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The simple
sentence
Group 1: Vu Thi Thanh Xuan
Tran Thi Linh
Duong Thanh Mai
Dang Thi Ngoc
Nguyen Thi Mai
Definition
• Sentence is a complete unit of meaning.
• A simple sentence consists of one
clause often with a “subject” and a
“predicate”.
• The subject is what the sentence is
about, and the predicate is a comment
about the subject.
• E.g.: The boy washed clothes.
Subject Predicate
He is an English teacher.
Subject Predicate
Syntactic features of 5 sentence elements
1. Subject
2. Verb
3. Compliment
4. Object
5. Adverbial
Presenter: Tran Thi Linh
element expression position identity
S Noun phrase/
nominal clause
+ before Verb
phrase
+ after operator in
+ number 2 person
+ concord with
Verb phrase
V Verb phrase
( S form)
after S + concord with S
+ intensive
relationship to C/A
C Noun phrase, adj
prep, nominal
clause
+ after verb phrase
+ after clause
+ co-referential
with S, O
O Noun phrase,
nominal clause
+after VP + concord with
S,V,C
+S in passivization
A Adv Prep, A
Clause, NP, Prep P
+ mebile +most optional
+ obligatory in SVA,
SVOA
Syntactic Features of Sentence Elements
Seven Sentence Patterns:
• SV: He is sitting.
• SVC: Marry is a nurse.
• SVA: Tom is in the house.
• SVO: I love you.
• SVOC: He made her happy.
• SVOO: He gave me a rose.
• SVOA: He put it on the table.
Presenter: Duong Thanh Mai
1. Agentive (most typical)
2. Instrumental
3. Affected
4. Recipient
5. Locative
6. Temporal
7. Eventive
8. Empty “It”
Semantic roles of SUBJECT
Agentive Subject
• Animate being instigat-
ing or causing the
happening denoted by
the verb.
• For example:
John opened the door
Agentive Subject
Presenter: Dang Thi Ngoc
Instrumental
Subject
• Inanimate or unwitting
being causing the
happening.
• For example:
The key opened the
door
Instrumental Subject
Affected Subject
One being affected by the event
The door opened.
Intransitive verbs: E.g: Jack fell
downIntensive verbs: E.g: The pen is lying on the
table
Presenter: Dang Thi Ngoc
Recipient Subject
One that receives the happening
John has a beautiful wife.
This role of subject is found with such verbs as have,
own, possess, benefit (from)…
Perceptual verbs See, Hear require a recipient
subject. Verbs Taste, Smell, Feel have both an
agentive meaning and a recipient meaning.
Verbs indicating cognition or emotion may also
require a recipient subject. E.g:
I liked the play (The play gave me pleasure)
Locative Subject Temporal Subject
• One that denotes time.
• For example:
Tomorrow is my birthday
= It’s my birthday tomorrow.
• One that denotes location.
• For example:
The bus holds forty people
= Forty people can sit in the bus
Eventive Subject
• One that denotes
events
• For example:
The meeting ended
successfully.
Empty “IT” Subject
• One that lacks
semantic content.
• For example:
It is sunny and hot.
Semantic roles of OBJECT
DIRECT OBJECT
1. Affected Direct Object
2. Locative Direct Object
3. Effected Direct Object
INDIRECT OBJECT
1. Recipient Indirect Object
2. Affected Indirect Object
Affected direct object
A participant which does not cause
the happening denoted by the verb
but is directly involved in some other way
E.g.: Many people criticized John.
Presenter: Vu Thi Thanh Xuan
Locative direct object
One that shows location and is often
found after such verbs as turn, leave,
reach, cross, surround, penetrate,
climb ...
E.g.: They climbed the mountain.
Effected direct object
1. Object that exists
only by virtue of the
activity indicated by
the verb
E.g.: I am writing a letter.
Bin invented television.
2. Object that repeats
partially or the
whole meaning of
the verb
E.g.: Mary sang a song.
We fought a good fight.
Effected direct object
3. Object that takes the form of a
verbal noun following a common
verb of general meaning
E.g.: He did little work that day.
The prisoner made no comment.
Presenter: Vu Thi Thanh Xuan
Have, do, make, take, give, ....
Recipient indirect object
An animate participant being passively
implicated by the happening or state
E.g.: My parents gave me some money.
= I was given some money by my parents.
Presenter: Vu Thi Thanh Xuan
Affected indirect object
• An animate or inanimate participant that is
affected by the action of the Verb.
