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Supply and demand drivers of grain legumes in highlands of central and southern Africa: Targeting agricultural research in...
Introduction
Introduction
Introduction <ul><li>Increase % legumes: N2Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Debates about R4D for impact  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ta...
Objectives <ul><li>Apply value chain methods to assess role of legumes, drivers of change, opportunities and constraints o...
Conceptual Framework Local Country Global Input supply Output marketing
Hypotheses <ul><li>N2Africa legumes important for cash income, food security, NRM and gender equity </li></ul><ul><li>Glob...
Methods <ul><li>Rapid analysis value chain questionnaire interview survey with key players  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Survey  ...
Roles in household strategies
Opportunities: Production consumption
Production
Consumers Channel 2 Fresh grains  unprocessed Channel 3 Dried grains  unprocessed Channel 4 Dried grains export Exports Ch...
Pathways: Source-endmarkets
Gross margins Grain legume price (Metical/kg) Market stage Common beans Cowpeas Groundnuts Soybeans Farm gate 20 6 22 10 W...
Co-integration analysis of prices: beans
Constraints  <ul><li>Low yields and poor quality of products </li></ul><ul><li>Poor access to inputs, extension services a...
Areas for targeting research <ul><li>V arietal testing and agronomic research </li></ul><ul><li>Efficient systems for deli...
Conclusions <ul><li>G rain legumes important and very important roles in smallholder farmers’ strategies for incomes, food...
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Rusike - Supply and demand drivers of grain legumes in highlands of central and southern Africa: Targeting agricultural research investments

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Presentation delivered at the CIALCA international conference 'Challenges and Opportunities to the agricultural intensification of the humid highland systems of sub-Saharan Africa'. Kigali, Rwanda, October 24-27 2011.

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Rusike - Supply and demand drivers of grain legumes in highlands of central and southern Africa: Targeting agricultural research investments

  1. 1. Supply and demand drivers of grain legumes in highlands of central and southern Africa: Targeting agricultural research investments CIALCA International Conference, Kigali, Rwanda, 24-27 October 2011 J. Rusike, S. Boahen, K. Dashiell, S. Kantengwa, J. Ongoma, D. M. Mongane, G. Kasongo
  2. 2. Introduction
  3. 3. Introduction
  4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>Increase % legumes: N2Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Debates about R4D for impact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Target cowpeas (food security) or soybeans (cash, nutritional security)? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Target better-favored or less-favored areas? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How deliver seed, fertilizers, inoculants, crop and post-harvest management technologies, finance, services, capacity building? </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Objectives <ul><li>Apply value chain methods to assess role of legumes, drivers of change, opportunities and constraints on grain legume-led growth </li></ul><ul><li>Identify areas for targeting R4D investments </li></ul>
  6. 6. Conceptual Framework Local Country Global Input supply Output marketing
  7. 7. Hypotheses <ul><li>N2Africa legumes important for cash income, food security, NRM and gender equity </li></ul><ul><li>Global and country scale drivers (globalization, world prices, urbanization, policy) determinants of market opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Targeting R4D at local scale drivers generates most impact </li></ul>
  8. 8. Methods <ul><li>Rapid analysis value chain questionnaire interview survey with key players </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Survey April-September 2001 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>245 in-depth interviews with government researchers, extension agents, seed companies, traders, agribusinesses, NGOs, government policy makers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ghana 45; Kenya 32; Malawi 37; Mozambique 24; Nigeria 44; Rwanda 20; S. Kivu 17; Zimbabwe 26 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Statistical analyses and econometric modelling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time series annual data on area planted, yield production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time series monthly price data in wholesale and retail markets in source and end-markets </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Roles in household strategies
  10. 10. Opportunities: Production consumption
  11. 11. Production
  12. 12. Consumers Channel 2 Fresh grains unprocessed Channel 3 Dried grains unprocessed Channel 4 Dried grains export Exports Channel 5 Dried grains processed Consumers Subsistence households Consumption Distribution Trade On-farm p roduction Inputs Channel 1 Subsistence production & consumption Processing
  13. 13. Pathways: Source-endmarkets
  14. 14. Gross margins Grain legume price (Metical/kg) Market stage Common beans Cowpeas Groundnuts Soybeans Farm gate 20 6 22 10 Wholesale (terminal) 23 8 26 14-22 Retail (terminal) 46 8-10 35-40
  15. 15. Co-integration analysis of prices: beans
  16. 16. Constraints <ul><li>Low yields and poor quality of products </li></ul><ul><li>Poor access to inputs, extension services and markets </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of post-harvest storage </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of market coordination </li></ul><ul><li>Poor road and communication infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Unavailability of micro-credit </li></ul><ul><li>Poor government market regulations and high transaction costs </li></ul>
  17. 17. Areas for targeting research <ul><li>V arietal testing and agronomic research </li></ul><ul><li>Efficient systems for delivery of certified seed of adapted varieties, rhizobium inoculants, fertilizers and agro-chemicals and crop management practices that relax constraints on higher yields </li></ul><ul><li>Post-harvest management practices and storage </li></ul><ul><li>Microfinance </li></ul><ul><li>Agro-processing plants </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure and market regulations to reduce transaction costs </li></ul><ul><li>Policy incentives to expand private sector investments </li></ul>
  18. 18. Conclusions <ul><li>G rain legumes important and very important roles in smallholder farmers’ strategies for incomes, food security, nutrition, NRM and gender equity in highlands </li></ul><ul><li>Significant opportunities in domestic urban, regional and international markets </li></ul><ul><li>Smallholders can be linked by strengthening farmers’ groups and better targeting of research investments </li></ul>

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