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Dye removal from waste water by using low cost adsorbent: A review
Submitted to
National Conference
on
Emerging Research Trends in Engineering-2016
Paper ID - 125
Chemical Engineering Department
Vishwakarma Government Engineering College
Chandkheda-382424
Year: – 2016
Contents
1. Introduction
2. Adsorption
3. Adsorbent
4. Literature review
5. Future scope
6. References
1. Introduction
•The quality of our water resources is getting worse and use of dyes
generates colored wastewaters, which give cause of environmental concern.
•Textile wastewater includes a large variety of dyes and chemical additions
that make the environmental challenge for textile industry not only as liquid
waste but also in its chemical composition.
•Main pollution in textile wastewater come from dyeing and finishing
processes.
•These processes require the input of a wide range of chemicals and
dyestuffs, which generally are organic compounds of complex structure.
•Water is used as the principal medium to apply dyes and various
chemicals for finishes.
•Because all of them are not contained in the final product, became waste
and caused disposal problems.
•Major pollutants in textile wastewaters are high suspended solids,
chemical oxygen demand, heat, colour, acidity, and other soluble
substances.
•Substances which need to be removed from textile wastewater are mainly
colour, COD, BOD, pH, TDS.
Harmful Effects
• Toxic
• Carcinogenic
• Mutagenic
• Teratogenic
• Retards photosynthetic activity
• Inhibits growth of aquatic biota
Permissible Limits
• pH is 6.5-8.5
• The maximum permissible COD limit is < 150 mg/L
• The maximum permitted BOD content of < 100 mg/L.
• TDS limit is 2100 mg/L
• Color limit 100 hazen
The Technologies
Treatment methods for effluents
Chemical methods Physical methods Biological methods
Oxidation Ozonation Filtration
Coagulation/
Flocculation
Adsorption
Microbes
Enzymes
• A process wherein a material is concentrated at a solid surface from
its liquid or gaseous surroundings.
• Adsorption is considered as the best wastewater treatment technique
because of its all-inclusive nature, modesty and simplicity of
operation.
• Basically, adsorption is the accumulation of a substance at a surface
or interface.
2. Adsorption
• Simplest
• Low capital and operating costs
• Can have good physical properties
• Adsorbents are easily available
Why Adsorption ??
Adsorption processes: Applications
Purifications:
- Removal of organics from
vent gases
- SO2 from vent gases
- H2O from air, methane, N2
- Removal of solvent, odours
from air
- NOx from N2
- Organics from water solution
- Water from organic solution
- Decolourization
Separations:
- N2/O2
- Acetone from vent stream
- C2H4 from vent
- Normal paraffins/ Iso praffins
- CO, CH4, CO2, N2, Ar from
hydrogen
- Normal paraffins from Iso paraffins
- Normal paraffins from olefins
gasphaseliquidphase
• Adsorption processes is the interaction of adsorbate molecules
with the surface of adsorbent
• Therefore adsorbent materials are usually materials with
extensive porous structure
Criteria for adsorbent selection:
* Selectivity
* Capacity
* Chemical and thermal stability
* Cost
3. Adsorbent
(I) On basis of their availability
(a) Natural materials
(b) Industrial/Agricultural/ Domestic wastes or by-products
(c) Synthesized products
(II) Depending on their nature
(a) Inorganic
(b) Organic
An application of bio-sorption using fungi, yeasts and bacteria for the
removal of organic pollutants
Classification of adsorbents
Adsorbents: Characterization
1) Crystalline/amorphous
2) Hydrophobic/Hydrophilic
3) Surface area (100-1000 m2/gm)
4) Pore size
5) Pore shape: slits, channels, cavities, cages, shapeless
- often modelled as cylindrical channels
r < 2 nm Microporous
2 nm < r < 50 nm Mesoporous
r > 50 nm Macroporous
Factors Affecting Adsorbents Properties
• Starting materials (e.g., coal vs. wood based) and activation
• Pores and pore size distributions
• Internal surface area
• Surface chemistry (esp. polarity)
• Apparent density
• Particle Size: Granular vs. Powdered (GAC vs. PAC)
Adsorbents Surface area ( m2/gm ) Cost (RS/kg)
Commercial activated carbon 500 - 2000 500
Bentonite clay 47 - 73 150