• For example:
I gave the ball a kick = I kicked the ball.
affected Oi effected Od affected Od
I paid her a visit = I visited her.
affected Oi effected Od affected Od
Presenter: Vu Thi Thanh Xuan
1. Current attribute
2. Resulting attribute
Presenter: Nguyen Thi Mai
Semantic roles of COMPLEMENT
• A current attribute denotes an already
existing characteristic.
E.g.: My father was a teacher.
Subject Complement
We found her attractive.
Object Complement
Presenter: Nguyen Thi Mai
Semantic roles of COMPLEMENT
• A resulting attribute denotes a
characteristic that comes about
because of the event reported in the
sentence.
E.g.: He became a teacher in 1965.
Subject Complement
Her new dress made her attractive.
Object Complement
Presenter: Nguyen Thi Mai
Semantic roles of COMPLEMENT
Memorable Conclusion
• A simple sentence consists of one clause often
with a “subject” and a “predicate”.
• Syntactic features of 5 sentence elements.
• Semantic functions of simple sentence elements:
Agentive/Instrumental
Affected
Subject Recipient
Locative
Temporal
Eventive
Empty “It”
Memorable Conclusion
Affected
Direct Object Effected
Object Locative
Indirect Object Recipient
Affected
Current Attributive
Complement
Resulting Attributive
Exercise 1: Indicate whether the underlined
element is:
S agentive S instrumental S affected
S recipient O affected O recipient
O effected O locative C current C resulting
1. The bell rang loudly.
 S affected
2. I heard it ring, too.
 S recipient
3. You have got brains.
 S recipient
4. Use your brains.
 Od affected
5. Who owns this hat?
 S recipient
6. They left the house empty.
 Co resulting
7. We found this house empty.
 Co current
8. We laid him on the sofa.
 Od affected
Exercise 1:
9. We made him some tea.
 Oi recipient
10. We have fought a good fight.
 Od effected
11. I climbed the hill as light fell short.
 Od locative
12. Who is making that noise?
Od effected
13. Has anyone touched the television today?
 Od affected
Exercise 2: Make 5 sentences
with current/resulting complement.
• Current meaning:
1.He’s a student.
2.He thought John a fool.
3.He looks handsome.
4.It’s hot.
5.I’m feeling good now.
Exercise 2: Make 5 sentences
with current/resulting complement.
• Resulting meaning:
1.The leaves turned yellow.
2.He named John a fool.
3.It’s getting hot.
4.I became a teacher.
5.The rose is growing up.

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The Simple Sentence

  • 1. The simple sentence Group 1: Vu Thi Thanh Xuan Tran Thi Linh Duong Thanh Mai Dang Thi Ngoc Nguyen Thi Mai
  • 2. Definition • Sentence is a complete unit of meaning. • A simple sentence consists of one clause often with a “subject” and a “predicate”. • The subject is what the sentence is about, and the predicate is a comment about the subject. • E.g.: The boy washed clothes. Subject Predicate He is an English teacher. Subject Predicate
  • 3. Syntactic features of 5 sentence elements 1. Subject 2. Verb 3. Compliment 4. Object 5. Adverbial Presenter: Tran Thi Linh
  • 4. element expression position identity S Noun phrase/ nominal clause + before Verb phrase + after operator in + number 2 person + concord with Verb phrase V Verb phrase ( S form) after S + concord with S + intensive relationship to C/A C Noun phrase, adj prep, nominal clause + after verb phrase + after clause + co-referential with S, O O Noun phrase, nominal clause +after VP + concord with S,V,C +S in passivization A Adv Prep, A Clause, NP, Prep P + mebile +most optional + obligatory in SVA, SVOA
  • 5. Syntactic Features of Sentence Elements Seven Sentence Patterns: • SV: He is sitting. • SVC: Marry is a nurse. • SVA: Tom is in the house. • SVO: I love you. • SVOC: He made her happy. • SVOO: He gave me a rose. • SVOA: He put it on the table. Presenter: Duong Thanh Mai
  • 6. 1. Agentive (most typical) 2. Instrumental 3. Affected 4. Recipient 5. Locative 6. Temporal 7. Eventive 8. Empty “It” Semantic roles of SUBJECT
  • 7. Agentive Subject • Animate being instigat- ing or causing the happening denoted by the verb. • For example: John opened the door Agentive Subject Presenter: Dang Thi Ngoc Instrumental Subject • Inanimate or unwitting being causing the happening. • For example: The key opened the door Instrumental Subject
  • 8. Affected Subject One being affected by the event The door opened. Intransitive verbs: E.g: Jack fell downIntensive verbs: E.g: The pen is lying on the table Presenter: Dang Thi Ngoc
  • 9. Recipient Subject One that receives the happening John has a beautiful wife. This role of subject is found with such verbs as have, own, possess, benefit (from)…
  • 10. Perceptual verbs See, Hear require a recipient subject. Verbs Taste, Smell, Feel have both an agentive meaning and a recipient meaning. Verbs indicating cognition or emotion may also require a recipient subject. E.g: I liked the play (The play gave me pleasure)
  • 11. Locative Subject Temporal Subject • One that denotes time. • For example: Tomorrow is my birthday = It’s my birthday tomorrow. • One that denotes location. • For example: The bus holds forty people = Forty people can sit in the bus
  • 12. Eventive Subject • One that denotes events • For example: The meeting ended successfully. Empty “IT” Subject • One that lacks semantic content. • For example: It is sunny and hot.
