 (ComScore 2009).
  • 17. E-governance and Governance
    • What is e-governance ?
    • -- Application of information and communication technology (ICT) to governance
    • What then is governance ?
    • -- Functioning of institutions in a democratic framework for
    • Policy-making
    • Regulation
    • Public service delivery, and
    • Development
  • 18. E-governance
    • Functions of e-governance
    1. Policy Making 2. Regulation 3. Public Service Delivery 4. Development
  • 19. II. Emerging E-governance Challenges-1
    • I. E-governance and Mega Trends
    • A report - Government 2020 and the Perpetual Collaboration Mandate - has Identified Six Mega Trends which are Reshaping Governments and Societies Worldwide :
    • Changing demographics
    • Accelerating globalization
    • Rising environmental concerns
    • Evolving societal relationships
    • Growing threats to social stability and order
    • Expanding impact of technology
  • 20. E-governance and Mega Trends
    • None of these mega trends is under the control of governments
    • On the other hand, these mega trends influence governance and e-governance
    • As such, e-governance is required to align with these mega trends rather than the other way
    • This requires understanding the current status of governance and e-governance worldwide
  • 21. Emerging E-governance Challenges -1
    • Challenge No.1
    • Six mega trends have been identified which are reshaping governments and societies around the world. How then to align e-governance to these mega trends?
  • 22. Emerging E-governance Challenges -2
    • II. E-governance and Global Governance
    • There is crisis in global governance to-day.
    • The WorldPublicOpinion.org poll of 20 nations around the world finds that none of the national leaders on the world stage inspire wide confidence (WPO 2008).
    • While former US President George W. Bush was one of the least trusted leaders, no other leader--including China's Hu Jintao and Russia's Vladimir Putin--has gained a broad international base of support.
    • Barrack Obama has appeared on the scene but it is too early for him to show impact (First 100 days theory?)
  • 23. Global Governance and 20th Century Model
    • The 20th Century Model needs make over (Boughton and Bradford 2007)
    • After World War I, League of Nations (1919) set up and it failed.
    • After World War II, United Nations and its spcialised agencies set up and they have mixed record.
    • Global governance is dominated by a few developed countries
    • Grouping of Nations : G-10 (1962), G-5 (1970s), G-7(1980s), G-8(1990s), G-77 (1964), G-24 (1971)
    • The existing model needs to be changed to give due importance to developing countries .
  • 24. State of E-governance 2009
    • Current Scenario (February 2009)
    • Mixed Scenario
    • Almost universal acceptance of e-governance
    • Many notable successes
    • Perhaps equally notable failures
    • An unprecedented information explosion
    • Heavy public investments in e-overnance
    • Waste in e-governance, and
    • Very promising e-governance research, notably in semantic web and artificial intelligence (AI)
  • 25. Loss of Confidence in Government Worldwide
    • At the end of the 20 th century
    • Loss of confidence in government worldwide .
    • -- Visions of Governance for the Twenty-First Century project at Harvard University found that American confidence in U.S. government has sharply declined.
    • -- Americans who said that they trusted the federal government to do the right thing most of the time:
    • 1964- 75%, 1997- 25%
  • 26. Loss of Confidence in Government Worldwide
    • --Government is not alone. Over past three decades in America, public confidence had dropped by half or more for many institutions:
    • --Universities: 61% to 30%;
    • --Major companies: 55% to 21%
    • --Medicine: 73% to 29% ;
    • --Journalism: 29% to 14% (Nye 1999)
    • --U.S. was not alone (Norris 1999).
  • 27. E-governance as a Promising Solution
    • In this environment,
    • e-governance appeared on the scene in mid-1990s,
    • and was endorsed worldwide (as a promising solution),
    • resulting in public investment in e-governance
  • 28. E-governance as a Promising Solution
    • 2 . Investment in E-governance
    • -- Worldwide IT Spend- $3.4 trillion (2008)
    • -- USA- US$ 65 billion
    • -- UK- GBP 14 billion
    • -- South Africa- $ 9 billion (2007)
    • -- India- Rs 4,000 crore
    • Expected by 2009: Rs 10,000 crore
    • (1 crore = 10 million)
  • 29. Outstanding Achievement of E-governance
    • The first phase of e-government: the i(information)-government , namely, provision of information, has been an incontestable success (Lucas 2008).
    • However, in the second interaction phase and subsequent
    • transaction phase, and
    • transformation phase (OECD) ,
    • E-government is encountering serious roadblocks.