Silica gel 250 - 900 120
Alumina 200 - 300 110
Bauxite 25 - 250 90
Banana peel 20.6 - 23.5 60
Kaolinite clay - 40
Fuller’s earth - 15
Wood 3.8 - 6.4 10
Bagasse 607 -
Surface area and cost [23]
4. Literature review
Author Adsorbent Dye Parameter Isotherms and
model
Nevine Kamal Amin
(2008)
[15]
Sugarcane
bagasse pith
reactive orange (RO)
dye
contact time,
adsorbent dose
and pH
Langmuir and
Freundlich
adsorption
isotherms
V.K. Garg , Renuka
Gupta, Anu Bala Yadav,
Rakesh Kumar (2003)
[22]
Sawdust malachite green contact time,
adsorbent dose
and pH
first order rate
expression and
Lagergren
equation
K. Santhy, P. Selvapathy
(2006)
[12]
Coir pith reactive
dyes(orange12, red 2,
blue 4)
contact time,
adsorbent dose
and pH
Freundlich model
V.K. Garg, Moirangthem
Amita, Rakesh Kumar,
Renuka Gupta (2004)
[21]
Indian
Rosewood
Sawdust
methylene blue adsorbent dosage,
initial dye
concentration, pH
and contact time
first order rate
equation and fit
the Lagergren
equation
F. Ferrero
(2007)
[7]
Ground
hazelnut
shells and
sawdust
Methylene Blue,
and Acid Blue 25
- Lagergren’s model, but the best fit
was achieved by a second order
Equation
Freundlich and Langmuir
isotherms
P.K. Malik
(2004)
[16]
Mahogany
sawdust:
Direct Blue 2B and
Direct Green B dyes
- Langmuir equation as well as the
pseudo-second-order
rate equation
C. Namasivayam,
D. Kavitha
(2002)
[4]
Coir pith Congo Red agitation time,
dye concentration,
adsorbent dose, pH
and temperature
Langmuir and
Freundlich isotherms
Dipa Ghosh,
Krishna G.
Bhattacharyya
(2002) [5]
Kaolinite clay methylene blue pH Freundlich and Langmuir
equations
B.H. Hameed, A.L.
Ahmad, K.N.A.
Latiff
(2007) [3]
rattan
sawdust
methylene blue Effect of initial dye
concentration on
adsorption
Langmuir and Freundlich models
G. Atun, G. Hisarli, W.S.
Sheldrick, and
M. Muhler
(2003)
[8]
Fuller’s earth methylene blue dependence on
initial
concentration
Effect of
temperature on
MB adsorption
-
V. J. P. Poots, G. McKay,
J. J. Healy (1978)
[20]
wood Atrazone
Blue
Contact time,
initial conc of dye Langmuir and
Freundlich
models
Hung-Yee Shu, Ming-
Chin Chang
(2005)
[10]
advanced
oxidation
process
phthalocyanine dye initial hydrogen
peroxide
concentration,
Effect of UV light
power, , initial dye
concentration, pH
-
Li-yan Fu, Xiang-hua
Wen, Li-jie Xu, Yi Qian
(2002)
[13]
acclimated
sludge,
copper-
phthalocyanine dye
Influence of CPC
concentration on
microbial
activity
-
Factors affecting dye adsorption onto adsorbent
pH
• High pH solution results in an increase in the percentage of cationic dye
removal because the positive charge on the solution interface will decrease
and the adsorbent surface appears negatively charged.
• Low pH solution results in an increase in the percentage of anionic dye
removal because of the electrostatic attraction between anionic dye and the
positive surface charge of the adsorbent.
Adsorbent Dosage
• In general, the dye removal percentage is increasing with the increase
of the adsorbent dosage.
• When excess adsorbent dosage is used, a significant portion of the
adsorption sites remain unsaturated. This obviously leads to low
specific adsorption capacity.
• When the adsorbent dosage was lowered, the number of active sites
saturated with dyes increased; therefore, specific uptake also
increased.
Time
• At higher contact time, the rate of adsorption decreases, gradually
leading to equilibrium due to decrease in total adsorbent surface area
and less available binding sites.
• The decrease in dye removal with time may be due to aggregation of
the dye molecules around the adsorbent particles.
• Is an empirical relation between the concentration of a solute on the surface of an adsorbent to
the concentration of the solute in the liquid with which it is in contact.
Freundlich adsorption isotherm
• The Freundlich Adsorption Isotherm is mathematically expressed as
𝑞 = 𝐾𝑝
1
𝑛
It can be written as,
Or
𝑥
𝑚
= 𝐾𝐶
1
𝑛
log 𝑞 = log 𝐾 +
1
𝑛
log 𝐶
• Freundlich adsorption isotherm failed at higher pressure.
log 𝑞 = log 𝐾 +
1
𝑛
log 𝑝
Where, q = amount of solute adsorbed
C= eq. concentration
K= adsorption coefficient
n= slope
Simple isotherm equations: Langmuir
Assumptions:
- Single layer
- Interaction between
molecules in the layer are
negligible
i
i
Kp
Kp