  • 13. Semantic roles of OBJECT DIRECT OBJECT 1. Affected Direct Object 2. Locative Direct Object 3. Effected Direct Object INDIRECT OBJECT 1. Recipient Indirect Object 2. Affected Indirect Object
  • 14. Affected direct object A participant which does not cause the happening denoted by the verb but is directly involved in some other way E.g.: Many people criticized John. Presenter: Vu Thi Thanh Xuan
  • 15. Locative direct object One that shows location and is often found after such verbs as turn, leave, reach, cross, surround, penetrate, climb ... E.g.: They climbed the mountain.
  • 16. Effected direct object 1. Object that exists only by virtue of the activity indicated by the verb E.g.: I am writing a letter. Bin invented television. 2. Object that repeats partially or the whole meaning of the verb E.g.: Mary sang a song. We fought a good fight.
  • 17. Effected direct object 3. Object that takes the form of a verbal noun following a common verb of general meaning E.g.: He did little work that day. The prisoner made no comment. Presenter: Vu Thi Thanh Xuan Have, do, make, take, give, ....
  • 18. Recipient indirect object An animate participant being passively implicated by the happening or state E.g.: My parents gave me some money. = I was given some money by my parents. Presenter: Vu Thi Thanh Xuan
  • 19. Affected indirect object • An animate or inanimate participant that is affected by the action of the Verb. • For example: I gave the ball a kick = I kicked the ball. affected Oi effected Od affected Od I paid her a visit = I visited her. affected Oi effected Od affected Od Presenter: Vu Thi Thanh Xuan
  • 20. 1. Current attribute 2. Resulting attribute Presenter: Nguyen Thi Mai Semantic roles of COMPLEMENT
  • 21. • A current attribute denotes an already existing characteristic. E.g.: My father was a teacher. Subject Complement We found her attractive. Object Complement Presenter: Nguyen Thi Mai Semantic roles of COMPLEMENT
  • 22. • A resulting attribute denotes a characteristic that comes about because of the event reported in the sentence. E.g.: He became a teacher in 1965. Subject Complement Her new dress made her attractive. Object Complement Presenter: Nguyen Thi Mai Semantic roles of COMPLEMENT
  • 23. Memorable Conclusion • A simple sentence consists of one clause often with a “subject” and a “predicate”. • Syntactic features of 5 sentence elements. • Semantic functions of simple sentence elements: Agentive/Instrumental Affected Subject Recipient Locative Temporal Eventive Empty “It”
  • 24. Memorable Conclusion Affected Direct Object Effected Object Locative Indirect Object Recipient Affected Current Attributive Complement Resulting Attributive
  • 25. Exercise 1: Indicate whether the underlined element is: S agentive S instrumental S affected S recipient O affected O recipient O effected O locative C current C resulting 1. The bell rang loudly.  S affected 2. I heard it ring, too.  S recipient 3. You have got brains.  S recipient 4. Use your brains.  Od affected 5. Who owns this hat?  S recipient 6. They left the house empty.  Co resulting 7. We found this house empty.  Co current 8. We laid him on the sofa.  Od affected
  • 26. Exercise 1: 9. We made him some tea.  Oi recipient 10. We have fought a good fight.  Od effected 11. I climbed the hill as light fell short.  Od locative 12. Who is making that noise? Od effected 13. Has anyone touched the television today?  Od affected
  • 27. Exercise 2: Make 5 sentences with current/resulting complement. • Current meaning: 1.He’s a student. 2.He thought John a fool. 3.He looks handsome. 4.It’s hot. 5.I’m feeling good now.
  • 28. Exercise 2: Make 5 sentences with current/resulting complement. • Resulting meaning: 1.The leaves turned yellow. 2.He named John a fool. 3.It’s getting hot. 4.I became a teacher. 5.The rose is growing up.