Katia Hildebrandt
Tabla de Contenidos1.    Imperfect Form2.    Imperfect Irregulars3.    Preterite4.    Triggers for Preterite5.    Irregula...
Imperfect Form• AR Verbs change to:   •ER and IR verbs change to:-yo: aba                -yo: ia-tu: abas               -t...
Imperfect Form Irregulars •There are only 3 imperfect irregular verbs. They are Ser, Ver, and Ir.• Ser:         •Ver:     ...
Preterite• Has a definite time in the past with a  beginning or end.         AR            ER            IR         é     ...
Trigger Words Preterite:o   Ayer: yesterdayo   Anteayer: the day before yesterdayo   A las ocho: at 8 o’clocko   El miérco...
Irregular Preterite                -car, -gar, -zarTocar           Jugar               ComenzarToque           Jugue      ...
Spock- more irregular preterite                                Ir/SerDar/Ver                         - fui-i              ...
La Cucaracha Verbs- more irregular              preteriteAndar- aduv…Estar- estuv…       -e (yo)Poder- pud…Poner- pus…    ...
Snakes/Snakeys (Irregular Preterite)SNAKES:            YO:      NOSOTROS:            Pedí      Pendimos            TU:    ...
Modal verbos • Conjugate and pair the modul verb with an   infinitive to get a new meaningIr + a + infinitive (going to do...
Adverbs ending in -mente• Change the adjective to a feminine singular form and   then add –mente.-Example: Claro- clara- c...
Present Progressive Tense• Formed by combinging the verb “to be” with  the present participle (-ing verb)• ESTAR+ -ando (a...
Past Progressive Tenses• ***same as present tense***• ESTAR+ ando/iendo/yendo• Estaba hablando.• Estaban leyendo un libro.
El futuro                  é                         emos                  ás                         éis                 ...
Irregulars del Futuro•   Decir ------- dir•   Saber------- sabr•   Hacer------- har•   Poder------- podr•   Venir------- v...
Future ConditionalsEndings                        Example--Conditional-ía-ías                           comería comeríamos...
Superlatives• Más + adjective (the most)• Menos + adjective (the least)• Examples:-Katia es la chica más alta.-Roberto es ...
Formal Commands• PUT IN YO FORM!!• Then drop the o and change to the opposite  vowel.   – Er and ir  a   – Ar  e  • Exam...
Commands                                            Ud./Uds.: put in ‘yo’ form and         Tu: drop the ‘s’               ...
Prepositions•   a — to, at, by means of    •En- in•   antes de — before          •encima de — on top of•   bajo — under   ...
Los Adjectivos Demonstrativos:• Takes the place of the noun• Must agree with the number and gender of  the noun it is repl...
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Grammar book two