  • 30. Emerging E-governance Challenges - 2
    • Challenge No. 2
    • There is crisis in global governance to-day. How then to steer our way as sovereign states in a leaderless world ?
  • 31. Emerging E-governance Challenges - 3
    • III. E-governance and Efficient Public Service Delivery
    •  Drivers of E-governance (Politicians, Civil Servants, Technology Vendors, Civil Society Organisations, Citizens)
    •  Real Driver : Need for efficient public service delivery
    •  Public services : Unproductive, dilatory and insensitive to the needs of citizens
    •  New public management (NPM) (application of private sector model to public sector) in 1980s and 1990s also failed
    •  Governance a key concept in international development debate (Hyden et al. 2004)
  • 32. Efficient Public Service Delivery
    • Challenge No. 3
    • How to achieve the objective of efficient public service delivery which is not yet being successfully met by e-governance ?
  • 33. Emerging E-governance Challenges - 4
    • IV E-governance and Emerging New Technologies
    •  Governments usually trail new technologies
    •  C omputing may become a utility , like electricity, in near future
    •  Mobile telephony in developing economies is spurring demand for m-government
    • Fewer than 7% of legislators have even the most basic understanding of technology in North America (Thronton 1997).
    • eMLA programme abondoned by the author in India.
  • 34. E-governance and Emerging New Technologies
    • Types of Technology
    • Capturing Technologies
    • Storage Technologies
    • Processing Technologies
    • Communications Technologies
    • Display Technologies
    • Source: Hamelink (1997:3)
  • 35. Emerging New Technologies
    • Table 1 E-governance and Selected Technological Forecasts
    (Source: 2005 BT Technology Timeline) 2016-2020 Artificial Intelligence (AI) member of parliament 5 2008-2012 Public storage provided by local government to support social use of IT 4 2013-2017 Retirement age raised to 75 3 2008-2012 All government services electronically delivered 2 2016-2020 Human knowledge exceeded by machine knowledge 1
  • 36. Emerging New Technologies
    • Challenge No.4
    • How to make E-governance anticipate emergence of new technologies and respond to them quickly?
  • 37. Emerging E-governance Challenges - 5
    • V E-governance and Global and National League Tables
    • The last decade has seen emergence of many global and national league tables.
    • (a) International organizations (for example, ITU 2006,
    • UNCTAD 2005, UNDESA 2005a, 2005b, UNESCO
    • ORBICOM 2005 and World Bank 2006)
    • (b) National organizations (for example, DIT 2003, 2008)
    • (c) Universities (for example, Holzer and Kim 2005, West
    • 2005 and WU 2005)
    • (d) Private companies (for example, Accenture 2005, BAH
    • 2005 and Brainbench 2005) and
    • (e) Private organizations (for example, WEF 2006).
  • 38. Global and National League Tables
    • Challenge No.5
    • How can global and national league tables contribute to E-governance policy formulation and implementation ?
  • 39. Emerging E-governance Challenges - 6
    • VI E-governance and Management Information System
    • Table 2 Doubling of Stock of Knowledge over Centuries
    (Source: http://www.lessons4living.com/speed.htm ) 1-2 years ? Units Now 5 150 years 8 Units 1900 A.D. 4 250 years 4 Units 1750 A.D. 3 1500 years 2 Units 1500 A.D. 2 Base Year 1 Unit 1 A.D 1 Doubling of Stock Stock of Knowledge Year S.N.
  • 40. Management Information System
    • Reasons for Exponential Multiplication of Information
    -Inconsumable -Intransferable -Indivisible -Accumulative Properties of Information -Concentration -Dispersion -Circulation -Feedback Properties of ICTs I ICT I Information Explosion
  • 41. Management Information System
    • An unprecedented information explosion has taken place.
    • Almost 800 MB of recorded information is produced per person each year equivalent to about 30 feet of books for storage (SIMS 2003).
    • Print, film, magnetic and optical storage media produced about 5 exabytes of new information in 2002
    • 92% of the new information was stored on magnetic media, mostly in hard disks (ibid.).
    • One expects policy-making in government to have vastly improved. But this has not happened.
    •  Reason: Appropriate management information systems (MISs) have not been put in place.
  • 42. Management Information System (MIS)
    • Challenge No.6
    • How to set up dependable management information systems (MISs) in government in the light of information explosion and other developments?
  • 43. Emerging E-governance Challenges - 7
    • VII. E-governance and Knowledge Glut and its Poor Utilisation
    • Amid a great information explosion, the share of knowledge that the world puts to good use is falling.
