ASSESSING AND IMPROVING              NUTRITIONAL DIVERSITY OF                 CROPPING SYSTEMS Roseline Remans, Dan Flynn,...
Agricultural Monitoring Crop yields, value-cost ratios, calories per person                    HUMAN DIET: 51 ESSENTIAL NU...
Nutritional functional diversity (FD)                         NUTRITIONAL FUNCTIONAL DIVERSITY= Metric to assess nutrition...
MILLENNIUM VILLAGES AND AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ZONES
UNDERNUTRITION IN MILLENNIUM VILLAGE SITES                                                AT BASELINEEK=Ethiopia, Koraro; ...
BANANA-BASED SYSTEM                  MAIZED -BASED SYSTEMS    RUHIIRA, UGANDA            SAURI, KENYA and MWANDAMA, MALAWI...
% of farms                                                                  % of farms                                   5...
Nutritional Functional Diversity versus Species DiversityNutritional Functional Diversity                                 ...
NUTRITIONAL FD versus SPECIES RICHNESS
Nutrient Gap Analysis of Supply% of DRI per person per day locally produced            Mwandama, Malawi
ANALYSIS AT VILLAGE and LANDSCAPENutritional FD                                                     11
Unhealthy Soils, Unhealthy People           Yields, Soil Health, Human Health, Economic Growth                    Loss of ...
RELATIONSHIP WITH FOOD AND NUTRITION INDICATORS                       *                                                  *...
How to manage biodiversity for nutrition?  Two main strategies   STRATEGY 1: To restore or maintain high levels of local d...
Adoption of Agricultural Diversification Activities                      % of farmers diversifying                    Exam...
Analysis of Food Frequency Surveys:Baseline and Following Introduction of Nutritious Crops                      Food consu...
GLOBAL HUNGER INDEX, IFPRI 2010GLOBAL CROP NITROGEN STRESS, Liu et al, PNAS
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Remans - Assessing and improving nutritional diversity of cropping systems

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Presentation delivered at the CIALCA international conference 'Challenges and Opportunities to the agricultural intensification of the humid highland systems of sub-Saharan Africa'. Kigali, Rwanda, October 24-27 2011.

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Remans - Assessing and improving nutritional diversity of cropping systems

