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Baroque Art


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Baroque Art

  1. 1. If it ain’t BAROQ UE, don’t fix it! 1600-1700 in Europe
  2. 2. “Baroque” means “irregularly shaped” or “odd” (describes departure from styles seen in Italian Renaissance) RENAISSANCE BAROQUE Balance Movement Ideal of beauty Realism in representations Simplicity Complexity Proportions Interest in surprising the viewer Straight lines Curved lines, convex, concave Drawing emphasized more than color and light Color and light emphasized more than drawing
  3. 3. Baroque are is a reflection of society: • ART of absolute monarchies • ART of the counter-reformation (Catholic countries) • Bourgeois ART (Protestant countries)
  4. 4. Main ideas about BAROQUE: • Counter-Reformation (Catholic resurgence) is reflected in art of Italy, Spain, and France • Protestant Holland’s Baroque art contrasts Catholic art • Two schools of thought: CLASSICISTS (inspired by Italian artists like Raphael) and NATURALISTS (inspired by Venetian painters like Titian) • Artists experiment with GENRE PAINTINGS, landscapes, and still lifes (raise them to importance level of traditional subjects) • Architecture reflects majestic royal courts of Europe
  5. 5. • Catholic church is still the head honcho of artistic commissions (followed closely by royalty and autocratic governments) • Huge churches = big paintings = big $$$ • Some artists considered their work to be a reflection of their firm commitment to their faith (like Rubens and Bernini) • Landscape architecture becomes its own art form (you’ll see what I mean when you see Versailles in France) – impressive!
  6. 6. Architecture time! • Lots of movement, undulation • Cavities of shadow contrasting with projections catching the sun • Emphasis on center façade – accentuate entrance with wavelike forms, pediments, tympana • Richly designed interiors with paintings and sculptures – all work together to create dramatic unity • HUGE and elaborate architecture – meant to impress – represents achievements of patrons – power and wealth!
  7. 7. Let’s start with ITALIAN Baroque…
  8. 8. Façade of St. Peter’s by Carlo Maderno 1607-1612 Rome
  9. 9. •Façade and nave added to Michelangelo’s design of St. Peter’s (creates a Latin cross plan) – wide and low façade – emphasis on center of façade with pediment highlighting main door
  10. 10. •Pilasters on each end gradually become rounded engaged columns around central door (more central emphasis!)
  11. 11. Colonnade of St. Peter’s by: Gianlorenzo Bernini 1656-1657, Rome
  12. 12. •Huge plaza that can hold half a million people (you should see it on Easter!) -Bernini wanted a surprising contrast between busy congested Rome and a big open vista of St. Peter’s
  13. 13. -Colonnade is like a big hug – embracing arms bring faithful people into the building (the basilica) -Shaped like a skeleton keyhole – St. Peter holds the keys to heaven (ahhh, connection)
  14. 14. Fun game to play as you walk around the colonnade – “Count the Nuns”
  15. 15. The Columns are big!
  16. 16. Oval shape centered around an Egyptian obelisk that was already there -Trapezoid shape in front of basilica determined by preexisting buildings
  17. 17. • The Obelisk from Egypt was brought to Rome by Emperor Caligula in 37 AD. • It is also a sun dial, its shadows marks noon over the signs of the zodiac in the white marble disks in the paving of the square.
  18. 18. 140 Saint statues along colonnade
  19. 19. St. Charles of the Four Fountains by: Francesco Borromini 1638-1641, Rome
  20. 20. •In a square in Rome with four fountains (ah, that’s where the name came from) -unusually small site, façade higher than the rest of the building
  21. 21. Haha, look at that tiny building with that big facade •Check out the undulating shapes •Concave/convex patterns
  22. 22. Here’s the inside!
  23. 23. •Here’s the floor plan •It’s an oval! •Interior side chapels merge into a center space •Oval dome above mirrors oval shape of church
  24. 24. The dome of St. Charles of the Four Fountains (PS: it’s coffered)
  25. 25. •Walls are very sculptural -Borromini liked using shades of white (typical Baroque – avoided color in buildings)
  26. 26. Sant’ Agnese By: Francesco Borromini 1653-1663, Rome
  27. 27. It’s in the Piazza Navona in Rome One of THE most beautiful places in the world!
  28. 28. SMO Cam, Piazza Navona
  29. 29. Sant’ Agnese church dominates the piazza -convex/concave forms on facade
  30. 30. Look how the light plays off of the façade, ooooo!
