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Breman - The agroecological solution?

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The agro-ecological solution !? Henk Breman, IFDC-CATALIST “  UN expert makes case for  ecological farming practices  to b...

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The agro-ecological solution !? Food security and poverty reduction  in sub-Saharan Africa,  with an emphasis on the East ...

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   ” Occupy Wall Street”

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Breman - The agroecological solution?

  1. 1. The agro-ecological solution !? Henk Breman, IFDC-CATALIST “ UN expert makes case for ecological farming practices to boost food production UN News Center 8 March 2011  ”
  2. 2. The agro-ecological solution !? Food security and poverty reduction in sub-Saharan Africa, with an emphasis on the East African Highlands <ul><li>Occupy Wall Street </li></ul><ul><li>Myths and realities </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilizer x ISFM </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  3. 3.    ” Occupy Wall Street”
  4. 4.   ” Occupy Wall Street”: Ideal of Olivier de Schutter <ul><li>Improve the stocks and use of natural capital ! </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers involved in technology development </li></ul><ul><li>More social cohesion </li></ul><ul><li>Decreasing gender related differences </li></ul><ul><li>Policy attention for agro-ecology </li></ul>
  5. 5. ” Occupy Wall Street”: Minimize the use of non-renewable inputs! <ul><li>“ Minimize” should be “optimize” </li></ul><ul><li>No sustainability without external inputs </li></ul>
  6. 6.   Myths & realities <ul><li>Exaggeration </li></ul><ul><li>Weak references </li></ul><ul><li>Wrong use of references </li></ul><ul><li>Different explanations possible </li></ul>
  7. 7. Myths & realities: A disciple worse than his master <ul><li>No inorganic fertilizer required: </li></ul><ul><li>manure </li></ul><ul><li>byproducts of arable farming </li></ul><ul><li>biological nitrogen fixation </li></ul><ul><li>fertilizer trees </li></ul><ul><li>can do the job </li></ul>
  8. 8. Myths & realities: Weak references <ul><li>2,5 t/ha grain with compost, against 1,8 t/ha with fertilizers, </li></ul><ul><li>but N gift 75 & 41 kg/ha </li></ul><ul><li>BNF, through leguminous cover crops: </li></ul><ul><li>103 kg/ha/yr of N world wide </li></ul>
  9. 9. Myths & realities: Wrong citations <ul><li>Agroforestry for sustainable maize = alternative for Malawi’s fertilizer subsidies </li></ul><ul><li>Ann F. Quinion: “ households were found still be living in extreme poverty ” </li></ul>
  10. 10. Myths & realities: Different explanations <ul><li>Productivity of fields in Burkina Faso increasing: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Another green revolution” (Reij et al.) </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilizer use increasing with 5 kg/ha/yr </li></ul>
  11. 11.   ISFM neglected No sustainability without external inputs <ul><li>ISFM for making fertilizer use financially feasible and environmentally more sustainable </li></ul><ul><li>Proven tool for food security and poverty reduction </li></ul><ul><li>More and cheaper soil amendments </li></ul><ul><li>More competitive </li></ul>
  12. 12.   ISFM neglected Illustration of ISFM potential <ul><li>Arable farming </li></ul><ul><li>Animal production </li></ul><ul><li>Agroforestry </li></ul><ul><li>Nature </li></ul><ul><li>Dry land & droughts </li></ul>
  13. 13. ISFM & arable farming
  14. 14. Ratio organic/conventional yields versus conventional yields
  15. 15. ISFM & arable farming
  16. 16. ISFM & animal husbandry 2700 0,3 intensive 800 1,1 + supplem. 480 1,2 extensive Integrated l/ha/y ha/unit Intensity System
  17. 17. ISFM & agroforestery 32 13,0* 9,5* 6,1 4,1 park land + fertilizer 18 6,5* 5,9* 3,9 2,6 park land 10,5 0 0 6,3 4,2 control + fertilizer 3,2 0 0 1,9 1,3 control Total t/ha/an Wood Leaves Straw Grain Treatment
  18. 18. elephants/1000 km2 0 500 1000 1500 2000 0 20 40 60 kg/ha N-P2O5-K2O ISFM & nature
  19. 19. ISFM & dry land and droughts 2,1 0,0 230 (450) 2011 A Rwanda 2,9 0,4 370 (500) 2001 Niger ISFM t/ha Control t/ha Rainfall mm Season Country
  20. 20. ISFM & dry land and droughts: Somalia and the Ruzizi Plain
  21. 21. Conclusions <ul><li>ISFM + fertilizer much higher potential than agroecological solution without fertilizer </li></ul><ul><li>Investments in soil amendments interesting alternative for fertilizer subsidies </li></ul><ul><li>“ minimizing” external input use should become optimizing </li></ul>
  22. 22.   Gross income farmers region …. $/ha ? Thank you
  23. 23. “ Who can save agriculture?” (a citation from a Japanese journal) <ul><li>… knowing that rice farms occupy at average 1 hectare, and that 1 hectare of rice only leads to an income of 10.400 euros, it is difficult to survive by producing rice only… </li></ul><ul><li>Kazuo Otaka, Mainichi Shimbun, Tokyo </li></ul>
  24. 24. Agropastoralisme Burkina Faso: utilisation d’engrais non couplée et production fourragère manque

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