    • Quah (2006) notes: “…there is one commodity in excess supply. It’s knowledge- and in the long run, the overlooked knowledge glut could be more dangerous than the many more obvious shortages.”
    • Invention is costly and getting costlier.
    • Over the 20th century, the average age at which inventors did their best work rose by six years;
    • The average size of innovation teams grew fivefold.
    • R&D workers and dollars now produce an ever-smaller of patents on average. That’s why new drugs cost more than $1 billion to develop (ibid.).
  • 44. Knowledge Glut and its Poor Utilisation
    • Challenge No. 7
    • How to resolve the emerging paradox of knowledge glut and plummeting knowledge utilization ?
  • 45. Emerging E-governance Challenges - 8
    • VIII E-governance and Overloading Government Websites
    • There has been an explosion of government web pages.
    • The US .gov top-level domain, for example, accounts for 368 million pages, according to Wagner et al. (2006).
    • But even smaller e-government sites, such as .gov.uk (9.28 million pages) or .gov.au (7.2 million pages) exceed the size of major company sites such as
    • IBM (3.93 million for ibm.com), eBay (3.14 million for ebay.com) and dwarf sites of companies such as Ford (55,700 for ford.com) or Barclays Bank (24,200 for barclays.co.uk).
    • Even Slovenia, a country with only 2 million citizens, maintains a vastly larger e-government website of over 380,000 pages. (ibid, p-20)
    • The increasing volume of e-government web pages is no indication that they are meeting the felt needs of the citizens.
  • 46. Overloading Government Websites
    • Challenge No. 8
    • How not to keep on overloading government websites with all sorts of information but to anticipate and meet information and/or transaction needs of the citizens quickly and in user-friendly manner?
  • 47. Emerging E-governance Challenges - 9
    • IX E-governance and Search Engines
    •  FirstGov.gov, US Federal Government website, went online on September 22, 2000.
    •  Its database has shot up from 8 million to 40 million pages.
    •  To ferret out information from such huge databases, a specialty search engine based on government databases was launched in January 2006.
    •  It is based on “ dynamic clustering ” (clustering of information on the fly) and “ meta search ” (based on searches of other search engines).
  • 48. E-governance Search Engines
    • On October 17, 2006, FirstGov.gov added new image and news search capabilities.
    • Its search now covers government web, images, news and FirstGov.
    • In near future other features like RSS feeds and blogs/vblogs may also be added.
    • This may become a trend-setter in E-governance for countries in South.
    • Appropriate search capabilities are required to be set up on E-governance websites
  • 49. E-governance and Search Engines
    • Challenge No. 9
    • How to set up appropriate search capabilities on E-governance websites to ferret out the required information?
  • 50. Emerging E-governance Challenges - 10
    • X E-governance and Semantic Web
    • Semantic web is being promoted by W3 Consortium and Tim Berners-Lee, the inventor of World Wide Web. It has now links to 10 billion pages (Shadbolt, Hall and Berners-Lee 2006).
    • It is “not a separate Web but an extension of the current one, in which information is given well-defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation” (Berners-Lee, Hendler and Lassila 2001)
    • Governments face the difficulties of “management of too much information, created by too many heterogeneous, distributed sources.
    • Resulting in issues such as inconsistent terminologies, information overload and too little maintenance of outdated knowledge are only too frequent.” (Wagner et al. 2006).
    • One way out is to develop “semantic web” for E-governance.
  • 51. Semantic Web for E-governance
    • Challenge No. 10
    • How to make use of semantic web in E-governance websites to improve the quality of the required government information?
  • 52. Emerging E-governance Challenges - 11
    • X I E-governance and Wiki Technology
    •  Wiki (from Hawaiian word wiki wiki , meaning fast) is “ a type of website that allows users to easily add, remove, or otherwise edit all content, very quickly and easily, sometimes without the need for registration.” (Source: Wikipedia)
    • This ease of interaction and operation makes a wiki an effective tool for collaborative writing . The term wiki can also refer to the collaborative software itself (wiki engine) that facilitates the operation of such a website.” (ibid.).
    •  First wiki was established by Ward Cunningham more than a decade back on March 25, 1995. About 1,000 public wiki communities existed as of December 6, 2004 (Turnbull, Yim and Niemann 2006).
    • US Federal CIO Council’s Semantic Interoperability Community of Practice (SICoP) has a wiki. NASA’s WorldWind, an open source software for viewing satellite imagery, has a wiki. Any one can suggest code modification.