  1. 1. ASSESSING AND IMPROVING NUTRITIONAL DIVERSITY OF CROPPING SYSTEMS Roseline Remans, Dan Flynn, Fabrice DeClerck, Willy Diru, Jessica Fanzo, Kaitlyn Gaynor, Isabel Lambrecht, JosephMudiope, Patrick Mutuo, Phelire Nkhoma, David Siriri, Clare Sullivan and Cheryl Palm CIALCA October 26, 2011
  2. 2. Agricultural Monitoring Crop yields, value-cost ratios, calories per person HUMAN DIET: 51 ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTSAir, water and Protein Lipids-Fat Macrominerals Trace Vitamins energy (amino acids) (fatty acids) elements Oxygen Histidine Linoleic acid Na Fe A Water Isoleucine Linolenic acid K Zn DCarbohydrates Leucine Ca Cu E Lysine Mg Mn K Methionine S I C (Absorbic acid) Phenylalanine P Fe B1 (Thiamine) Threonine Cl Se B2 (Riboflavin) Tryptophan Si B3 (Niacin) Valine Mo B5 (Pantothenic acid) Co (in B12) B6 (Pyroxidine) B** B7/H (Biotin) Ni** B9 (Folic acid, folacin)Maize Beans Cr** B12 (Cobalamin) Spinach V** As** Li** Sn**
  3. 3. Nutritional functional diversity (FD) NUTRITIONAL FUNCTIONAL DIVERSITY= Metric to assess nutritional diversity and potential of locally available geneticresources for food based nutritionDatabase currently contains 1000 food items, including many from Africa Species composition Nutritional functional diversity Nutritional composition
  4. 4. MILLENNIUM VILLAGES AND AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ZONES
  5. 5. UNDERNUTRITION IN MILLENNIUM VILLAGE SITES AT BASELINEEK=Ethiopia, Koraro; GB= Ghana, Bonsaaso; KD=Kenya, Dertu; KS=Kenya, Sauri; MM=Malawi, Mwandama; MT=Malit,Tiby; RM=Rwanda, Mayange; NI=Nigeria, Ikaram; NP=Nigeria, Pampaida; TM=Tanzania, Mbola; UR=Uganda, Ruhiira
  6. 6. BANANA-BASED SYSTEM MAIZED -BASED SYSTEMS RUHIIRA, UGANDA SAURI, KENYA and MWANDAMA, MALAWI COMMUNITY AND ON-FARM AGRO-DIVERSITY Uganda Kenya Malawi# edible plant species in the community: 55 49 42Average # edible plant species/ farm: 18 15 11Average # livestock species/ farm: 2 2 0.5 6
  7. 7. % of farms % of farms 50% 75% 25% 50% 75% 25% 0% 0% 100% 100% Onion Jackfruit Tangerine Pigeon pea Pepper (green) Macadamia Orange Pomegranate Carrots Black plum Achak Fig tree Mushroom Irish potato Green grams/moong beans Cowpea Watermelon Coffee Passionfruit Moringa Peas Cape gooseberries Orange Onyulo Finger millet Mulberry (Onunga) Sugarcane Rosemary Eggplant (black) Eggplant Cabbage Custard apple Passionfruit Jackfruit Lemon Cabbage Irish potato Turnip Java plum (mzambarau, jamna) Apple Soybean Sorghum Sorghum Pineapple Okra (local variaty) Mitoo Black jack Sauri - Kenya Groundnut (peanut) Lemon Chili pepperMulberry (Onunga) Musabibu Mwandama - Malawi Cocoyam Onion Chili pepper Tomato Spiderweed Lablab Sugarcane Tomato Mango Sweet potatoes Guava Amaranth Pumpkin Peach Cocoyam Avocado Apoth CassavaGroundnut (peanut) Black nightshade Papaya Papaya Guava Sweet potatoes Pumpkin Cowpea Bean Avocado Mango Kale (sukuma wiki) Bean Banana MAIZE-BASED SYSTEMS IN SAURI, KENYA AND MWANDAMA, MALAWI Amaranth Pigeon pea 7 Black jack Cassava Maize Maize Banana
  8. 8. Nutritional Functional Diversity versus Species DiversityNutritional Functional Diversity Mulberry Groundnut Pumpkin IN COMMON Maize Banana Cassava Papaya Pigeon Pea Mango Sweet potatoes Irish potatoes Avocados Species richness
  9. 9. NUTRITIONAL FD versus SPECIES RICHNESS
  10. 10. Nutrient Gap Analysis of Supply% of DRI per person per day locally produced Mwandama, Malawi
  11. 11. ANALYSIS AT VILLAGE and LANDSCAPENutritional FD 11
  12. 12. Unhealthy Soils, Unhealthy People Yields, Soil Health, Human Health, Economic Growth Loss of nutrients, soil erosion, biodiversity Agriculture Environmentalwithout proper management degradation Declining Declining labor productivity crop productivity and diversity Malnutrition, illness (state of well-being) Deckelbaum et al., 2006
  13. 13. RELATIONSHIP WITH FOOD AND NUTRITION INDICATORS * ** P<0.01
  14. 14. How to manage biodiversity for nutrition? Two main strategies STRATEGY 1: To restore or maintain high levels of local diversity Value-Small-scale Improved Knowledge Extension adding Irrigation seed storage sharing and and & ISFM facilities platform education Business STRATEGY 2: To facilitate the adaptation of new varieties and crops with new and different characteristics that benefit the population and fit changing conditions 14
  15. 15. Adoption of Agricultural Diversification Activities % of farmers diversifying Example Mwandama, Malawi
  16. 16. Analysis of Food Frequency Surveys:Baseline and Following Introduction of Nutritious Crops Food consumption patterns Example Mwandama, Malawi
  17. 17. GLOBAL HUNGER INDEX, IFPRI 2010GLOBAL CROP NITROGEN STRESS, Liu et al, PNAS

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