Various types of computers & history


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Various types of computers & history

  1. 1. <ul><li>OBJECTIVE: Students will become familiar with the different types of computer and how they have evolved through the years through lecture, classroom discussion and completion of a worksheets. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Types of Computers <ul><li>All computers have the same basic components. </li></ul><ul><li>How are computers different? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What are the different types of computers? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supercomputers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mainframes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minicomputers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Professional Workstations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal Computers </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Supercomputers <ul><li>Faster and more powerful than a Mainframe </li></ul><ul><li>Size – Very large </li></ul><ul><li>Cost – Up to $100 million </li></ul><ul><li>Performance – can process trillions of calculations per second </li></ul><ul><li>Who uses them today? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>large research facilities or government agencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples – weather forecast, car crash simulation testing </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Mainframe Computers <ul><li>The first computers used by businesses and government agencies around 1951. </li></ul><ul><li>Size –large and housed in special, climate controlled rooms </li></ul><ul><li>Cost - hundreds of thousands or even millions of dollars. </li></ul><ul><li>Performance – very fast and allows thousand of employees to request and update from a central location. </li></ul><ul><li>Who uses them today? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large companies who have large numbers of employees or customers who need to access information at the same time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples – Nationwide Car Rental, Social Security Administration </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Minicomputers <ul><li>Smaller multi-user systems common in the 1970’s and 1980’s </li></ul><ul><li>Size – smaller than mainframes </li></ul><ul><li>Cost – Usually less than $100,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Performance – good but most have been replaced by the PC </li></ul><ul><li>Who uses them now? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples – small to medium-sized businesses with less than 100 users. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Professional Workstations <ul><li>Size – sits on a desktop </li></ul><ul><li>Cost – a few thousand dollars </li></ul><ul><li>Performance – more than personal computer but less than a minicomputer </li></ul><ul><li>Who uses them today? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scientists, graphics designers, financial analysts, and architects </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Personal Computer <ul><li>Who was first? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apple with the Apple I in 1976 (Steve Wozniak & Steve Jobs) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Who was second? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IBM in 1981 (Microsoft & IBM) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Who was next? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IBM-Compatibles such as Digital, HP, Dell </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Size – sits on a desktop </li></ul><ul><li>Cost - $500 and up </li></ul><ul><li>Performance – fast and continuing to get faster due to chip-making technology and miniaturization </li></ul><ul><li>Who uses them today? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Almost every business and individuals at home </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Assignment <ul><li>Complete the “ Computer System Recommendations ” worksheet. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You will turn it in as you leave today </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use proper heading </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Assignment <ul><li>Complete the handout as we go through the presentation </li></ul>
  10. 10. History of the Computer
  11. 11. How the Computer Evolved <ul><li>1642 Blaise Pascal – mechanical adding machine </li></ul><ul><li>Early 1800’s Jacquard – uses punch cards to control the pattern of the weaving loom </li></ul><ul><li>1822 Charles Babbage - invents the Difference Engine </li></ul><ul><li>1890 Herman Hollerith – invents a machine using punch card to tabulate info for the Census </li></ul>Hollerith’s Tabulating Machine
  12. 12. Evolution (continued) <ul><li>1910 Charles Watson Sr. – International Business Machines </li></ul><ul><li>1946 – Mauchly and Eckert created the ENIAC computer, first electronic computer is unveiled at Univ. of Pennsylvania </li></ul><ul><li>1970’s – Integrated circuits and silicon chips lead to smaller microprocessors </li></ul>                                                  
  13. 13. ENIAC Computer <ul><li>Miles of wiring </li></ul><ul><li>18,000 vacuum tubes </li></ul><ul><li>Thousands of resistors and switches </li></ul><ul><li>No monitor </li></ul><ul><li>3,000 blinking lights </li></ul><ul><li>Cost $486,000 </li></ul><ul><li>100,000 additions per second </li></ul><ul><li>Weighed 30 tons </li></ul><ul><li>Filled a 30x50 foot room </li></ul><ul><li>Could be replaced today by one fingernail-size silicon chip </li></ul>
  14. 14. Computer Generations 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th Timeframe 1951-1958 1959-1964 1965-1974 1975-1989 1990-present Circuit Components Vacuum Tubes Transistors Integrated Circuits (IC) Large-scale IC (LSI) Very Large IC (VLSI) Memory Capacity 4,000 Bits 32,000 Bits 128,000 Bits 100 Million Bits Unlimited Data Input Hard Wired Program in computer Punch Cards Keyboard Entry Read Programs off Disk CDROM, Optical Disk
  15. 15. Computers Are Everywhere <ul><li>Laptop Computers </li></ul><ul><li>Appliances </li></ul><ul><li>Cars </li></ul><ul><li>Medical Equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Printers </li></ul><ul><li>Game Consoles </li></ul>
  16. 16. Reflection <ul><li>What interesting/new thing(s) did you learn about computers today? </li></ul><ul><li>How have computers/microelectronics changed our lives? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cook </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Entertainment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work </li></ul></ul>