1

i
ii
i
Kp
pKn
n


1
max
max
i
i
n
n

max
in
max
i
i
n
n

Simple isotherm equations: Langmuir
i
ii
i
Kp
pKn
n


1
max
maxmax
1
i
i
ii
i
n
p
Knn
p

ip
i
i
n
p
max
1
in
Kni
max
1
bY
HY
q


1
More convenient units
q [kg of adsorbate]/
[kg of pure adsorbent]
Y [kg of adsorbate/kg carrier gas]
Lagergren equation
• Lagergren first order model which is generally expressed as
𝑑𝑞
𝑑𝑡
= 𝑘1(𝑞 𝑒 − 𝑞)
Where, k1 is the first-order-rate constant.
• The kinetic rate expression can be written as
log(𝑞 𝑒 − 𝑞)= log 𝑞 𝑒 −
𝑘1
2.303
𝑡
• Low cost adsorbents can be used for water treatment and waste management.
• There is a need to develop more efficient selective, inexpensive and eco-friendly
low cost adsorbents for water treatment.
• Continuous process can be used for adsorption process.
• Many work is to be carried out in the area of desorption process.
5. Future scope
[1] A.L. Ahmad, S.W. Puasa, Reactive dyes decolourization from an aqueous solution by combined
coagulation/micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration process, Chemical Engineering Journal 132 (2007) 257–265.
[2] Aysegul Pala, Enis Tokat, Color removal from cotton textile industry wastewater in an activated sludge system
with various additives, Water Research 36 (2002) 2920–2925.
[3] B.H. Hameed, A.L. Ahmad, K.N.A. Latiff, Adsorption of basic dye (methylene blue) onto activated carbon
prepared from rattan sawdust, Dyes and Pigments 75 (2007) 143-149.
[4] C. Namasivayam, D. Kavitha, Removal of Congo Red from water by adsorption onto activated carbon
prepared from coir pith, an agricultural solid waste, Dyes and Pigments 54 (2002) 47–58.
[5] Dipa Ghosh, Krishna G. Bhattacharyya, Adsorption of methylene blue on kaolinite, Applied Clay Science 20
(2002) 295– 300.
[6] Esther Forgacs, Tibor Cserhati, Gyula Oros, Removal of synthetic dyes from wastewaters: a review,
Environment International 30 (2004) 953– 971.
[7] F. Ferrero, Dye removal by low cost adsorbents: Hazelnut shells in comparison with wood sawdust, Journal of
Hazardous Materials 142 (2007) 144–152.
6. References
[8] G. Atun, G. Hisarli, W.S. Sheldrick, and M. Muhler, Adsorptive removal of methylene blue from colored
effluents on fuller’s earth, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 261 (2003) 32–39.
[9] Gregorio Crini, Recent developments in polysaccharide-based materials used as adsorbents in wastewater
treatment, Prog. Polym. Sci. 30 (2005) 38–70.
[10] Hung-Yee Shu, Ming-Chin Chang, Decolorization and mineralization of a phthalocyanine dye C.I. Direct
Blue 199 using UV/H2O2 process, Journal of Hazardous Materials B125 (2005) 96–101.
[11] Imran Ali, Mohd. Asim, Tabrez A. Khan, Low cost adsorbents for the removal of organic pollutants from
wastewater, Journal of Environmental Management 113 (2012) 170-183.
[12] K. Santhy, P. Selvapathy, Removal of reactive dyes from wastewater by adsorption on coir pith activated
carbon, Bioresource Technology 97 (2006) 1329–1336.Klaus Hunger (Editor), Industrial Dyes Chemistry,
Properties, Applications, 2003.
[13] Li-yan Fu, Xiang-hua Wen, Li-jie Xu, Yi Qian, Removal of a copper-phthalocyanine dye from wastewater by
acclimated sludge under anaerobic or aerobic conditions, Process Biochemistry 37 (2002) 1151–1156.
[14] Maria Cristina Silva, Angelita Duarte Correa Decolorization of the phthalocyanine dye reactive blue 21 by
turnip peroxidase and assessment of its oxidation products, Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic 77
(2012) 9– 14.
[15] Nevine Kamal Amin, Removal of reactive dye from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto activated
carbons prepared from sugarcane bagasse pith, Desalination 223 (2008) 152–161.
[16] P.K. Malik, Dye removal from wastewater using activated carbon developed from sawdust: adsorption
equilibrium and kinetics, Journal of Hazardous Materials B113 (2004) 81–88.
[17] Sanna Hokkanen, Amit Bhatnagar, Mika Sillanpaa, A review on modification methods to cellulose-based
adsorbents to improve adsorption capacity, Water Research 91 (2016) 156-173.
[18] Sarika Diwaniyan, Deepti Kharb, Chandralata Raghukumar, Ramesh Chander Kuhad, Decolorization of
Synthetic Dyes and Textile Effluents by Basidiomycetous Fungi, Water Air Soil Pollut (2010) 210:409–419.
[19] Shaobin Wang, Yuelian Peng, Natural zeolites as effective adsorbents in water and wastewater treatment,
Chemical Engineering Journal 156 (2010) 11–24.
[20] V. J. P. Poots, G. McKay and J. J. Healy, Removal of Basic Dye from Effluent Using Wood as an
Adsorbent, Journal (Water Pollution Control Federation), Vol. 50, No. 5 (May, 1978), pp. 926-935.
[21] V.K. Garg, Moirangthem Amita, Rakesh Kumar, Renuka Gupta, Basic dye (methylene blue) removal
from simulated wastewater by adsorption using Indian Rosewood sawdust: a timber industry waste, Dyes and
Pigments 63 (2004) 243-250.
[22] V.K. Garg, Renuka Gupta, Anu Bala Yadav, Rakesh Kumar, Dye removal from aqueous
solution by adsorption on treated sawdust, Bioresource Technology 89 (2003) 121–124.
[23] V.K. Gupta, Suhas, Application of low-cost adsorbents for dye removal – A review, Journal
of Environmental Management 90 (2009) 2313–2342.
[24] W.T. Tsai, K.J. Hsien and J.M. Yang, Silica adsorbent prepared from spent diatomaceous
earth and its application to removal of dye from aqueous solution, Journal of Colloid and
Interface Science 275 (2004) 428–433.
Questions ??
Thank you

