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Breman - The agroecological solution?

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Presentation delivered at the CIALCA international conference 'Challenges and Opportunities to the agricultural intensification of the humid highland systems of sub-Saharan Africa'. Kigali, Rwanda, …

Presentation delivered at the CIALCA international conference 'Challenges and Opportunities to the agricultural intensification of the humid highland systems of sub-Saharan Africa'. Kigali, Rwanda, October 24-27 2011.

Published in: Education, Technology, Business

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  • 1. The agro-ecological solution !? Henk Breman, IFDC-CATALIST “ UN expert makes case for ecological farming practices to boost food production UN News Center 8 March 2011  ”
  • 2. The agro-ecological solution !? Food security and poverty reduction in sub-Saharan Africa, with an emphasis on the East African Highlands
    • Occupy Wall Street
    • Myths and realities
    • Fertilizer x ISFM
    • Conclusion
  • 3.    ” Occupy Wall Street”
  • 4.   ” Occupy Wall Street”: Ideal of Olivier de Schutter
    • Improve the stocks and use of natural capital !
    • Farmers involved in technology development
    • More social cohesion
    • Decreasing gender related differences
    • Policy attention for agro-ecology
  • 5. ” Occupy Wall Street”: Minimize the use of non-renewable inputs!
    • “ Minimize” should be “optimize”
    • No sustainability without external inputs
  • 6.   Myths & realities
    • Exaggeration
    • Weak references
    • Wrong use of references
    • Different explanations possible
  • 7. Myths & realities: A disciple worse than his master
    • No inorganic fertilizer required:
    • manure
    • byproducts of arable farming
    • biological nitrogen fixation
    • fertilizer trees
    • can do the job
  • 8. Myths & realities: Weak references
    • 2,5 t/ha grain with compost, against 1,8 t/ha with fertilizers,
    • but N gift 75 & 41 kg/ha
    • BNF, through leguminous cover crops:
    • 103 kg/ha/yr of N world wide
  • 9. Myths & realities: Wrong citations
    • Agroforestry for sustainable maize = alternative for Malawi’s fertilizer subsidies
    • Ann F. Quinion: “ households were found still be living in extreme poverty ”
  • 10. Myths & realities: Different explanations
    • Productivity of fields in Burkina Faso increasing:
    • “ Another green revolution” (Reij et al.)
    • Fertilizer use increasing with 5 kg/ha/yr
  • 11.   ISFM neglected No sustainability without external inputs
    • ISFM for making fertilizer use financially feasible and environmentally more sustainable
    • Proven tool for food security and poverty reduction
    • More and cheaper soil amendments
    • More competitive
  • 12.   ISFM neglected Illustration of ISFM potential
    • Arable farming
    • Animal production
    • Agroforestry
    • Nature
    • Dry land & droughts
  • 13. ISFM & arable farming
  • 14. Ratio organic/conventional yields versus conventional yields
  • 15. ISFM & arable farming
  • 16. ISFM & animal husbandry 2700 0,3 intensive 800 1,1 + supplem. 480 1,2 extensive Integrated l/ha/y ha/unit Intensity System
  • 17. ISFM & agroforestery 32 13,0* 9,5* 6,1 4,1 park land + fertilizer 18 6,5* 5,9* 3,9 2,6 park land 10,5 0 0 6,3 4,2 control + fertilizer 3,2 0 0 1,9 1,3 control Total t/ha/an Wood Leaves Straw Grain Treatment
  • 18. elephants/1000 km2 0 500 1000 1500 2000 0 20 40 60 kg/ha N-P2O5-K2O ISFM & nature
  • 19. ISFM & dry land and droughts 2,1 0,0 230 (450) 2011 A Rwanda 2,9 0,4 370 (500) 2001 Niger ISFM t/ha Control t/ha Rainfall mm Season Country
  • 20. ISFM & dry land and droughts: Somalia and the Ruzizi Plain
  • 21. Conclusions
    • ISFM + fertilizer much higher potential than agroecological solution without fertilizer
    • Investments in soil amendments interesting alternative for fertilizer subsidies
    • “ minimizing” external input use should become optimizing
  • 22.   Gross income farmers region …. $/ha ? Thank you
  • 23. “ Who can save agriculture?” (a citation from a Japanese journal)
    • … knowing that rice farms occupy at average 1 hectare, and that 1 hectare of rice only leads to an income of 10.400 euros, it is difficult to survive by producing rice only…
    • Kazuo Otaka, Mainichi Shimbun, Tokyo
  • 24. Agropastoralisme Burkina Faso: utilisation d’engrais non couplée et production fourragère manque