  31. 31. Dome framed by elaborate towers, rises dramaticall y behind concave facade
  32. 32. Sant’ Agnese ground plan -centrally planned, wide round transept
  33. 33. Interior: space flows well, very open plan
  34. 34. Looking up into the dome of Sant’ Agnese
  35. 35. Chapel of the Holy Shroud by: Guarino Guarini (haha) (attached to Turin Cathedral) 1667-1694
  36. 36. Added to Turin Cathedral around 200 years after it was built
  37. 37. • Very complex space • Interior is kaleidoscope-like • 12-point star • Illusion of endless space
  38. 38. • Hexagonal ribs cross one another, which creates an airy domed space of crazy intricacy…. It just goes on forever!
  39. 39. Chapel holds the controversial Shroud of Turin (believed by some to be the burial shroud of Jesus) Carbon dating places it in the Medieval period though…
  40. 40. Positive photo Photo negative with contrast
  41. 41. Let’s move on to FRENCH Baroque…
  42. 42. Versailles by: Jules Hardouin-Mansart (and others) beguin in 1669 in Versailles, France Beware: Visit this place in the off-season unless you love crowds that will mow you down
  43. 43. SMO Cam
  44. 44. •Was a hunting lodge, remodeled into a massive, elaborate palace for Louis XIV •Center of building was Louis XIV’s bedroom (“audience chamber”) – the rest of the floor plan radiates out from there (Louis fancied himself the “sun king”- he had a bit of an ego) •A symbol of the system of ABSOLUTE MONARCHY
  45. 45. Louis XIV’s bedroom. Not too shabby.
  46. 46. A reflection of Louis XIV’s political and economic ambitions -vast garden and town complex radiating out from the palace
  47. 47. Exterior decoration of façade is kinda subdued, understated undulation
  48. 48. Let’s look at the gardens (just because they’re pretty)
  49. 49. SMO Cam
  50. 50. SMO Cam
  51. 51. The Hall of Mirrors in the Palace of Versailles
  52. 52. •The Hall of Mirrors: 240 feet long, barrel vaulted, painted ceilings show civil and military achievements of Louis XIV •Light comes through windows on one side, bounces off mirrors on other side (largest pieces of glass that could be made at that time) •Flickering light is spectacular!
  53. 53. • Henry would walk down this hall daily on his way to the chapel from his private apartments • Treaty of Versailles was signed in this hall (ended WWI in 1919)
  54. 54. • Let's see a little movie about Versailles
  55. 55. Time for ENGLISH Baroque…
  56. 56. Banqueting House by: Inigo Jones, 1619-1622, London
  57. 57. • Built for James I of England to replace a hall destroyed by fire • Inspired by Palladio, introduced Palladian style to England (Andrea Palladio – influential Venetian architect in 1500’s)
  58. 58. • Banqueting House by Jones (17th century), England Palazzo Chiericati by Palladio (16th century), Italy -no, we never looked at this, I’m just making an Italian comparison
  59. 59. • Façade is modest, not much undulation • Central bay of six windows is framed by engaged columns
  60. 60. Flat pilasters recessed around windows (pilasters are decorative, engaged columns provide support) pilasters
  61. 61. • Balustrated roof • Illusion of two stories (it’s actually one big room inside) • Basement level has rusticated stone
  62. 62. Just for kicks, here’s the interior
  63. 63. Oooo, the ceiling was painted in 1635 by Peter Paul Rubens (we’ll see his work in the near future)
  64. 64. Saint Paul’s Christopher Wren 1675-1710 London
  65. 65. w of Saint Paul’s from above e going to look at the west
  66. 66. •Built after the Great Fire of London in 1666 (Gothic building on this site burned down)
  67. 67. What elements of this church are quintessential GOTHIC?
  68. 68. •Façade: projecting parts create dark/light contrast in the center (emphasis on center) – sides recede •Bell towers – complex looking, graceful
  69. 69. • Dome is 3 domes in one • Inner dome low and curved • Second dome supports lantern • Exterior dome fills out space
  70. 70. • Remember Bramante’s Tempietto from the Italian High Renaissance? Looks similar, huh? Influence!
  71. 71. Saint Paul’s Interior
  72. 72. •Saint Paul’s sits at the highest point in London – can be seen from far away •Part of the national identity of England- many significant events/cerem onies here
  73. 73. apse choir
  74. 74. Blenheim Palace by: John Vanbrugh 1705, Woodstock, England
  75. 75. •Thank you gift to the Duke of Marlborough for winning the battle of Belnheim in 1704 in the War of Spanish Succession (not a bad present!)