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Dye removal from waste water by using low cost adsorbent: A review

  • 1. Dye removal from waste water by using low cost adsorbent: A review Submitted to National Conference on Emerging Research Trends in Engineering-2016 Paper ID - 125 Chemical Engineering Department Vishwakarma Government Engineering College Chandkheda-382424 Year: – 2016
  • 2. Contents 1. Introduction 2. Adsorption 3. Adsorbent 4. Literature review 5. Future scope 6. References
  • 3. 1. Introduction •The quality of our water resources is getting worse and use of dyes generates colored wastewaters, which give cause of environmental concern. •Textile wastewater includes a large variety of dyes and chemical additions that make the environmental challenge for textile industry not only as liquid waste but also in its chemical composition. •Main pollution in textile wastewater come from dyeing and finishing processes. •These processes require the input of a wide range of chemicals and dyestuffs, which generally are organic compounds of complex structure.
  • 4. •Water is used as the principal medium to apply dyes and various chemicals for finishes. •Because all of them are not contained in the final product, became waste and caused disposal problems. •Major pollutants in textile wastewaters are high suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand, heat, colour, acidity, and other soluble substances. •Substances which need to be removed from textile wastewater are mainly colour, COD, BOD, pH, TDS.
  • 5. Harmful Effects • Toxic • Carcinogenic • Mutagenic • Teratogenic • Retards photosynthetic activity • Inhibits growth of aquatic biota
  • 6. Permissible Limits • pH is 6.5-8.5 • The maximum permissible COD limit is < 150 mg/L • The maximum permitted BOD content of < 100 mg/L. • TDS limit is 2100 mg/L • Color limit 100 hazen
  • 7. The Technologies Treatment methods for effluents Chemical methods Physical methods Biological methods Oxidation Ozonation Filtration Coagulation/ Flocculation Adsorption Microbes Enzymes
  • 8. • A process wherein a material is concentrated at a solid surface from its liquid or gaseous surroundings. • Adsorption is considered as the best wastewater treatment technique because of its all-inclusive nature, modesty and simplicity of operation. • Basically, adsorption is the accumulation of a substance at a surface or interface. 2. Adsorption
  • 9. • Simplest • Low capital and operating costs • Can have good physical properties • Adsorbents are easily available Why Adsorption ??
  • 10. Adsorption processes: Applications Purifications: - Removal of organics from vent gases - SO2 from vent gases - H2O from air, methane, N2 - Removal of solvent, odours from air - NOx from N2 - Organics from water solution - Water from organic solution - Decolourization Separations: - N2/O2 - Acetone from vent stream - C2H4 from vent - Normal paraffins/ Iso praffins - CO, CH4, CO2, N2, Ar from hydrogen - Normal paraffins from Iso paraffins - Normal paraffins from olefins gasphaseliquidphase
  • 11. • Adsorption processes is the interaction of adsorbate molecules with the surface of adsorbent • Therefore adsorbent materials are usually materials with extensive porous structure Criteria for adsorbent selection: * Selectivity * Capacity * Chemical and thermal stability * Cost 3. Adsorbent
