International Conference on Agricultural Intensification of the African Humid Highland Systems: Kigali, Rwanda 24 – 27 Oct...
Outline <ul><li>Humid highlands of EA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agricultural production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intensifica...
<ul><ul><li>Steep slopes, high rainfall, erosion hazards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High pop. pressure, Land fragmentation...
Yields Dusengemungu , et al. 2006 Product Actual yield Potential Yield Unit Beans 600 1,500 kg/ha Soybeans 400 2,000 “ Cas...
Agricultural Intensification in the EA Highlands - Options <ul><li>Triggers (Population & demand) </li></ul><ul><li>Increa...
  Intensification: Success factors <ul><li>Sustainable agro-based NRM (Soil conservation, vegetation conservation, water m...
Sustainable NRM & farmers priorities <ul><li>Water availability  </li></ul><ul><li>(It is o ften stated  “Food security re...
Sustainable NRM & farmers priorities <ul><li>Time spent to collect water (>5 hrs (dry season) (Meliyo et al 2006; Mowo et ...
Sunday, November 6, 2011 Mowo et al. 2011
Research Question <ul><li>Will addressing a high-priority constraint (domestic water availability) as part integrated wate...
Sunday, November 6, 2011 Mowo et al. 2011 Methodology Study sites
Some features of the study sites Sunday, November 6, 2011 Mowo et al. 2011 Ginchi Ethiopia (Galessa) Areka – Ethiopia (Gun...
Sunday, November 6, 2011 Mowo et al. 2011 <ul><li>Watershed exploration </li></ul><ul><li>To identify constraints </li></u...
Ranking of watershed constraints: Average for the watersheds Findings Watershed issue Group ranking  Rank  Baga Watershed,...
Water sources rehabilitation process <ul><li>Awareness creation  & need for collective action </li></ul><ul><li>Formation ...
Time (minutes) spent in collecting water before and after intervention (Baga Watershed, Lushoto) Sunday, November 6, 2011 ...
<ul><li>In Galessa -Ginchi (Ethiopia) </li></ul><ul><li>All households (170) in the watershed benefiting from clean water ...
Take home <ul><li>Farmers priorities when taken into consideration    Buy in, increased commitment to introduced NRM prac...
Acknowledgement <ul><li>Watershed communities in Ethiopia and Tanzania </li></ul><ul><li>National R & D in both countries ...
11/06/11 JG Mowo et al
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Mowo - Targeting farmer’s priorities for effective agricultural intensification in the humid highlands of eastern Africa

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Presentation delivered at the CIALCA international conference 'Challenges and Opportunities to the agricultural intensification of the humid highland systems of sub-Saharan Africa'. Kigali, Rwanda, October 24-27 2011.

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  • AHI Interview, Entebbe 13th September 2006
  • AHI Interview, Entebbe 13th September 2006
  • Mowo - Targeting farmer’s priorities for effective agricultural intensification in the humid highlands of eastern Africa