  76. 76. •Many reminders inside of the duke’s awesomeness (trophies, cannonballs, urns, statues, etc.) -another majestic palace structure (like Versailles)
  77. 77. Here’s another angle -Accent on central core -Basement has porthole windows, Vanbrugh’s favorite motif
  78. 78. • Projecting pavilions • Corner towers • Advance and retreat of façade pattern
  79. 79. Enough architecture! Let’s see some sculptures and paintings!
  80. 80. Baroque Sculpture • Stressed movement, figures in mid-motion • Large sculptures meant to be seen in the round • Use of negative space – makes all angles interesting • Treatment of marble to achieve textures (ie: high polish for skin, feathery carving for angel wings, coarse surface for animal skin, etc.) • Tie-in with Greek Hellenistic sculptures • Attention to light and shadow
  81. 81. David By: Gianlorenzo Bernini 1623 Marble Rome
  82. 82. •mid-action, swinging the slingshot at Goliath •Harp near his feet- symbolizes his role as a psalmist •Face is an idealized version of Bernini’s own face, intense gaze
  83. 83. •Meant to be seen from multiple angles •Use of negative space, figure seems animated and dynamic
  84. 84. The Discus Thrower 450 BCE, marble Greek
  85. 85. Baldacchino by: Gianlorenzo Bernini 1624-1633 Bronze in St. Peter’s Rome
  86. 86. •Over the main altar of St. Peter’s -Four twisting corkscrew columns that spiral upward -Directs viewer’s eye down the nave of St. Peter’s to the altar -Acts as a shrine and canopy over St. Peter’s grave (buried under the basilica)
  87. 87. Mega achievement in bronze casting A symbol of the Counter- Reformation in Rome. It shows “We are Catholic!”
  88. 88. Bees and suns decorate the piece – symbols of the patrons (Barberini family)
  89. 89. Barberini coat of arms
  90. 90. Ecstasy of Saint Theresa by: Gianlorenzo Bernini 164-1652 marble in Santa Maria della Vittoria, Rome
  91. 91. •St. Theresa wrote in her diary about her visions of God – an angel descended upon her and plunged an arrow into her
  92. 92. •Pose suggests sexual exhaustion – consistent with her description of spiritual ecstasy described in her diary entries -divinity collides with a human body – a state of divine joy
  93. 93. One diary entry: I saw in his hand a long spear of gold, and at the iron's point there seemed to be a little fire. He appeared to me to be thrusting it at times into my heart, and to pierce my very entrails; when he drew it out, he seemed to draw them out also, and to leave me all on fire with a great love of God. The pain was so great, that it made me moan; and yet so surpassing was the sweetness of this excessive pain, that I could not wish to be rid of it. The soul is satisfied now with nothing less than God. The pain is not bodily, but spiritual; though the body has its share in it. It is a caressing of love so sweet which now takes place between the soul and God, that I pray God of His goodness to make him experience it who may think that I am lying.
  94. 94. Marble handled in a tactile way, textures revealed, high gloss skin, texture in feathers, drapery is animated and fluid, clouds roughly cut
  95. 95. Rough-cut clouds
  96. 96. Texture in wings
  97. 97. • Natural light from a hidden window illuminates the sculpture (clever!) • Figures appear to float in space, ungrounded • Rays of God’s light illuminate the scene from behind • Stage-like setting • Sculptures of Cornaro family (patrons) sit in theater boxes looking on and commenting
  98. 98. Cornaro family in theater boxes
  99. 99. Two Trends in Baroque Painting NATURALISM CLASSICISM Expressive sense of movement Subdued emotions Figures dramatically rendered, even in portraits Subdued drama Light effects are strong – sources of light create strong highlights and shadows – this contrast is called TENEBROSO or TENEBRISM Realistic use of light Colors are descriptive and evocative Subdued colors Inspired by Venetian Renaissance Rejection of “artificiality” of Mannerists Inspired by classicizing painters like Raphael Who: Caravaggio, Gentileschi, Rubens Who: Poussin, Carracci
  100. 100. Some trends: • Still life, genre paintings, and landscapes, religious and historical paintings • Landscapes express a higher meaning, have small figures in a vast landscape (not done on-site, rather, done in a studio and based on sketches in the field) – thoughtful combination of earth/architecture • Still life paintings often have a VANITAS theme – stresses shortness of life and folly of human vanity • Genre paintings often have an allegorical commentary on a contemporary or historical issue
  101. 101. Let’s start in Italy again…
  102. 102. Calling of Saint Matthew by: Caravaggio 1597-1601, oil on canvas, in Rome
  103. 103. One of a series of paintings for a chapel What is happening here?
