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Shamie Zingore  IPNI Africa Program, Nairobi, Kenya Adrian Johnston  IPNI Asia & Africa, Saskatoon, Canada CIALCA Internat...
Outline <ul><ul><li>The 4R Nutrient Stewardship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The 4R Nutrient Stewardship in the context of s...
The food security challenge
Fertilizer use an important factor Vanlauwe et al. 2010
The four ‘Rights’ of nutrient  management  The  focus  is to match nutrient supply with crop requirements and to minimize ...
The context of smallholder farming systems <ul><ul><li>‘ Low’ input use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly variable soil fe...
The context of smallholder farming systems Livestock Fodder Manure FZ2 Poorer farmers’ cropland Wealthier farmers’ croplan...
<ul><li>Supply in plant available forms </li></ul><ul><li>2. Suit soil properties </li></ul><ul><li>3. Recognize synergism...
Right Rate Fertilizer use  intensity (kg/ha) Tegemeo Institute, 2009 Fertilizer use intensity (kg/ha) on maize  Coastal lo...
Right Rate <ul><li>Appropriately assess soil nutrient supply </li></ul><ul><li>2. Assess all available indigenous nutrient...
Right Place <ul><li>Recognize root-soil dynamics </li></ul><ul><li>Manage spatial variability </li></ul><ul><li>Fit needs ...
<ul><li>Assess timing of crop uptake </li></ul><ul><li>2. Assess dynamics of soil nutrient supply </li></ul><ul><li>3. Rec...
Nutrient Expert – A DSST  for applying the 4Rs Determine indigenous  nutrient supply Determine NPK (X) requirements to ach...
Nutrient Expert
Bridging the gap between science and practice
Field diagnosis tools
Productivity Profitability System durability Healthy environment Cropping System Objectives Net  profit Resource   Energy ...
Concluding remarks <ul><ul><li>4R Nutrient Stewardship emphasizes sustainability with a simple message – Right source, rat...
Thank you http://www.ipni.net/4r
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Zingore - 4R Nutrient Stewardship in the context of smallholder agriculture in Africa

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Presentation delivered at the CIALCA international conference 'Challenges and Opportunities to the agricultural intensification of the humid highland systems of sub-Saharan Africa'. Kigali, Rwanda, October 24-27 2011.

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Zingore - 4R Nutrient Stewardship in the context of smallholder agriculture in Africa

  1. 1. Shamie Zingore IPNI Africa Program, Nairobi, Kenya Adrian Johnston IPNI Asia & Africa, Saskatoon, Canada CIALCA International Conference, Kigali, Rwanda, 24/10/2011 In the context of smallholder farming systems in Africa
  2. 2. Outline <ul><ul><li>The 4R Nutrient Stewardship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The 4R Nutrient Stewardship in the context of smallholder systems in SSA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrient Expert DSST for integrated application of 4Rs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Holistic assessment of the 4R Nutrient Stewardship </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The food security challenge
  4. 4. Fertilizer use an important factor Vanlauwe et al. 2010
  5. 5. The four ‘Rights’ of nutrient management The focus is to match nutrient supply with crop requirements and to minimize nutrient losses from fields
  6. 6. The context of smallholder farming systems <ul><ul><li>‘ Low’ input use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly variable soil fertility conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixed cropping systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predominantly rain-fed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Socio-economic constraints </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The context of smallholder farming systems Livestock Fodder Manure FZ2 Poorer farmers’ cropland Wealthier farmers’ cropland Communal grazing land FZ4 (25 ha) FZ4 86 ha 400 ha Village land (600 ha) Wet and dry season grazing Grazing of crop residues 5 t ha -1 3 t ha -1 FZ2 (43 ha) FZ2 (46 ha)
  8. 8. <ul><li>Supply in plant available forms </li></ul><ul><li>2. Suit soil properties </li></ul><ul><li>3. Recognize synergisms among elements </li></ul><ul><li>4. Handling by famers </li></ul>Right Source Maize response to nutrient application, southern Malawi
  9. 9. Right Rate Fertilizer use intensity (kg/ha) Tegemeo Institute, 2009 Fertilizer use intensity (kg/ha) on maize Coastal lowlands 14 Eastern lowlands 32 High potential maize zone 116 Central highlands 112 <5 25 - 50 5 -10 10 - 15 15 - 25 ND
  10. 10. Right Rate <ul><li>Appropriately assess soil nutrient supply </li></ul><ul><li>2. Assess all available indigenous nutrient sources </li></ul><ul><li>3. Assess plant demand </li></ul><ul><li>4. Predict fertilizer use efficiency </li></ul>Field type 1 Field type 2 Field type 3
  11. 11. Right Place <ul><li>Recognize root-soil dynamics </li></ul><ul><li>Manage spatial variability </li></ul><ul><li>Fit needs of tillage system </li></ul>Photo – A. Bationo
  12. 12. <ul><li>Assess timing of crop uptake </li></ul><ul><li>2. Assess dynamics of soil nutrient supply </li></ul><ul><li>3. Recognize timing of weather factors </li></ul><ul><li>4. Evaluate logistics of operations </li></ul>Right Time NPK
  13. 13. Nutrient Expert – A DSST for applying the 4Rs Determine indigenous nutrient supply Determine NPK (X) requirements to achieve attainable yields Determine nutrient requirement for target yield – economics, farmers’ resources Minimize depletion of soil nutrients <ul><li>Based on the principles of site-specific nutrient management </li></ul><ul><li>Assists extension agents to formulate quickly location-specific fertilizer guidelines </li></ul>
  14. 14. Nutrient Expert
  15. 15. Bridging the gap between science and practice
  16. 16. Field diagnosis tools
  17. 17. Productivity Profitability System durability Healthy environment Cropping System Objectives Net profit Resource Energy use Labor effic- Nutrient iencies: Water Adoption Return on investment Yield stability Soil productivity Water & air quality Farm income Working conditions Nutrient balance Nutrient loss Yield Quality Soil erosion Biodiversity Ecosystem services 4R Nutrient Stewardship - Outcomes and indicators
  18. 18. Concluding remarks <ul><ul><li>4R Nutrient Stewardship emphasizes sustainability with a simple message – Right source, rate, time & place. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides a basis for sustainable crop production intensification – with universal relevance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides a means to communicate how nutrient management at the farm-scale contributes to sustainability. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Thank you http://www.ipni.net/4r

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