  • 53. Wiki Technology for E-governance
    • Challenge No. 11
    • How to make use of wiki technology in E-governance if public sector is constrained by resources as it is?
  • 54. Emerging E-governance Challenges - 12
    • XII E-governance and Monitoring Investments
    •  35% of E-governance projects in developing/transitional countries were total failures, 50% were partial failures and 15% were successes (Heeks 2003)
    •  $23.5 million online university project in UK attracted only 900 students
    •  Half of 200 pilot projects for online services in India works for a handful people
    •  Abandoned $22 million e-voting project in Uganda did not work in Uganda when elections held in 2001 (Schware 2004)
    •  $17 million shared medical systems (SMS) abandoned in mid-2000s in New Zealand and INCIS development in the New Zealand Police force at a direct cost of $100 million abandoned in 1999 (Gauld and Goldfinch 2006)
  • 55. Monitoring E-governance Investments
    • Challenge No. 12
    • How to monitor investments in E-governance as serious problems of unproductive investments in E-governance have started surfacing?
  • 56. Emerging E-governance Challenges - 13
    • E-governance and its Capture by Private IT Companies
    • Private sector technology vendors have started playing increasing role in e-governance
    • This raises important issues of cost and vendor lock-in , and
    • More important issues of security and privacy in private hands.
    • Popularly called public-private partnership (PPP), it has been resorted to due to three reasons:
    • (i) Absence of in-house expertise in government,
    • (ii) Large size of projects, and
    • (iii) Effective lobbying by private sector vendors for
    • public-private partnership (PPP).
  • 57. Capture of Governments by Private IT Companies
    • Challenge No. 13
    • How to prevent capture of governments by private information technology (IT) companies and encourage competition so that it benefits all- the IT industry, governments and citizens?
  • 58. Emerging E-governance Challenges-14
    • XIV E-governance and its Legal Enablement
    • Cyberspace is not unfettered space, it is a highly regulated space constraining the conduct of surfers
    • (i) Law : The terrestrial laws regulating the cyberspace,
    • (ii) Code : The software and hardware code which asks us to follow a pre-determined path;
    • Lessig (1999) calls the first code as East Coast Code , being dictated by the U.S. Congress in Washington, D.C., and the second as West Coast Code , being dictated by the Silicon Valley,
    • (iii) Norms : Self-imposed regulation of the conduct by the community,
    • (iv) Markets : Which are places of exchange of information.
    • Despite this mapping of cyberspace, there are many areas in e-governance which require legal enablement .
  • 59. Legal Enablement of E-governance
    • Challenge No. 14
    • How to legally enable government-to-government (G2G) and government-to-citizen (G2C) e-governments despite problematic terrain of cyber law ?
  • 60. Emerging E-governance Challenges - 15
    • XV E-governance and CRM and E-CRM
    •  A dissatisfied customer is the norm and not an exception in public services.
    • Public grievance commissions (PGCs) set up in India provide delayed redressal of the grievances.
    • By October 2006, 113 citizens' charters , originally introduced in United Kingdom in 1991, stood formulated by central ministries /departments/ organisations in India (DARPG 2006).
    • Citizen’s charters appear to have been overtaken by recently legislated Right to Information (RTI) Act 2005 in India
  • 61. CRM and E-CRM in E-governance
    • Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have complicated and have not made any significant contribution to the solution of the largely intractable problem of efficient public service delivery.
    • The problems of privacy/security are yet to be resolved to the satisfaction of citizens and non-citizens.
    • Harris (2001)’s remark that there are snakes in the virtual garden is still true.
    • The interactive voice response system (IVRS) is not only time-consuming but often exhausts citizen’s patience
    • Telephone, and not the internet , is still the best friend of a citizen as far as public services are concerned even in developed countries (Newcombe 2005).
    • Proper customer relationship management (CRM) and/or electronic customer relationship management (eCRM) programmes are urgently required to secure the loyalty of citizens and non-citizens to E-governance.
  • 62. CRM and E-CRM in E-governance
    • Challenge No. 15
    • How to put proper customer relationship management (CRM) and/or electronic customer relationship management (eCRM) programmes in place in E-governance in developing/ transitional economies?
  • 63. Emerging E-governance Challenges - 16
    • XVI E-governance and Audit
    • Democratic governments world over have a provision of audit of public expenditure .
    • Such audit, which is ex post facto, is of two types- (i) performance audit , and (ii) financial audit .
    • Audit requirements have to be incorporated in e-governance projects.