  104. 104. • Scene from the Gospel of Matthew: “Jesus saw a man named Matthew at his seat in the custom house, and said to him, “Follow me”, and Matthew rose and followed him.” • Shows Matthew the tax collector w/ four other men • Jesus and St. Peter entered, Jesus points at Matthew • Beam of light illuminates faces of the men who are looking at Jesus
  105. 105. Jesus inspires Matthew to follow him (conversion to Christianity) St. Matthew points to himself (“me, a tax collector?”) Matthew
  106. 106. • Men are foppishly dressed in the latest Baroque fashions (not Jesus-era fashions) • Figures have everyday characteristics, NATURALIST approach
  107. 107. • Well would you look at that! - Christ’s hand gesture similar to Adam’s and God’s in the Sistine Chapel
  108. 108. •Narrow stage for figures to sit and stand on •Diagonal shaft of light points right at St. Matthew •Dramatic light creates TENEBROSO effect on figures Tiny halo on Christ’s head indicates sacredness of the scene
  109. 109. Entombment by: Caravaggio 1603 oil on canvas check it out in Rome!
  110. 110. •Christ’s body placed in a grave •This painting was placed over an altar so Christ is symbolically being placed on the altar •TRANSUBSTANTIATION = turning the Eucharist meal (bread and wine) into the body and blood of Christ (Protestants of the Counter-Reformation don’t believe in this)
  111. 111. •Figures are pushed forward in the picture plane, shallow stage •Stone slab seems to project forward toward viewer •Nicodemus (guy looking at us) resembles Caravaggio himself – common-looking man without any hints of holiness (Naturalism!)
  112. 112. Mary is traditionally depicted as ageless and young But Caravaggio embraced Naturalism – paints Mary older (Christ is 33 after all)
  113. 113. Many paths for the eye to take Limbs, gazes, gestures lead the viewer’s eye around the painting (movement) Diagonal cascade of mourners Light source illuminates Christ the most
  114. 114. Loves of the Gods By: Annibale Carracci 1597-1601 Fresco Farnese Palace ceiling in Rome
  115. 115. •Barrel vaulted ceiling combines two things: •Quadro riportato: means “carried picture” – gold-framed paintings seen in a normal perspective •Di sotto in su: means “from below to above” – extreme foreshortening of figures painted on the ceiling – gives the illusion that the figures are suspended in air above the viewer
  116. 116. •Idealized bodies in a variety of poses •Vigorous movement (in bodies AND in the viewer’s exploration of the scenes) •Rich colors inspired by Venetians
  117. 117. Loves of the gods played out with abondon on the ceiling, such as… Jupiter and Juno
  118. 118. Pan and Diana So…… CLASSICISM or NATURALISM? Waaaaay different than Mannerism of the past
  119. 119. Aurora and Cephalus
  120. 120. Figures overlap the “frames” (most are painted) – sit on them, put hands/feet over them
  121. 121. Judith and Her Maidservant with the Head of Holofernes By: Artemisia Gentileschi 1614-1620 Oil on canvas
  122. 122. •TENEBRISM and gory details (influence of Caravaggio) •Dramatic lighting! •Heightened emotion
  123. 123. •Gentileschi painted this shortly after she was raped by the painter she was studying with •Sword forms a cross shape – good over evil •Gentileschi specialized in paintings of women triumphing over men!
