-car,-gar,-zar • Regular verbs with these endings have a spelling change in the yo form to keep the sound of the verb. -car yo -qué -gar yo -gué -zar yo -céBECOMESSacar cqu (yo)saqué Yo saqué la basura.Pagar ggu (yo)pagué Yo pagué dos dólares.Empezar zc (yo)empecé Yo empecé un trabajo nuevo.
CUCARACHAAndar Anduv Yo EEstar Estuv Tú IstePoder Pud Él,ella,usted OPoner Pus Nosotros ImosQuerer Quis vosotros isteisSaber SupTener TuvVenir Vin Decir Dij Traer Traj Conducir Conduj Drop the i on ieron Producir Produj Traducir traduj
Modal Verbs:• Ir+infinitive (going to do something)• Poder+infinitive (are able to do something)• Querer+infinitive (want to do something)• Deber+infinitive (should do something)• Tenerque+infinitive (to have to do something)• Soler+infinitive (to be accustomed to)
Adverbs• Always agree in gender and number with the noun they modify• Always come in front of the noun they modify• Singular: ~Este/Esta(this) ~Ese/Esa(that) ~Aquel/Aquella(that over there)• Plural: ~Estos/Estas(these) ~Esos/Esas(those)
Progressive Tense• Estart ando/iendo/yendo creer leer uir ir• Present Progressive: Estoy hablando a ti- I am talking to you• Past Imperfect Progressive: Estaba hablando a ti- I was talking to you
Future (Irregular) “WILL” Ē Mañana, yo irē Ās a la escuelaInfinitive + Ā Emos Ā
SuperlativesUse when trying to say thatsomething has the most or leastof a certain qualityMás + Luis es el más alto.adjective (themost...) EXS: Menos +adjective (the Sophia es la least…) menos agardable.
Formal Commands• The formal commands are formed the same way as the present subjunctive:1. Start with the yo form of the present indicative.2. Then drop the -o ending.3. Finally, add the following endings:• -ar verbs: -e (for Ud.), -en (for Uds.)• -er and -ir verbs: -a (for Ud.), -an (for Uds.)
Prepositions• A preposition is a type of word that is used to form a phrase; the phrase in turn functions as an adjective or adverb.EXAMPLE:English: I (subject) am going (verb) to (preposition) the store (prepositional object).Spanish: Yo (subject) voy (verb) a (preposition) la tienda (prepositional object).
Conditiona l• Used to express probability, possibility, wonder or conjecture, and is usually translated as would, could, must have or probablyEMAPLE: The student said that he would study one more hour. (probability, possibility) What time could it have been? (wonder, conjecture) He must have been at home. (wonder, conjecture) We were probably busy when you called. (probability, possibility)• To conjugate regular -ar, -er and -ir verbs in the conditional, add one of the following to the infintive:• ía ías ía íamos íais ían
Demonstratives SM SF PM PF ESE ESA ESOS ESAS ESTE ESTA ESTOS ESTAS AQUEL AQUELLA AQUELLOS AQUELLAS• Eso, esto, aquello areneuter(refer to specific situationsor ideas, not to specific nouns)•Accent marks denotes pronounswhich take the place of a noun•All demonstratives always agree