Grammar book


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Grammar book

  1. 1. Grammar BookBy: Antonio Capozzi
  2. 2. Table of Contents3. Presente -ar –er –ir4. Stem Changers5. Irregulars –go –zco –yo6. Saber vs conocer7. Reflexives8. ‘se’ impersonal9. Dipthongs10. Verbs like…Uir/guir11. Verbs like…Cer/cir12. Verbs like…Ger/gir13. Hace +__+ que + present/presentente14. Imperfecto15. Preterite16. Car, gar, zar17. Spock18. cucaracha19. Snake/snakeys20. Comparatives/Superlatives21. Futuro
  3. 3. Ar, Er, Ir • Los verbos regulares en el presente Ir- Ar- o amos o imos as an Er- es en a o emos eCaminar- Es enCamino Caminamos e Comer- Vivir-Caminas Caminan Como Comemos Vivo VivimosCamina Comes Comen Vives Viven Come Vive
  4. 4. Stem Changers aka Boot verbs• The verbs change in the root• They do not change in the nosotros form or the vosotros Pensar- Penso• E  ie Pienso• O ue• U ue Yo nosotros Tú vosotros El/ella/utd Ellos/Ellas/Utds
  5. 5. Irregulars -go -zco -yo• The “go” “zco” verbs are only in the irregulars in the yo form Yo – Tengo• “go” verbs- caer, decir, oir, puner, hacer, tener, traer, Yo – Hago venir Yo - Vengo• “zco” verbs (cer/cir)- conocer, producir, conducir• y los demás – ser, ir, estar, ver, Yo - Conozco Yo - Produzco saber, dar Yo - Conduzco Ser- Ir- Soy Somos Voy Vamos Eres Son Vas Van Es Va
  6. 6. Saber Vs Conocer• Both saber y conocer translate to the English verb to know• Both “yo” forms are irregular Saber – Conocer- Sé sabemos Conozco conocemos Sabes saben Conoces Conocen Sabe Conoce
  7. 7. Reflexives• Brenda se lava- se is reflexive• Reflexives also can be added on the end of an infinitive. Such as…- Puedo verme en el espejo
  8. 8. ‘se impersonal• pronoun ”se” is in front of verbs to make general statements.• ¿cómo se dice man en español?• In English it translates to either “you say” or “one says.”
  9. 9. Dipthongs w/accents• Dipthongs are the strong or weak vowels in a word next to each other. *two strong• Strong vowel sounds are a,e,o. vowels cannot be• Weak vowel sounds are i,u,y. in the same syllable• puerto, ciudad, siete, hay.
  10. 10. Verbs like…Uir/GuirGuir Uir -Nosotros form is the only that doesn’t-Yo form only changes from Gu to G change.-Conseguir -Verbs that end in -uir (not guir) add yconsigo before o, e, and a endingsconsigues -atribuirconsigueconseguimos atribuyoconsiguen atribuyes atribuye atribuimos atribuyen
  11. 11. Verbs like…Cer/cir• Verbs that end in a vowel + cer or cir add z before the c in the yo form only.• Verbs that end in a consonant + cer or cir change the c to z in the yo form only.• conducir = conduzco• ejercer = ejerzo
  12. 12. Verbs like…Ger/gir• Verbs that end in ger and gir change the g to j in the yo form only.• coger = cojo• fingir = finjo
  13. 13. Hace +__+ que + Present/Presentente• The yo form is the only irregular• Hago, haces, hace, hacemos, hacen
  14. 14. Imperfecto• The imperfect tense is used to refer to actions in the past that occurred repeatedly.• Yo caminaba todo los días.Ser- Ver- Er/Ir-era veía íaeras veías ías Ir- Ar-era veía íaéramos veíamos aba iba íamoseran veían abas ibas ían aba iba ábamos íbamos aban iban
  15. 15. Preterite• “Snapshot” of time.• Known beginning and or ending• Trigger words: ayer, anoche, aneayer, la semana pasada ect… É Í Aste iste ó ió Amos imos Aron ieron
  16. 16. Car, gar, zar• Car qué• Gar  qué• Zar  cé• * 1st person only “yo”
  17. 17. SpockHacer Dar/ver Ir/serhice d/v - ihiciste Fui d/v - istehizo Fuiste d/v - iohicimos Fue d/v - imoshicieron Fuimos d/v - ieron Fueron
  18. 18. CucarachaAndar  anduvEstar  estuv ÉPoder  pud istePoner  pus OQuerer quis imosSaber  sup ieronTener  tuv “j” verbs  iVenir  vinConducir  condujProducir  produjTraducir  traduj EronTraer  traj EronDecir  dij
  19. 19. Snake/Snakey• Stem changers and Y changersDormir- Leer-Dormi dormimos Leí leimosDormiste LeisteDurmio Durmieron Leyó leyeron
  20. 20. Comparatives/SuperlativesAdjective Comparative Translation Superlative Translationbueno good mejor que better el / la mejor the bestmalo bad peor que worse el / la peor the worstviejo old mayor que older el / la mayor the oldestjoven young menor que younger el / la menor the youngest
  21. 21. “Will factor” El Futuro • Infinitives & - É Ás Á Emos Ir + a + infinitive vivir = viviré Án (immediate future) Decir- to say Haber- there to be/to have Hacer- to make do Poder-to be able Poner- to put,place,rest Querer-to want, love Saber- to know Salir- to leave, go out Tener-to have Valer- to be worth Venir- to come
  22. 22. Parte Dos
  23. 23. Pret/imp Imperfect - words and phrasesPreterite - words and phrases indicate specific that are repetitive, vague or non-time frames specific time framesayer (yesterday) cada día (every day)anoche (last night) cada semana (every week)esta mañana (this morning) cada mes (every month)el otro día (the other day) cada año (every year)