  124. 124. •Face of Judith is her face – she identified with Old Testament heroines •Beheads Assyrian general Holofernes after he falls asleep drunk (his face is her mentor’s face)
  125. 125. •Visual “lines” draw your attention to the action
  126. 126. •Super physical scene! •Wide spurts of blood •Women struggle with large dagger •And there’s a follow-up painting in the story…
  127. 127. Judith and her Maidservant
  128. 128. Caravaggio painted the same subject
  129. 129. …and Michelangelo painted it in the Sistine Chapel…
  130. 130. AND Gustav Klimt painted it in the 19th century ..and a bunch of other artists….just sayin’
  131. 131. Aurora By: Guido Reni 1613-1614 Ceiling fresco in Casino Rospigliosi, Rome
  132. 132. •Aurora leads Apollo’s chariot •Cupid and the Seasons dance around the heavenly chariot •Influenced by Raphael
  133. 133. •Classicist trend •Soft modeling •Sweet, airy vision
  134. 134. Triumph of the Barberini (or Triumph of the Divine Providence) By: Pietro da Cortona 1633-1639 Fresco in the Palazzo Barberini, Rome
  135. 135. Di sotto in su (remember what that means?) Naturalist trend Figures move easily in an open space unified by plentiful light and color
  136. 136. Ceiling subdivided by a painted architectural framework Figures spill over the framework
  137. 137. •Solar Divine Providence at one end (the Barberini papal election was divine providence of course, not at all rigged, ha) •Other end shows putti and flying maidens holding the papal keys, tiara, and robe belt above a swarm of golden giant bees
  138. 138. Divine providence (God’s intervention in the world)
  139. 139. Bees and laurel wreaths (symbols of Barberini family)
  140. 140. Let’s go to SPAIN now
  141. 141. The Water Carrier of Seville by: Diego Velazquez 1619, oil on canvas
  142. 142. •Simple genre scene, but with sacred quality in the expressions, the handing over of the glass, and the clarity of the water
  143. 143. •Velazquez liked Caravaggio’s use of TENEBRISM -Rounded forms (jugs, figures) -water is sweetened with fresh fig
  144. 144. Mmm, fig water
  145. 145. •Water carrier (water seller) was a common trade for lower class in Seville •Two customers: a young boy and young man •Big jugs of water glisten with splashes of water – so big they seem to protrude into the viewer’s space •Hands fresh glass of water to the boy
  146. 146. •Calm scene •Seller has pensive face, detailed with scars and wrinkles = many years of work •Short hair and plain clothes – appearance of a monk, saint, or philosopher •Gazes at nothing – in deep thought, unaware of those around him
  147. 147. •Velazquez respected the poor – realized that the simple nature of poverty is a profound and effective subject matter for depicting morals and biblical stories •Aimed to precisely represent life – shows insight into the water carrier as a person
  148. 148. This is Velazquez, just in case you’re curious (self portrait)
  149. 149. The Surrender of Breda By: Diego Velazquez 1634-1635, oil on canvas
  150. 150. •Shows the Dutch yielding the town of Breda to the Spanish in 1625 (handing over the key) -Look at how gracious the Spanish are being – very dignified, united military (painting is an emblem of Spanish nationalism)
  151. 151. •Dutch on the left are more scattered and disorganized looking, not in fancy uniforms, very young -Dutch weapons aren’t organized or substantial, Spanish weapons upright, symbolize military might of victors
  152. 152. •Poor Dutch. They lost. •BUT, this is a very important historical commentary: Velazquez depicts one of the most humane captains (Spanish) of the day •Salutes a moment of restraint and kindness in battle (awwww)
  153. 153. •Imaginary landscape in background (aka: Breda) Can you see the cross in the distant lake? A symbol of Spanish (Catholic) domination over Dutch (Protestant)
  154. 154. •Soldiers show each other mutual respect (good game!) in honoring the valor of the other side -open space in center emphasizes the keys and symbolizes a city resigned -Funny thing is, Velazquez never met Dutch people or traveled to Breda
  155. 155. Las Meninas by: Diego Velazquez 1656 oil on canvas
  156. 156. FYI: this is one of the most widely analyzed paintings in art history. This is an overview. You may want to read more about it on your own.
  157. 157. •Set in a large room in a royal palace during the reign of King Philip IV of Spain -most figures identifiable as members of Spanish court
  158. 158. •Group portrait of the artist in his studio at work •He steps away from the canvas to look at the viewer – wears the cross of the Royal Order of Santiago, making him a knight
  159. 159. •He wasn’t knighted until three years after he finished this painting •Cross added after his death
  160. 160. (1) Margarita Teresa of Spain, Infanta Margarita (2) doña Isabel de Velasco (3) doña María Agustina Sarmiento de Sotomayor (4) the dwarf German, Maribarbola (Maria Barbola) (5) the dwarf Italian, Nicolas Pertusato (6) doña Marcela de Ulloa( 7) unidentified bodyguard (guardadamas) (8) Don José Nieto Velázquez (9) Velázquez (10) King Philip IV reflected in mirror (11) Mariana, queen of King Philip, reflected in mirror
  161. 161. •Infanta Margharita of Spain in the center •Meninas = attendants •Also a dog, dwarf, midget, and two chaperones
  162. 162. •Joes Nieto in doorway (head of the queen’s tapestry works, which is why his hand is on a curtain)
  163. 163. •King and Queen are reflected in the mirror… but where are they in the room? Are they in the painting facing away from us? Are they in the room (standing in our space) – is that who everyone is looking at?