    • Lessons must be learnt from audit reports
    • Risk factors should be taken into account while formulating e-governance projects
  • 64. Meeting Audit Requirements in E-governance
    • Challenge No. 16
    • How to incorporate audit requirements , which are currently over-looked , in the e-governance management and learn lessons from audit reports ?
  • 65. Revisiting Emerging E-governance Challenges - 17
    • XVII E-governance and Free and Open Source Software
    • (FOSS) and Hardware
    • The Cathedral and the Bazaar (Eric S. Raymond 2001)
    • Free (as in Freedom, not in Free Beer) (Richard Stallman 2002)
    • GNU/Linux / GNU General Public License (GPL)/ Copyleft (Free, modified work also free)
    • Creative Commons (CC) (different types) (All rights reserved to Some rights reserved)
    • Open Source Hardware
  • 66. E-governance and Open Source
    • Advantages
    • Reuse (infrastructure from existing open source projects)
    • Auditability (Ensures functionality of what software promises to do)
    • Innovation (Ideas from different contributors)
    • Fewer bugs (More people discover bugs and fix them)
    • Security (Due to open code no backdoors or vulnerabilities)
    • (Source: www.opensourceconnections.com )
  • 67. E-governance and Open Source
    • Challenge No. 17
    • How to promote use of free and open source software (FOSS) and hardware in e-governance so that better software / hardware could be had and at lesser cost ?
  • 68. Emerging E-governance Challenges - 18
    • XVIII. E-governance and Cloud Computing
    • Types of Computing
    • Grid Computing
    • Utility Computing
    • Autonomic Computing
    • Volunteer Computing
    • Cloud Computing
    • (Source: Wikipedia)
  • 69. E-governance and Cloud Computing
    • Very attractive proposition for governments with small and fixed budgets (Open Cloud?)
    • Data stored on third party servers
    • Risk to personal and official data
    • Issues of liability if some thing goes wrong (Economist 2008)
    • Ideally suited to the field of development
  • 70. E-governance and Cloud Computing
    • Challenge No. 18
    • How to make use of cloud computing without compromising security of personal and official data ?
  • 71. Emerging E-governance Challenges - 19
    • IXX Promoting Green Computing
    • Greenhouse gases : About 30, main ones being: CO 2, CH 4, CFCs and N 2 O, produced due to human activity.
    • Greenhouse gases are transparent to sunlight but absorb radiation thus causing global warming and climate change
    • Carbon footprint : Greenhouse gases expressed as equivalent to CO 2 (kgs or tones)
    • Earth’s temperature rose by 0.75 0 C during last 100 years. It is estimated to rise by 6 0 C during next 100 years.
  • 72. Promoting Green Computing
    • ICTs were believed to be “clean” but this belief has proved wrong.
    • Gartner estimates that global ICT usage accounts for approximately 2% of all global carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions.
    • This is equivalent to all CO 2 emissions caused by aviation.
    • CO 2 emissions result from the use of PCs, servers, cooling, fixed and mobile telephony, networks, office telecommunications and printers .
  • 73. Promoting Green Computing
    • The environment is also impacted by chemicals and waste from the disposal of equipment, polluting the soil with cadmium and mercury.
    • A server often only utilizes between 5 and 15 % of its capacity to service one application.
    • Switching computers off at night and on weekends, energy consumption can be reduced up to 75%.
    • If monitors are also switched off when not being used (including lunch times, etc), and the standby options are activated, energy consumption can even be reduced up to 90 % per year. (Source: http://greenercomputing.com )
  • 74. Promoting Green Computing
    • Computers generate an estimated 35 million tons of the gas each year.
    • Each year 125 million computers are taken out of circulation worldwide and most of these end up in landfill sites.
    • 70% of an average company's power consumption goes to IT.
    • The average PC consumes 600 kWh annually. Two thirds of that electricity is wasted because most PCs are running at full power when no user is present. (Source: http://www.green-ict.com /)
  • 75. Green IT
    • The holistic approach to environmentally friendly, sustainable governance and management of the organization (business and IT), its processes and projects.
    E IT Governance GREEN IT E-governance
  • 76. Promoting Green IT
    • Challenge No. 19
    • How to promote Green Information Technology (IT) in E-governance to prevent global warming and climatic change ?
  • 77. Emerging E-governance Challenges - 20
    • XX E-governance and Outsourcing
    • Relationship between state and people is unique.
    • People have vested their power in the state.
    • The state cannot delegate this power to a third party under the labels of privatisation and outsourcing .