  24. 24. Future/ conditional Irregulars Conditional Future tener tendr- venir vendr- Conditional Endings- Future Endings poner pondr- ía -íamos -é -emos salir saldr- -ías -íais -ás -éis saber sabr- -ía -ían -á -án poder podr-English: They will eat with us. haber habr- English: They would eat with usSpanish: Ellos comerán con nosotros. caber cabr- Spanish: Ellos comerían con nosotros decir dir- hacer har- querer querr-
  25. 25. por• 1) Used to indicate motion or general location Around, through, along, by• 2) Durations of an action For, during, in• 3) Reason or motion for an action Because of, on account of, on behalf of• 4) object of a search For, in search of Por aqui - around here• 5) means by which something is done Por ejemplo - for example be, by way of, by means of Por eso - that’s why/ therefore Por fin - finally• 6) exchange or substitution In exchange for• 7) unit of measure Per, by
  26. 26. por• Portal – idea of passing through• Portugal – general location• “por”ever – how long something lasts• Porpose – the case of something• Import/export – an exchange• Im por, pay for me – doing something in the place of someone else• Transportation – a means of transportation
  27. 27. para• 1) Destination toward, in direction of• 2) dead line or specific time in the future By, for• 3) purpose or goal + infinitive In order to• 4) purpose + noun For, used for• 5) recipient of something for• 6) comparison with others or an opinion For, considering• 7)in the employ of for
  28. 28. Para• Surprise Paratay – for whom something is done• Paraguay – destination• The purpose for which something is done• Paradoname - to express an opinion• Comparason - to contrast or compare• Paramedic - to express the idea of a dead line
  29. 29. Por Por vs para Para• Approximate time or duration (for, during, in, per) • A destination (for, to)• Manner or means (by)• Movement (along, through, by, • A purpose, goal, or via, around) objective (for, by)• Exchange (for, in exchange for)• Cause, motivation, or benefit (for, • A point of view (for) because of, on behalf of, for the sake of) • A point of reference or• Agent or cause of an action (by) comparison (for)• Por ciento = percent, por hora = per hour • Para + infinitive = in order• Por + infinitive = because of, for to (verb) reason of
  30. 30. Commands Usted (Formal AR VERBS e IR/ER VERBS a form) Ustedes (Plural en an form)Infinitive Yo form Ud. Command Form If the Yo form is Salir Salgo Salga irregular in the Hacer Hago Haga Present Tense, it Poner Pongo Ponga will be irregular in the Formal & Decir Digo Diga Plural command Venir Vengo Venga form.Infinitive Yo form Ud. Command Form Estar Estoy Esté With verbs that Dar Doy Dé end in "Y" in the Yo Ser Soy Sea form as well as Saber are very Ir Voy Vaya irregular Saber Sé Sepa
  31. 31. he Pres. Perfects has haUsed with have, has, hemosor had han Juan ha pagado las cuentas. Juan has paid the bills. He comido. I have eaten. Has comido. You have eaten.
  32. 32. Double Object Pronouns Give it to me Tell her it Da-me-lo Di-le-lo da’melo NO LELO!! Di’selaYa nos lo dijeron. - They already told it to us. Direct Object PronounsVéndamelos. - Sell them to me! and Indirect Object Pronouns are placedSe lo di a ella. - I gave it to her. either directly before a conjugated verb or attached to an infinitive
  33. 33. Adverbs Some adverbs don’t always get the –mente and need to be memorized such asAdd –mente tothe end of a bastanteword to give it quitethe ly feeling demasiado too malDifícil = difícilmente badly mucho a lot muy very nunca never peor worse poco little siempre always
  34. 34. SubjunctiveSome common clauses that canbe found that associate withsubjunctive feelings The subjunctive is not aa menos que ... tense; rather, it is aunless ... mood. Tense refers to whenantes (de) que ... an action takes place (past,before ... present, future),con tal (de) que ... whilemood merely reflectsprovided that ... how the speaker feels aboutcuando ... the action. The subjunctivewhen ... mood is rarely used inconviene que ... English, but it is widely usedit is advisable that ... in Spanish.después (de) que ...after ...dudar que doubt that ...en caso de que case ...
  35. 35. Se impersonalUsed to avoid specifyinga person who is doing When using se the verb it isthe action of the verb always in 3rd person1) Se vende fruta en lafruteria 1) Aqui se habla espanol Can be used in all tenses 1) Se hizo mucho 2) Se hara mucho 3) Se habia mucho
  36. 36. Progressive w/ ir andar seguir • + ando/iendo/yendo Ir • Is slowly but surely_____ing • + ando/iendo/yendoAndar • Is going around _____ing Seguir • + ando/iendo/yendo (e>i) • Is still _____ing