  164. 164. •Darks and lights draw us deeper into the room •Dappled light, some surfaces seem to shimmer •This painting was originally hung in King Philip’s study
  165. 165. Picasso
  166. 166. Picasso Again
  167. 167. Spanish department store advertisement
  168. 168. Let's watch a movie about this painting
  169. 169. FLEMISH Baroque…
  170. 170. Raising of the Cross by: Peter Paul Rubens 1610-1611 oil on canvas In Antwerp Cathedral
  171. 171. Part of a triptych – one continuous space across the three panels
  172. 172. •Strong diagonals direct viewer’s attention to Christ •Bodies have impressive musculature – brought out by the dramatic lighting •Spontaneous moment, physical and visual movement
  173. 173. •Men attempting to lift the cross with Christ on it (challenging to their lovely muscles) – look like they’re struggling •Motion, space, and time part of the scene •Dynamic color and dark/light contrast
  174. 174. •Intense scene, very religious, but it’s more about the passion and exuberance of the scene •Influence of Italian Renaissance and Baroque artists. Where do you see this?
  175. 175. Marie de’ Medici Cycle (This one is “Arrival of Marie de’ Medici in Marseilles”) by: Peter Paul Rubens 1622-1625 oil on canvas
  176. 176. •21 paintings in this series, but we’ll focus on this one •All commissioned by Marie de’ Medici, wife of Henry IV of France •Decorated a waiting room in the royal apartment in Luxenbourg Palace (but now they’re at the Louvre Museum) •Hung in a particular order
  177. 177. •All the paintings tell the life story of Marie de’ Medici through allegory •They’re huge! •Allegories help tell the story and mix w/ real historical people (sort of like historical fiction)
  178. 178. •Here, Marie arrives in France after a sea voyage guarded by Neptune and sea nymphs •Angel playing two trumpets – hooray for her arrival!
  179. 179. -Nymphs- Ever hear the term “Rubenesque”?
  180. 180. •Rubens has turned something ordinary (arrival, walking down gangplank) into something magnificent. •Heaven + earth •History + allegory
  181. 181. “France” falls to her feet to greet her with open arms (notice gold fleur-de-lis pattern) Marie is dressed in silver – blends into the crowd, nearly gets lost in the action
  182. 182. •Fancy costumes, looks like an opulent theater production •Sumptuous, full- figured women •Mellow intensity of color – inspired by Titian and Caravaggio •Heroic gestures, lots of movement
  183. 183. Charles I Dismounted by: Anthony Van Dyck 1635, oil on canvas
  184. 184. •Charles I of England walking in front of his bowing horse •Looking directly at viewer, haughty pose, hat framing his head like a halo •Royalty chilling out in nature (Venetian landscape) •Charles is closest to the viewer- artist’s attempt to downplay his
  185. 185. •Charles dressed in civilian clothing, resting during a hunt •The Louvre calls his pose “a subtle compromise between gentlemanly nonchalance and regal assurance” •Horse bows its head, as if bowing down to Charles
  186. 186. DUTCH Baroque… (aka: Rembrandt van Rijn and friends)
  187. 187. DUTCH Baroque Art… • Dutch paintings of landscapes, portraits, genre paintings • Avoided religious ecstasies, myths, and historical subjects • Dutch houses are smaller than Italian, Spanish, etc. – so painters work smaller so their paintings fit • Into symbolism • Somewhat outside the “mainstream” of Baroque art
  188. 188. Self-Portrait by: Rembrandt van Rijn 1659-1660 oil on canvas
  189. 189. •We could go on FOREVER about Rembrandt’s self-portraits •He did MANY of them •They reveal true humanity, psychological tension, various states of mind
  190. 190. •In them, we see him suffering, weary, satisfied, dignified, excited, etc. •Faced personal tragedy and financial hardships, but was a very popular artist •Self-portraits are sincere, w/o vanity •Always with a penetrating gaze •LOVED using soft chiaroscuro lighting
  191. 191. Inside Rembrandt’s studio in Amsterdam (SMO cam….. Yeah, I almost died)
  192. 192. Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp, by Rembrandt van Rijn 1632, oil on canvas
  193. 193. Depicts a specific anatomy lesson (Jan 1632) Public anatomy lessons lasted 4-5 days, indoors in winter
  194. 194. Dr. Tulp explains musculature of the arm to medical professionals Only one public dissection a year (must be an executed criminal)
  195. 195. •Rembrandt’s first group portrait •Spectators are various doctors who paid to be included in the painting •Anatomy lessons were a social event in the 17th century – in lecture rooms (theaters) w/ students, doctors, and the general public (I know, ewww) – paid an entrance fee
  196. 196. •Spectators dressed for this solemn social occasion •The “bloody” work was left to others (“preparators”) – that’s why we don’t see any cutting instruments (too menial of a task for Dr. Tulp)
  197. 197. •Dr. Tulp seated in place of honor, wears rimmed hat (marks him as an the chairman) – hands are prominently displayed
  198. 198. •Comparing the corpse to the giant anatomy book on the right, and positions his own arm to make his point
  199. 199. So who is the corpse? – a criminal convicted of armed robbery and hanged that day, shadow of death on face
  200. 200. Night Watch By: Rembrandt van Rijn 1642, oil on canvas
  201. 201. Originally this size (cut down in in 1715) – this is a copy --cut to fit between two columns when moved to a new location
  202. 202. I saw it!
