Melbourne, 15 February 2011 M.S. Swaminathan, FRS UNESCO Chair in Ecotechnology M S Swaminathan Research Foundation, Chenn...
Source: FAO Price Volatility : Threat to Food Security
<ul><li>Goal of restricting temperature rise to below 2 degrees Celsius </li></ul><ul><li>For each 1 degree Celsius rise i...
Need for Genetic checkmating of new disease threats
Source: Global Ecological Footprint, 2011 Unsustainable Consumption of Natural Resources Expanding Ecological Footprint – ...
“ Intensive  cultivation of  land  without  conservation  of  soil  fertility and  soil  structure would  lead  ultimately...
If farm ecology and economics go wrong, nothing else will go right From Green to an Ever-green Revolution Pathways Evergre...
Mitigating Climate Change :  Role of Terrestrial Carbon Banks <ul><li>Global net primary productivity (NPP) = 120 Gt/c/yea...
Faidherbia confers double advantages – carbon sequestration and soil nutrient enrichment 60 years of research shows on eac...
Gene Bank Seed Bank Water Bank Grain Bank Conservation - Cultivation – Consumption - Commerce Pathway to achieving the UN ...
<ul><li>Deepwater (floating) rice  has  </li></ul><ul><li>three special adaptations:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ability to elo...
True Potato Seed Answer to the challenge of producing disease free planting  material as a result of rise in temperature S...
<ul><li>19  varieties of Yam in 4 species were in Cultivation (as of 2006) but less than 5 in rural market and none in urb...
Climate Resilient Farming
Mixed Cropping – Coping Mechanism Against  Natural Calamities Kolli Hills, Tamil Nadu
Gene Banks for a Warming Planet Community Gene & Seed Banks National Gene Bank Svalbard –  Global Seed Vault Conservation ...
Bio-Shield against Sea Level Rise Mangrove Forests
US Patent No. 7,622,636 Issued on Nov. 24, 2009, Assigned to  M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation for Dehydrin Gene
Prosopis juliflora  has wide adaptation to water stress and drought conditions Used as source of drought tolerant genes Co...
Patents granted for ----
The transformed plants with ferritin gene shows three time increase in iron content  Genetic Fortification : Iron Rich Ric...
Harvest Plus: Schedule of Product Releases Crop Nutrients Release Year of Initial Lines* Sweetpotato Pro-vitamin A 2007 Be...
National Biotechnology Regulatory Authority The bottom line of our national agricultural biotechnology policy should be th...
National Level Hub (MSSRF) Data Managers (both connectivity and content) Data Generators & Providers ISRO Uplink/ Downlink...
Information on Wave Height and location of fish shoal Transformational Technology
Hunger Chronic Hidden Transient Food Security Availability Access Absorption Awareness – Analysis - Action MSSRF / WFP : F...
Combating Hidden Hunger / Moringa oleifera Annual Moringa Variety developed at the Tamil Nadu Agricultural University Prom...
Impact of Technology on Cotton in India
Bikaneri Nerma (BN-Bt Strain) First public sector Bt Cotton variety suitable for rainfed farming
127 AGRO-CLIMATIC SUB-ZONES BASED ON CROPPING  AND WEATHER PATTERNS Managing Climate Change Sparse forest trees with veget...
AGRO-CLIMATIC ZONE CLIMATE RISK MANAGEMENT CENTRES  SUB- ZONE LOCATION-SPECIFIC CLIMATE AND CROP MANAGEMENT <ul><li>CLIMAT...
<ul><li>A ‘Training Module’ on ‘Climate Risk Management’ has been put together </li></ul><ul><li>Three Training workshops ...
Mitigation (Reducing Green Gas Emissions) A Biogas Plant, a Farm Pond and a few Fertilizer Trees in every Farm Biogas Plan...
Water Security : WAR for Water (Winning, Augmentation and Renovation ) <ul><li>Rain Water Harvesting </li></ul><ul><li>Rec...
