Lynam - Translating system research into farmer adoption
Presentation delivered at the CIALCA international conference 'Challenges and Opportunities to the agricultural intensification of the humid highland systems of sub-Saharan Africa'. Kigali, Rwanda, October 24-27 2011.
Presentation reviews history of systems research and then links to how system research has been linked to extension
Gates Foundation and the focus on impact has put an increased emphasis on scalability of agricultural research and associated technologies. How to think about this within the African context.
Green Revolution was the first and maybe the last example of the impacts of widely scalable technologies. FSR was a response to the lack of adoption of GR technologies in rainfed agriculture, still with a commodity focus. The sustainability agenda added NRM and expansion of the CGIAR. Climate change (system resilience) and ecosystem services has added AEI.
CIAT and IITA were conceived of as undertaking research on farming systems of the lowland, humid tropics. FSR moved downstream as a linkage mechanism to extension, creating adaptive research. Questions about the role of the researcher led to farmer participatory research.
Sustainability split research into two very different modalities rather than integrating.
AEI is at one level an attempt to finally integrate NRM and commodity research and finally do research
How to assemble these outputs into a dissemination framework.
Focus on production systems in terms of priorities
Lynam - Translating system research into farmer adoption
Translating System Research into Farmer Adoption CIALCA Conference 24-27 October 2011
Scalability in the Context of: <ul><li>Complexity of smallholder farming systems </li></ul><ul><li>Heterogeneity in agroecological and market environments </li></ul><ul><li>Building local adaptation in scalability </li></ul><ul><li>Market vs Institutional Dissemination </li></ul>
Stages in the Evolution of International Agricultural Research <ul><li>1960-s-1970’s Green Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>1970’s-1980’s Farming Systems Research </li></ul><ul><li>1980’s-1990’s Sustainability: Commodity vs NRM </li></ul><ul><li>2000 Agroecological Intensification </li></ul>
Farming Systems Research <ul><li>Component research within a farming systems framework </li></ul><ul><li>On farm adaptive research </li></ul><ul><li>Farmer participatory research </li></ul>
Sustainability Research <ul><li>Natural resource management but linked to on-farm productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Commodity research expanded through molecular biology and value chains </li></ul>
Characteristics of AEI Research Outputs <ul><li>Models and decision support tools </li></ul><ul><li>System technologies, eg push-pull vs conservation agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Technology components assembled within adaptive, participatory methods </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnostic tools, eg limiting nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>Collective action and farmer organizations </li></ul>
Key Questions for AEI <ul><li>What is the path or process for farming system intensification within an AEI framework? </li></ul><ul><li>What are extension approaches that support system change within that intensification process? </li></ul>
East Africa: Average Farm Income, 2004-06 Kenya Uganda Ethiopia Per Capita Income 367 154 94 % Crop Income 36 64 53 % Livestock Income 24 13 34 % Non Farm Income 42 29 12
Markets as a Driver of Farming System Evolution Stage in Farming System Evolution Farmer Objective Principal Driver Static Equilibrium Subsistence Dominates Rural Population Growth Diversification Both Income and Subsistence <Shifting Farm Gate Terms of Trade <Staple Food Productivity Specialization Income Dominates <Price Signals in Efficient Markets <Regional Competition and Comparative Advantage
GR Commodity Extension (Individual Farmers) <ul><li>Training and visit approach dominates </li></ul><ul><li>Lead farmer </li></ul><ul><li>Thematic specialists </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstration plots and extension bulletins </li></ul>
FSR Extension Approaches (Farmer Groups) <ul><li>Adaptive research feeding participatory evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on farmer learning, particularly learning by doing </li></ul><ul><li>Farmer field schools around integrated approaches (IPM) </li></ul><ul><li>Farmer to farmer learning </li></ul>
NRM Extension Approaches (Community Based) <ul><li>Community based adaptive management </li></ul><ul><li>Pilot sites </li></ul><ul><li>Decision support tools </li></ul><ul><li>Rural resource centers, particularly nurseries </li></ul><ul><li>FPR and CIAL’s </li></ul>
AEI Extension Approaches (Multiple Scales) <ul><li>Networked adaptive research nodes </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation platforms integrating markets, productivity, and NRM </li></ul><ul><li>Benchmark sites </li></ul><ul><li>Modelling and GIS </li></ul>
Extension and the Adoption Process Stages in Adoption Extension Methods Relative Cost Sensitization Mass Media, Radio + Farmer Search Farmer Networks, Participatory Video, Mobile Phones ++ Evaluation/Adaptation Farmer Field Schools, Input Delivery Systems ++++ Adoption On Farm Scaling Up and System Adaptation ++++
Approaches in the Dissemination of Push-Pull Sensitization Radio, Brochures Search Farmer Trainers Field Days Participatory Video Seed market for desmodium Evaluation Farmer Field Schools with two season curriculum Adoption Progressive scaling up within the farm Limited autonomous diffusion (seed??)
Approaches in the Control of Banana Bacterial Wilt Sensitization Radio, Newspapers, Brochures Training District Agr Officers Search Surveillance Capacity Targeting on basis of Epidemiological Front Evaluation FFS based on both cultural control and community enforcement Adoption Sustainability of community enforcement remains a constraint
Conclusions <ul><li>AEI and impact accountability driving an integration of research and extension </li></ul><ul><li>The farm within the landscape within the market as a research laboratory </li></ul><ul><li>Integration leading to a better translation of research outputs into development outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>AEI and AR4D essentially merge </li></ul><ul><li>Funding and institutional gap </li></ul>
Moving From Research Outputs to Development Impacts Capacity: What Institutions? What Skills? What Methods? Regional Strategies Piloting and Operations Research Program Platform Systematic Monitoring and Evaluations Outputs Outcomes Impacts