  203. 203. Again, we see a painting that entire books have been written about…. We’ll do what we can… bear with me
  204. 204. •Painted for an assembly hall as part of a group of paintings of various militias •Misnamed – thought it was a night scene before it was restored (because of all the grime over the years)
  205. 205. •Eight patrons in the scene (represented according to how much they paid, partial or full body) •Militia marching out on patrol (or on parade?) •Captain Cocq holds a baton and wears a red sash, speaking as he comes forward, maybe giving orders
  206. 206. •Lt. Ruytenburg (in yellow) holds a partisan (a long spear weapon) and stands with the captain •Central group comes forward, side groups move behind
  207. 207. •Allegorical figure of a girl in gold carrying a large white chicken dangling from her waist – girl is sort of a mascot – claws of chicken symbolize militia called the Arequebusiers (named after the gun featured in the painting)… I don’t make this stuff up
  208. 208. •Dead chicken also represents the defeated enemy •Yellow is usually associated with victory
  209. 209. So what makes this painting so great? 1. Massive size (roughly 12x14) 2. Dramatic use of light and shadow (chiaroscuro) 3. Rembrandt managed to include MOVEMENT in what had the potential to be a traditional, static military portrait (boring!)
  210. 210. Hundred Guilder Print By: Rembrandt van Rijn 1647-1649, etching
  211. 211. • Name comes from the heavy price for a copy of this print! • Also called “Christ Healing the Sick” and other titles based on multiple events from Matthew’s gospel (Christ healing the sick, debating with scholars, calling children to him)
  212. 212. • Shows Bible events as a tender moment, serene (not based on just ONE single biblical story, illustrates various themes) • Jesus in the center, many religious messages packed in • Young man w/ head in his hand = Christ preaches against excessive wealth
  213. 213. • Women present their babies to him to be blessed – symbolizes his acceptance of all followers, no matter how “insignificant”
  214. 214. Let’s meet Frans Hals! • Specialized in single portraits, marriage portraits, and group portraits • Right time, right place – no market for religious art, portraits popular • Became famous by painting complex groupings of Dutch fraternal organizations Hals Selfie
  215. 215. Guess what’s by Hals…. Yeah, this painting that has been staring you in the face since the summer Catharina Hooft and her Nurse 1620 Oil on canvas
  216. 216. Archers of the Saint Hadrian by: Frans Hals 1633, oil on canvas
  217. 217. • Relative social positions expressed through the composition. You can probably pick out the “most important” people based on their positions – creative arrangement – some standing, some sitting, all based on their position in society
  218. 218. • Hals used diagonals to create 2 groupings and a focal point in the center • Lively conversation, animated faces, some glance at each other and some look at the viewer
  219. 219. • Faces are NOT idealized, all clearly distinguishable, personalities revealed in facial expressions • Very clever – light, shade, modeling all achieved with a few fluid brush strokes
  220. 220. Officers of the Haarlem Militia Company of Saint Adrian Frans Hals, 1627,oil on canvas
  221. 221. • Two distinct groups = split in the political and social structure of the company (Group on right is more relaxed)
  222. 222. • Group on left surrounds Colonel Loo (the commanding authoritarian), many personalities depicted (Hals specialty)
  223. 223. Self-Portrait By: Judith Leyster 1633 oil on canvas
  224. 224. • Self-portrait AS the artist – secure in her craft • Turns around to chat with the viewer as she’s painting • Even the fiddler she’s painting is smiling at us! • She was inspired by Hals (she knew him) – IMPASTO brushwork • She looks successful and capable
  225. 225. • Took on male apprentices • Most of her work was done before she had children (only two known pieces made afterwards)
  226. 226. View of Haarlem from the Dunes at Overveen By: Jacob van Ruisdael 1670, oil on canvas
  227. 227. •Shows a 20-year long landscape project that reclaimed lots of land from the sea (filled it in…. Sounds tricky) •Flat landscape comes to life with alternating dark and light effects – deepen the perspective and draw our attention into the painting, dappled sunlight comes through clouds
  228. 228. •Linen dries in the open air (a local industry) •Sky demands our attention just as much as the land, very animated and bold, billowing clouds, movement •Dutch interest in landscapes
  229. 229. The Love Letter Johannes Vermeer 1662-1665 oil on canvas
  230. 230. •VERY few Vermeer works exist •Almost always depict intimate scenes in private Dutch homes •Figures seem unaware of our presence
  231. 231. •Diagonals in floor add to creation of depth •Lute = symbol of love •Removed slippers = symbol of sex •Broom cast aside – domestic concerns forgotten when you’re in love!