Water Security :  Small Water Harvesting Structures (Jal Kund) Ideal for areas like Sorah (Chirappunji)
Watershed Development - Mahatma Gandhi  National Rural Employment Guarantee Programme Marry intellect with labour Every Wa...
Natural Resources Conservation and Enhancement Sustainable Livelihood <ul><li>Land </li></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><...
Biovillage Linking Ecological and Livelihood Security
The goal of the Biovalley is to promote biohappiness through integrated attention to the conservation, sustainable use and...
Biomass – an under- utilized resource for enhancing income, energy  and work security Bio-Park
Sea Water constitutes nearly 97% of global water sources Dandi March(6 April 1930) of Mahatma Gandhi Sea Water : A Social ...
Agro-Aqua farming with sea water
Innovations in below sea level farming in Kuttanad ONE RICE - ONE FISH Punja  season November- February Low chemical input...
Genetic Garden of HALOPHYTES at Vedaranyam Obligatory halophytes Facultative halophytes Tolerate high concentration of sod...
Impact of Climate on Fisheries  Source : NATURE, Vol 467, 2 Sept 2010 Bolivia Cold : 15ºC to 4ºC during July – August 6 mi...
Population growth can be limited if people have a duty towards those who are not yet born, that duty is not to give them e...
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The global challenge to feed and clothe the world’s population in a changing climate - M.S. Swaminathan

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The global challenge to feed and clothe the world’s population in a changing climate - M.S. Swaminathan

  1. 1. Melbourne, 15 February 2011 M.S. Swaminathan, FRS UNESCO Chair in Ecotechnology M S Swaminathan Research Foundation, Chennai, India Global Challenge to Feed and Clothe the World’s Population in a Changing Climate The CCRSPI Conference 2011
  2. 2. Source: FAO Price Volatility : Threat to Food Security
  3. 3. <ul><li>Goal of restricting temperature rise to below 2 degrees Celsius </li></ul><ul><li>For each 1 degree Celsius rise in mean temperature, wheat yield losses in India are likely to be around 6 million tonnes per year, or around $1.5 billion at current prices </li></ul>Cancun Agreements (December 2010) Implications for Wheat Production <ul><li>IFPRI projects that rainfed wheat yields in South Asia will decrease by around 44% by 2050, if adaptation measures are not put in place </li></ul>Common but Differentiated Impact
  4. 4. Need for Genetic checkmating of new disease threats
  5. 5. Source: Global Ecological Footprint, 2011 Unsustainable Consumption of Natural Resources Expanding Ecological Footprint – Threat to Food Security
  6. 6. “ Intensive cultivation of land without conservation of soil fertility and soil structure would lead ultimately to the springing up of deserts. Irrigation without arrangements for drainage would result in soils getting alkaline or saline. Indiscriminate use of pesticides, fungicides and herbicides could cause adverse changes in biological balance as well as lead to an increase in the incidence of cancer and other diseases, through the toxic residues present in the grains or other edible parts. Unscientific tapping of underground water would lead to the rapid exhaustion of this wonderful capital resource left to us through ages of natural farming. The rapid replacement of numerous locally adapted varieties with one or two high yielding strains in large contiguous areas would result in the spread of serious diseases capable of wiping out entire crops, as happened prior to the Irish potato famine of 1845 and the Bengal rice famine of 1942. Therefore, the initiation of exploitative agriculture without a proper understanding of the various consequences of every one of the changes introduced into traditional agriculture and without first building up a proper scientific and training base to sustain it, may only lead us into an era of agricultural disaster in the long run, rather than to an era of agricultural prosperity.” M.S. Swaminathan Indian Science Congress, Varanasi, January 4, 1968 Sustainable Food Production : Early Warning