    1. 1. International Conference on Agricultural Intensification of the African Humid Highland Systems: Kigali, Rwanda 24 – 27 October, 2011 Jeremias, Charles, Joseph, Zenebe, Kenneth and Athanase
    2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Humid highlands of EA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agricultural production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intensification – Why it is necessary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why target farmers priorities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Study Protocol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifying priorities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formulating research question </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Findings </li></ul><ul><li>Take home messages </li></ul>Sunday, November 6, 2011 Mowo et al. 2011
    3. 3. <ul><ul><li>Steep slopes, high rainfall, erosion hazards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High pop. pressure, Land fragmentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Declining quality of the NR base </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrient mining, loss of top soil </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limited adoption of soil conservation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreasing agro-ecosystems productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited income generation alternatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing levels of poverty </li></ul></ul>Uganda General features Rwanda Ethiopia Tanzania
    4. 4. Yields Dusengemungu , et al. 2006 Product Actual yield Potential Yield Unit Beans 600 1,500 kg/ha Soybeans 400 2,000 “ Cassava 15 40 t/ha Cabbage 12 30 “ Coffee 0.5 1.6 kg/tree
    5. 5. Agricultural Intensification in the EA Highlands - Options <ul><li>Triggers (Population & demand) </li></ul><ul><li>Increased frequency of cultivation – multiple cropping / relay cropping </li></ul><ul><li>Diversification </li></ul><ul><li>Increased labor input  more valued outputs per unit area </li></ul><ul><li>Change in technologies e.g. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Soil Conservation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use of fertilizers (Organic & inorganic) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Improved germplasm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agroforestry (fruit trees, fodder species, etc) </li></ul></ul></ul>Sunday, November 6, 2011 Mowo et al. 2011
    6. 6. Intensification: Success factors <ul><li>Sustainable agro-based NRM (Soil conservation, vegetation conservation, water management) </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate Polices (Land tenure) </li></ul><ul><li>Markets (catalyst) </li></ul><ul><li>Judicious / efficient use of available labor </li></ul>Sunday, November 6, 2011 Mowo et al. 2011
    7. 7. Sustainable NRM & farmers priorities <ul><li>Water availability </li></ul><ul><li>(It is o ften stated “Food security requires water security)” </li></ul><ul><li>BUT </li></ul><ul><li>Domestic Water Security a Priority (Quality (but also Quantity in dry seasons) </li></ul>Mowo et al. 2011
    8. 8. Sustainable NRM & farmers priorities <ul><li>Time spent to collect water (>5 hrs (dry season) (Meliyo et al 2006; Mowo et al 2011) </li></ul>Mowo et al. 2011 <ul><li>However domestic water supply is “Not the mandate of Agric research organizations” </li></ul><ul><li>Water borne diseases reduces labor </li></ul>
    9. 9. Sunday, November 6, 2011 Mowo et al. 2011
    10. 10. Research Question <ul><li>Will addressing a high-priority constraint (domestic water availability) as part integrated watershed management approach lead to multiple system benefits? </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>soil conservation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>water recharge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>improved valley bottom productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>labor saving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Due to integrated problem-solving and greater local commitment? </li></ul></ul>Sunday, November 6, 2011 Mowo et al. 2011
    11. 11. Sunday, November 6, 2011 Mowo et al. 2011 Methodology Study sites
    12. 12. Some features of the study sites Sunday, November 6, 2011 Mowo et al. 2011 Ginchi Ethiopia (Galessa) Areka – Ethiopia (Gununo) Lushoto –Tanzania (Baga) Altitude (m. a.s.l) > 2200 1800 - 2600 1100 - 1400 Rainfall (mm) > 1100 1330 800-1700 Population density 100 - 200 > 400 200 - 300 Enterprises Barley, round potato, wheat Enset, wheat, barley horticulture Maize, banana, horticulture Forests / woodlots Few Medium Medium - High Irrigation None None Seasonal Markets Medium Limited Medium - Good
    13. 13. Sunday, November 6, 2011 Mowo et al. 2011 <ul><li>Watershed exploration </li></ul><ul><li>To identify constraints </li></ul><ul><li>Focus Group Discussions </li></ul><ul><li>Ranking </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic interventions </li></ul>
    14. 14. Ranking of watershed constraints: Average for the watersheds Findings Watershed issue Group ranking Rank Baga Watershed, Lushoto (Tanzania) (n = 72) Poor water quality Upslope farmers, high income, youth 1 Declining water quantity All 2 Declining irrigation water High income, men, youth 3 -Ve effects of boundary trees High income 4 Galessa Watershed, Ginchi (Ethiopia) (n = 36) Loss of indigenous tree species All 1 Poor water quality All 2 Land shortage Youth, women 3 Declining soil fertility All 4 Gununo Watershed, Areka (Ethiopia) (n = 8) Domestic water All 1 Shortage of rainfall All 2 Land shortage All 3 Burden of plowing All 4
    15. 15. Water sources rehabilitation process <ul><li>Awareness creation & need for collective action </li></ul><ul><li>Formation of water users committees to oversee the implementation of agreed plans; </li></ul><ul><li>Identification and consultation with different stakeholder groups & their roles </li></ul><ul><li>Development & enacting of bylaws for water sources management </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity building for water user committees and local leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Participatory monitoring and evaluation of agreed targets </li></ul>Sunday, November 6, 2011 Mowo et al. 2011
    16. 16. Time (minutes) spent in collecting water before and after intervention (Baga Watershed, Lushoto) Sunday, November 6, 2011 Mowo et al. 2011 Water borne diseases dropped by 71 % in 1 year Benefits & Spin offs
    17. 17. <ul><li>In Galessa -Ginchi (Ethiopia) </li></ul><ul><li>All households (170) in the watershed benefiting from clean water (Mekuria, 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>83 % drop in incidences of waterborne diseases </li></ul><ul><li>> 30% of the households participating in soil conservation activities </li></ul>Sunday, November 6, 2011 Mowo et al. 2011 Benefits & Spin offs
    18. 18. Take home <ul><li>Farmers priorities when taken into consideration  Buy in, increased commitment to introduced NRM practices </li></ul><ul><li>To satisfy all stakeholders  need for innovative formulation of research questions </li></ul>Sunday, November 6, 2011 Mowo et al. 2011
    19. 19. Acknowledgement <ul><li>Watershed communities in Ethiopia and Tanzania </li></ul><ul><li>National R & D in both countries </li></ul><ul><li>Donors (IDRC, EU, SDC) </li></ul>Sunday, November 6, 2011 Mowo et al. 2011
    20. 20. 11/06/11 JG Mowo et al

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