  232. 232. •We are looking into a private world •Servant handing love letter to young woman playing a lute •Small gestures have big impact visually •Warm light from unseen window highlights textures and surfaces – marble floor, fabric, etc.
  233. 233. Similar, but a different painting The Guitar Player Johannes Vermeer 1672 oil on canvas
  234. 234. Here are a few more Vermeer pieces, just for kicks: The Music Lesson Johannes Vermeer 1662-1665 oil on canvas
  235. 235. The Milkmaid Johannes Vermeer 1658 oil on canvas
  236. 236. The Astronomer Johannes Vermeer 1668 oil on canvas
  237. 237. The Girl with the Wine Glass Johannes Vermeer 1659 oil on canvas
  238. 238. Girl with a Pearl Earring Johannes Vermeer 1665 oil on canvas
  239. 239. The Art of Painting Johannes Vermeer 1666 oil on canvas
  240. 240. Embarkation of the Queen of Sheba By: Claude Lorrain 1648, oil on canvas
  241. 241. Embarkation of the Queen of Sheba By: Claude Lorrain 1648, oil on canvas
  242. 242. •Queen of Sheba leaves palace (right) to visit King Solomon in Jerusalem (scene from the First Book of Kings in the Old Testament) •Leaves city of classical buildings, early morning sun lights up the sea, ships are loaded •Queen is about to get in a small boat to transition to the larger boat in the distance
  243. 243. •Architecture frames the scene’s center, which is relatively empty •Rising sun shimmers on the water, scene is backlit, waves pick up sunlight
  244. 244. •Combination of visuals is not chronological (anachronistic) – Roman ruins, medieval tower, Baroque palace…..whatever, it looks nice •Landscape is dominant, people are insignificant (Dutch)
  245. 245. •Composition divided into fifths: horizon line 2/5 of the way up, columns and palace take up 1/5 of the composition
  246. 246. Et in Arcadia Ego By: Nicholas Poussin 1655, oil on canvas
  247. 247. •Uneducated shepherds have difficulty reading the tombstone (curious expressions) •Arcadia (female figure) gently places her hand on the back of one of the shepherds •Pastoral painting, idealized shepherds from classical antiquity
  248. 248. •Poussin wanted his paintings to show moral meanings •Inscription on memorial (hard to see) – “I too am in Arcadia”
  249. 249. •MANY interpretations of the meaning behind this painting •Shepherd’s shadow forms figure of the Grim Reaper •Trees young, mature, and dead in background (life cycle?)
  250. 250. •“Arcadia” is a place for pure, rural, idyllic life (far from the city) – utopian land •SO “I too am in Arcadia” could mean Arcadia = heaven
  251. 251. Louis XIV by: Hyacinth Rigaud 1701 oil on canvas
  252. 252. • The PERFECT example of a Baroque absolute monarch • In Baroque setting • In Baroque clothes • Louis was proud of his legs, exposes them for the viewer to admire • Expression – he looks down on us
  253. 253. Peasa nts!
  254. 254. He’s wearing his coronation costume
  255. 255. Crown placed at his side
  256. 256. •Elegant, stately pose •Haughty expression •Heavy black wig •Elaborate velvet robes •Holds scepter •Sword = a military weapon and a phallic symbol (TMI) •Painting SO popular that Rigaud had assistants make copies (full and half-length) •Exalted status!
  257. 257. VOCABULARY: • GENRE PAINTING: painting in which scenes of everyday life are depicted • IMPASTO: a thick and very visible application of paint on a painting’s surface • POUSSINISTES and RUBENISTES: fans of Poussin and Rubens • QUADRO RIPORATO: a type of ceiling painting – created on a curved ceiling vault. You must stand in a particular spot in order for it to appear correct (example: Sistine Chapel) • DI SOTTO IN SU: “from the bottom up” –ceiling paintings w/ figures hovering above the viewers, looking down at us
  258. 258. VOCABULARY: • TENEBROSO/TENEBRISM: a dramatic light and dark contrast in a painting • VANITAS: a theme in still life painting that stresses the brevity of life and the folly of human vanity • BALDACCHINO: a canopy placed over an altar or shrine FIN