  7. 7. If farm ecology and economics go wrong, nothing else will go right From Green to an Ever-green Revolution Pathways Evergreen Revolution : increasing productivity in perpetuity without associated ecological harm Organic agriculture : cultivation without any use of chemical inputs like mineral fertilizers and chemical pesticides Green Agriculture : conservation farming with the help of integrated pest management, integrated nutrient supply and integrated natural resource management Green Revolution : Commodity-centred increase in productivity Change In plant architecture, and harvest index Change in the physiological rhythm-insensitive to photoperiodism Lodging resistance
  8. 8. Mitigating Climate Change : Role of Terrestrial Carbon Banks <ul><li>Global net primary productivity (NPP) = 120 Gt/c/year </li></ul><ul><li>Most of it is returned to the atmosphere through plant and soil respiration </li></ul><ul><li>If 10% of NPP is retained in the terrestrial biosphere (ie, soil, plants, wetlands, mangrove ecosystems) , 12 Gt/c/year can become part of a terrestrial carbon bank </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing soil C pool by 1 ton c/ha/year in the root zone can increase food production by 30 to 50 million tonnes </li></ul>Source : Prof Rattan Lal
  9. 9. Faidherbia confers double advantages – carbon sequestration and soil nutrient enrichment 60 years of research shows on each hectare, mature trees supply the equivalent of 300kg of complete fertilizer and 250kg of lime . This can sustain a maize yield of 4 tons/ha Pathway to Mitigation : Planting Billion Fertilizer Trees Eg. Faidherbia Albida Source : ICRAF
  10. 10. Gene Bank Seed Bank Water Bank Grain Bank Conservation - Cultivation – Consumption - Commerce Pathway to achieving the UN Millennium Development Goal of Eradicating hunger and poverty Community Food and Water Security System
  11. 11. <ul><li>Deepwater (floating) rice has </li></ul><ul><li>three special adaptations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ability to elongate with the rise of water levels; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>develop nodal tillers and roots from the upper nodes in the water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the upward bending of the terminal part of the plant called 'kneeing' that keeps the reproductive parts above the water as flood water subsides. </li></ul></ul>Rice – Anchor of Food Security in an era of global warming Facing the challenge of Floods Anticipatory Research
  12. 12. True Potato Seed Answer to the challenge of producing disease free planting material as a result of rise in temperature Sustaining the Potato Revolution
  13. 13. <ul><li>19 varieties of Yam in 4 species were in Cultivation (as of 2006) but less than 5 in rural market and none in urban market </li></ul><ul><li>Dioscorea alata </li></ul><ul><li>Inchikachil I & II` </li></ul><ul><li>Kuzhikavithu I </li></ul><ul><li>Kuzhikavithu II </li></ul><ul><li>Quintalkachil I </li></ul><ul><li>Quintalkachil II </li></ul><ul><li>Anakomban </li></ul><ul><li>Kaduvakkayyan </li></ul><ul><li>Urulan kachil </li></ul><ul><li>Kuppathottikizhangu </li></ul><ul><li>Elivalankachil </li></ul><ul><li>Neendi/Veetukizhangu </li></ul><ul><li>Vella kachil I & II </li></ul><ul><li>Chorakachil/cherakachil/chuvappukachil/ Neela kachil I, II & III </li></ul><ul><li>Dioscorea esculenta </li></ul><ul><li>14. Nanakizhangu </li></ul><ul><li>15. Vella Enchi kachil </li></ul><ul><li>16. Mullan Kachil </li></ul><ul><li>Dioscorea rotundata </li></ul><ul><li>17.Africankachil </li></ul><ul><li>18. Thoonankachi </li></ul><ul><li>Dioscorea bulbifera </li></ul><ul><li>19. Erachikachil/Adathappu </li></ul>Life Saving Crops in Wayanad
  14. 14. Climate Resilient Farming