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Grammar book two

  1. 1. Katia Hildebrandt
  2. 2. Tabla de Contenidos1. Imperfect Form2. Imperfect Irregulars3. Preterite4. Triggers for Preterite5. Irregular preterite- Car, gar, zar 16. Superlatives6. Spock 17. Formal Commands7. Cucharacha 18. Prepositions8. Snake/snakies 19. Demonstratives9. Modul Verbs10. Adverbs ending in -mente11. Present Progressive Tense12. Past Progressive13. El futuro14. Irregulars del Futuro15. Conditionals
  3. 3. Imperfect Form• AR Verbs change to: •ER and IR verbs change to:-yo: aba -yo: ia-tu: abas -tu: ias-el: aba -el: ia-nosotros: abamos -nosotros: iamos-vosotros: abais -vosotros: iais -ellos: ian-ellos: aban
  4. 4. Imperfect Form Irregulars •There are only 3 imperfect irregular verbs. They are Ser, Ver, and Ir.• Ser: •Ver: •Ir:eraEras Veia Iba Veias IbasEra Veia IbaEramos Veiamos IbamosErais Veiais Ibaiseran veian Iban
  5. 5. Preterite• Has a definite time in the past with a beginning or end. AR ER IR é í í aste iste iste ó ió ió amos imos imos aron ieron ieron
  6. 6. Trigger Words Preterite:o Ayer: yesterdayo Anteayer: the day before yesterdayo A las ocho: at 8 o’clocko El miércoles: Wednesdayo El día anterior: the day beforeo El lunes pasado: last Mondayo El fin de semana: last weekendo Ayer por la mañana: yesterday morningo El otro día: the other dayo Una vez: on time/onceo Asta tarde: this afternoono Asta noche: tonighto Entonces: theno Desde el primer momento: from 1st momento Durante dos siglos: during 2nd centuryo En es momento: in that momento Hace dos dias:2 days ago
  7. 7. Irregular Preterite -car, -gar, -zarTocar Jugar ComenzarToque Jugue ComenceTocaste Jugaste ComenzasteToco Jugo ComenzoTocamos Jugamos ComenzamosTocaron Jugaron comenzaron *Only irregular in the YO form*
  8. 8. Spock- more irregular preterite Ir/SerDar/Ver - fui-i -fuiste-iste -fue-io -fuimos-imos -fueron DAR-ieron VER Hacer: -hice -hiciste -hizo -hicimos - hicieron
  9. 9. La Cucaracha Verbs- more irregular preteriteAndar- aduv…Estar- estuv… -e (yo)Poder- pud…Poner- pus… -iste (tu)Querer- quis…Saber- sup… -o (usted, el ella)Tener- tuv… -imos (nosotros)Venir- vin…Conducir- conduj… -isteis (vosotros)Producir- produj…Traducir- traduj… -ieron (ellos, ellas,Decir- dij…Traer- traj… -ustedes)
  10. 10. Snakes/Snakeys (Irregular Preterite)SNAKES: YO: NOSOTROS: Pedí Pendimos TU: VOSOTROS: Pediste Pedisteis Pidió PidieronSNAKEYS: YO: NOSOTROS: Leí Leímos leíste Leísteis Leyó Leyeron
  11. 11. Modal verbos • Conjugate and pair the modul verb with an infinitive to get a new meaningIr + a + infinitive (going to do something) Poder + infinitive (are able to do something) Querer + infinitive (want to do something) Deber + infinitive (should do something) Tener que + infinitive (to have to do something) Soler + infinitive (to be accustomed to)
  12. 12. Adverbs ending in -mente• Change the adjective to a feminine singular form and then add –mente.-Example: Claro- clara- claramente• When two adverbs modify the same verb, only the 2nd one uses –mente. The first one remains in the feminine singular form.-Juan trabaja lenta y cuidadosamente.• Some adverbs don’t follow any pattern of organization and must be memorized.Mucho muy mal ya (already)Bastante Bien tan demasiadoNunca poco peor siempre
  13. 13. Present Progressive Tense• Formed by combinging the verb “to be” with the present participle (-ing verb)• ESTAR+ -ando (ar)/-iendo (er/ir) /-yendo (double vowels like leer)• Estoy hablando a ti.• Estamos estudiando para la examen. Bailando Cantando Corriendo
  14. 14. Past Progressive Tenses• ***same as present tense***• ESTAR+ ando/iendo/yendo• Estaba hablando.• Estaban leyendo un libro.
  15. 15. El futuro é emos ás éis á an– All ending are the same for er, ir, and ar verbs.– Infinitive + ending– Ex: I will eat the meat: comé la carne– We will eat: Comeremos– I will sing: Cantaré
  16. 16. Irregulars del Futuro• Decir ------- dir• Saber------- sabr• Hacer------- har• Poder------- podr• Venir------- vendr• Poner------- pondr• Salir-------- saldr• Querer----- querr• Valer-------- valdr
  17. 17. Future ConditionalsEndings Example--Conditional-ía-ías comería comeríamos comerías comeríais-ía comería comerían-íamos • Frequently, the conditional is used to express-íais probability, possibility, wonder or conjecture, and is usually translated as would, could, must have or-ían probably. • The student said that he would study one more hour. (probability, possibility) What time could it have been? (wonder, conjecture) He must have been at home. (wonder, conjecture) We were probably busy when you called. (probability, possibility)
  18. 18. Superlatives• Más + adjective (the most)• Menos + adjective (the least)• Examples:-Katia es la chica más alta.-Roberto es el menos alto.
  19. 19. Formal Commands• PUT IN YO FORM!!• Then drop the o and change to the opposite vowel. – Er and ir  a – Ar  e • Examples: Coma! No coma!
  20. 20. Commands Ud./Uds.: put in ‘yo’ form and Tu: drop the ‘s’ change to opposite vowel. Los irregulares: TVDISHES Los irregulares: TVDISHES DOP+IOP can attach to an Ar -> e affirmative command Ir/er -> a DOP+IOP must go before the negative commandTu: put it in ‘yo’ form and change to opposite vowel, ad an ‘s’ Ud./Uds.: same as above.Los irregulares: di, haz, ve, pon, Los irregulares: TVDISHES sal, se, ten, ven
  21. 21. Prepositions• a — to, at, by means of •En- in• antes de — before •encima de — on top of• bajo — under •enfrente de — in front of• cerca de — near •entre — between, among• con — with •fuera de — outside of• contra — against •hacia — toward• de — of, from •hasta — until• delante de — in front of •para — for, in order to• dentro de — inside •por — for, by• desde — since, from •según — according to• después de — after •sin — without• detrás de — behind •sobre — over, about• durante — during •tras — after, behind
  22. 22. Los Adjectivos Demonstrativos:• Takes the place of the noun• Must agree with the number and gender of the noun it is replacing. – THIS -- ESTE/ESTA [ex: esta casa] (near) – THAT – ESE/ESA o AQUEL/AQUELLA [ex: esa casa] (far) – THESE – ESTOS/ESTAS [ex: estas casas] – THOSE – ESOS/ESAS o AQUELLOS/AQUELLAS [ex: aquellas casas]

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