  • 78. E-governance and Outsourcing
    • When those powers are delegated to outsiders, the capacity to govern is undermined (Verkuil 2007)
    • A balance has to be exercised between private sector (what can be done by it) and the public sector (what has to be done by it)
    • It is not an either-or (private sector or public sector) situation.
    • You cannot outsource sovereignty. Can you?
  • 79. E-governance and Outsourcing
    • Challenge No.20
    • With increasing privatisation and outsourcing , how to strike a balance between private sector and public sector ?
  • 80. Emerging E-governance Challenges - 21
    • XXI. E-governance and E-civil Service
    • Emergence of E-civil Service , and
    • Artificial Intelligence (AI) Civil Service are yet to be formally recognised
    • This is arresting speedier development of e-governance
    • There is urgent need to develop guiding principles for development of e-civil service (Misra 2008)
  • 81. E-governance and E-civil Service
    • Challenge No.21
    • How to formally recognise and promote e-civil service to enable it to play a more active role in e-goverance?
  • 82. Emerging E-governance Challenges - 22
    • XXII E-governance and Policy Space
    • E-government so far had a very successful (lucky?) policy run having been widely subscribed worldwide.
    • The party may, however, not last for ever .
    • Lowi (1972) developed a fourfold typology of public policies : (i) redistributive , (ii) distributive , (iii) regulatory , and (iv) constituent .
    • If results are not shown, and that too uickly, e-governance may loose support of policy makers
  • 83. E-governance and Policy Space
    • Challenge No. 22
    • How to prevent degeneration of e-governance from non-partisan expert public policy space to partisan and controversial public policy space?
  • 84. Emerging E-governance Challenges - 23
    • XXIII E-governance and Managerial Challenge
    • Gauld and Goldfinch (2006) propose four ‘pathological’ managerial enthusiasms :
    • 1. Idolisation (public servants ‘idolise’ IT and see it as leading to great benefits),
    • 2. Technophilia (More and better technology prevents or fixes problems),
    • 3. Lomanism (Feigned or genuine belief of IT suppliers and sale staff in their company’s products), and
    • 4. Managerial faddism (new management or structures bring benefits and prevent or fix problems).
  • 85. Managerial Challenge in E-governance
    • Challenge No. 23
    • How to make e-government a managerial challenge and make managers face it competently by institutionalizing top management support ?
  • 86. Emerging E-governance Challenges - 24
    • XXIV E-governance and Tech-Savvy Politicos
    • Some politicos have started making use of information technology (IT) in their political activities
    • Barrack Obama, for example, very successfully used information technology (IT) in his presidential campaign.
    • According to reports, on www.barackobama.com , more than 280,000 people created accounts, users created over 6,500 grassroots volunteer groups and organized more than 13,000 off-line events using the website and over 15,000 policy ideas were submitted through the website.
    • Obama has built a treasure trove of database of more than 10 million supporters. (Misra 2008)
  • 87. E-governance and Tech-Savvy Politicos
    • Challenge No. 24
    • How to make use of experience of information technology (IT)-based political activities in e-governance ?
  • 88. III A Summing Up How to Provide needed information on government websites 8 Anticipate emergence of new technology 4 Resolve the emerging paradox of knowledge glut and plummeting knowledge utilization? 7 Deliver public service efficiently 3 Set up management information system (MIS) in government 6 Steer our way as sovereign states in a leaderless world? 2 Use global and national league tables for policy formulation 5 Align e-governance to emerging mega trends 1
  • 89. Emerging E-governance Challenges
    • How to
    Incorporate audit requirements in e-governance projects 16 Monitor e-governance investments 12 Set up CRM and E-CRM for e-governance 15 Use wiki technology in e-governance 11 Legally enable G2G and G2C Transactions 14 Note use of semantic web for e-governance 10 Prevent capture of governments by private IT companies 13 Set up search on government websites 9
  • 90. Emerging E-governance Challenges How to Make use of experience of online political activities in e-governance? 24 Formally recognise and promote e-civil service 20 Institutionalise support of policy makers to e-governance 23 Promote green information technology (IT) in e-governance 19 Prevent degeneration of e-governance to controversial public policy space? 22 Use cloud computing without compromising security 18 Strike a balance between private and public sectors in outsourcing? 21 Promote use of free and open source software (FOSS) in e-governance 17
  • 91. Your questions now ?
    • Thank you for your patience
    • Have A Nice Weekend!
    • Dr D.C.Misra, February 20, 2009