  15. 15. Mixed Cropping – Coping Mechanism Against Natural Calamities Kolli Hills, Tamil Nadu
  16. 16. Gene Banks for a Warming Planet Community Gene & Seed Banks National Gene Bank Svalbard – Global Seed Vault Conservation continuum Biodiversity is the Feedstock for Climate Resilient Farming A similar Seed Vault has been established by DRDO at Chang La in the Himalayas
  17. 17. Bio-Shield against Sea Level Rise Mangrove Forests
  18. 18. US Patent No. 7,622,636 Issued on Nov. 24, 2009, Assigned to M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation for Dehydrin Gene
  19. 19. Prosopis juliflora has wide adaptation to water stress and drought conditions Used as source of drought tolerant genes Control 36 days of water withdrawal   Genetic Shield against adverse changes in precipitation
  20. 20. Patents granted for ----
  21. 21. The transformed plants with ferritin gene shows three time increase in iron content Genetic Fortification : Iron Rich Rice Untransformed Transgenic rice N P 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
  22. 22. Harvest Plus: Schedule of Product Releases Crop Nutrients Release Year of Initial Lines* Sweetpotato Pro-vitamin A 2007 Bean Iron , Zinc 2010 Pearl Millet Iron , Zinc 2011 Rice Zinc, Iron 2012 Maize Pro-vitamin A, Zinc, Iron 2013 Wheat Zinc, Iron 2013 Cassava Pro-vitamin A 2014
  23. 23. National Biotechnology Regulatory Authority The bottom line of our national agricultural biotechnology policy should be the economic well being of farm families, food security of the nation, health security of the consumer, biosecurity of agriculture and health, protection of the environment and the security of national and international trade in farm commodities” (M S Swaminathan Panel 2004)
  24. 24. National Level Hub (MSSRF) Data Managers (both connectivity and content) Data Generators & Providers ISRO Uplink/ Downlink Satellite Web based interactive portal Internet Hub and Spokes Model Jamsetji Tata National Virtual Academy for Rural Prosperity (NVA) - 2003 Information Users (Rural families) Village Knowledge Centres (VKC) Block level hubs Village Resource Centre (VRC)
  25. 25. Information on Wave Height and location of fish shoal Transformational Technology
  26. 26. Hunger Chronic Hidden Transient Food Security Availability Access Absorption Awareness – Analysis - Action MSSRF / WFP : Food Insecurity Atlas
  27. 27. Combating Hidden Hunger / Moringa oleifera Annual Moringa Variety developed at the Tamil Nadu Agricultural University Promote the Consumption of Millet and Moringe
  28. 28. Impact of Technology on Cotton in India
  29. 29. Bikaneri Nerma (BN-Bt Strain) First public sector Bt Cotton variety suitable for rainfed farming
  30. 30. 127 AGRO-CLIMATIC SUB-ZONES BASED ON CROPPING AND WEATHER PATTERNS Managing Climate Change Sparse forest trees with vegetables, millet, wheat and fodder Thorny forest with pearl millet and fodder Thorny forest, pearl millet sorghum and sunflower Wheat, Paddy and pulses Sorghum, pearl millet, pigeon pea and groundnut Paddy, maize, barley, pigeon pea and groundnut Millets, pulses and oilseeds Paddy, maize barley, pigeon pea and jute Paddy, sorghum, pigeon pea and soybean Paddy, millets, pigeon pea, and blackgram Paddy, pulses and groundnut Paddy,maize, pigeon pea Wheat, millets, maize, rice and horticultural crops Paddy, jute, tea and horticultural crops Millets, potato, pulses Millets, maize and potato, paddy and jute Paddy, coconut, blackgram, sunflower and groundnut Paddy, tapioca, coconut and spices Paddy, coconut, oil palm pineapple, tapioca and pepper
  31. 31. AGRO-CLIMATIC ZONE CLIMATE RISK MANAGEMENT CENTRES SUB- ZONE LOCATION-SPECIFIC CLIMATE AND CROP MANAGEMENT <ul><li>CLIMATE SIMULATION MODELS </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative cropping strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Seed reserves to implement contingency plans </li></ul><ul><li>Market fluctuations and pricing </li></ul>Community Climate Risk Managers
  32. 32. <ul><li>A ‘Training Module’ on ‘Climate Risk Management’ has been put together </li></ul><ul><li>Three Training workshops for selected Panchayat Leaders (about 70) from various districts of Tamil Nadu were organized. A wo </li></ul><ul><li>An exclusive Training facility to train ‘Master Trainers’ is envisaged to take up the Climate Care movement across states. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Mitigation (Reducing Green Gas Emissions) A Biogas Plant, a Farm Pond and a few Fertilizer Trees in every Farm Biogas Plants Methane Neem Coated Urea Nitrous Oxide Reducing deforestation and forest degradation and promoting afforestation Carbon dioxide
  34. 34. Water Security : WAR for Water (Winning, Augmentation and Renovation ) <ul><li>Rain Water Harvesting </li></ul><ul><li>Recycling of wastewater </li></ul><ul><li>Conjunctive use of water </li></ul><ul><li>Technologies for desalination </li></ul><ul><li>Providing safe drinking water for rural and remote areas </li></ul>Components Department of Science and Technology
  35. 35. Water Security : Small Water Harvesting Structures (Jal Kund) Ideal for areas like Sorah (Chirappunji)
  36. 36. Watershed Development - Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Programme Marry intellect with labour Every Watershed – a Bioindustrial Watershed
  37. 37. Natural Resources Conservation and Enhancement Sustainable Livelihood <ul><li>Land </li></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>Biodiversity </li></ul><ul><li>Common Property </li></ul><ul><li>Resources </li></ul>On-farm Non-farm <ul><li>Diversification </li></ul><ul><li>Value Addition </li></ul>Market driven SHGs Biovillages Institutional Structures for Climate Risk Management
  38. 38. Biovillage Linking Ecological and Livelihood Security
  39. 39. The goal of the Biovalley is to promote biohappiness through integrated attention to the conservation, sustainable use and equitable sharing of the bioresources of the area leading to health, work and income security. Conservation Farming will include steps for soil health enhancement, harvesting and efficient use of rain water and saving and using plants for saving lives and strengthening livelihoods. Biovalley in Koraput District Biovalley is to Biotechnology (BT), what Silicon Valley is to Information Technology (IT)
  40. 40. Biomass – an under- utilized resource for enhancing income, energy and work security Bio-Park
  41. 41. Sea Water constitutes nearly 97% of global water sources Dandi March(6 April 1930) of Mahatma Gandhi Sea Water : A Social Resource
  42. 42. Agro-Aqua farming with sea water
  43. 43. Innovations in below sea level farming in Kuttanad ONE RICE - ONE FISH Punja season November- February Low chemical input or Organic Yield- 4.2 t/ha April- October Monoculture – Giant Prawn ( Macrobrachium rosenbergii ) Polyculture*- Indian major carps or common carps or Silver carps and grass carps and Giant Prawn Yield- Rice: 4.2 t/ha Fish- Prawn: 480 kg; Carp : 300 kg. * Recommended practice
  44. 44. Genetic Garden of HALOPHYTES at Vedaranyam Obligatory halophytes Facultative halophytes Tolerate high concentration of sodium salts > 3 times of seawater salinity Even demand high NaCl for survival and reproduction 1560 species Most of the species tolerate only moderate level of salinity Reproduction requires low saline condition Mangroves 60 species Converting Sea Water into Fresh Water through Halophytes
  45. 45. Impact of Climate on Fisheries Source : NATURE, Vol 467, 2 Sept 2010 Bolivia Cold : 15ºC to 4ºC during July – August 6 million fishes to thousands of alligators, turtles and river dolphins
  46. 46. Population growth can be limited if people have a duty towards those who are not yet born, that duty is not to give them existence but to give them happiness. - CONDORCET (1795) Children for Happiness

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