  • 12. (I) On basis of their availability (a) Natural materials (b) Industrial/Agricultural/ Domestic wastes or by-products (c) Synthesized products (II) Depending on their nature (a) Inorganic (b) Organic An application of bio-sorption using fungi, yeasts and bacteria for the removal of organic pollutants Classification of adsorbents
  • 13. Adsorbents: Characterization 1) Crystalline/amorphous 2) Hydrophobic/Hydrophilic 3) Surface area (100-1000 m2/gm) 4) Pore size 5) Pore shape: slits, channels, cavities, cages, shapeless - often modelled as cylindrical channels r < 2 nm Microporous 2 nm < r < 50 nm Mesoporous r > 50 nm Macroporous
  • 14. Factors Affecting Adsorbents Properties • Starting materials (e.g., coal vs. wood based) and activation • Pores and pore size distributions • Internal surface area • Surface chemistry (esp. polarity) • Apparent density • Particle Size: Granular vs. Powdered (GAC vs. PAC)
  • 15. Adsorbents Surface area ( m2/gm ) Cost (RS/kg) Commercial activated carbon 500 - 2000 500 Bentonite clay 47 - 73 150 Silica gel 250 - 900 120 Alumina 200 - 300 110 Bauxite 25 - 250 90 Banana peel 20.6 - 23.5 60 Kaolinite clay - 40 Fuller’s earth - 15 Wood 3.8 - 6.4 10 Bagasse 607 - Surface area and cost [23]
  • 16. 4. Literature review Author Adsorbent Dye Parameter Isotherms and model Nevine Kamal Amin (2008) [15] Sugarcane bagasse pith reactive orange (RO) dye contact time, adsorbent dose and pH Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms V.K. Garg , Renuka Gupta, Anu Bala Yadav, Rakesh Kumar (2003) [22] Sawdust malachite green contact time, adsorbent dose and pH first order rate expression and Lagergren equation K. Santhy, P. Selvapathy (2006) [12] Coir pith reactive dyes(orange12, red 2, blue 4) contact time, adsorbent dose and pH Freundlich model V.K. Garg, Moirangthem Amita, Rakesh Kumar, Renuka Gupta (2004) [21] Indian Rosewood Sawdust methylene blue adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, pH and contact time first order rate equation and fit the Lagergren equation
  • 17. F. Ferrero (2007) [7] Ground hazelnut shells and sawdust Methylene Blue, and Acid Blue 25 - Lagergren’s model, but the best fit was achieved by a second order Equation Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms P.K. Malik (2004) [16] Mahogany sawdust: Direct Blue 2B and Direct Green B dyes - Langmuir equation as well as the pseudo-second-order rate equation C. Namasivayam, D. Kavitha (2002) [4] Coir pith Congo Red agitation time, dye concentration, adsorbent dose, pH and temperature Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms Dipa Ghosh, Krishna G. Bhattacharyya (2002) [5] Kaolinite clay methylene blue pH Freundlich and Langmuir equations B.H. Hameed, A.L. Ahmad, K.N.A. Latiff (2007) [3] rattan sawdust methylene blue Effect of initial dye concentration on adsorption Langmuir and Freundlich models
  • 18. G. Atun, G. Hisarli, W.S. Sheldrick, and M. Muhler (2003) [8] Fuller’s earth methylene blue dependence on initial concentration Effect of temperature on MB adsorption - V. J. P. Poots, G. McKay, J. J. Healy (1978) [20] wood Atrazone Blue Contact time, initial conc of dye Langmuir and Freundlich models Hung-Yee Shu, Ming- Chin Chang (2005) [10] advanced oxidation process phthalocyanine dye initial hydrogen peroxide concentration, Effect of UV light power, , initial dye concentration, pH - Li-yan Fu, Xiang-hua Wen, Li-jie Xu, Yi Qian (2002) [13] acclimated sludge, copper- phthalocyanine dye Influence of CPC concentration on microbial activity -
  • 19. Factors affecting dye adsorption onto adsorbent
  • 20. pH • High pH solution results in an increase in the percentage of cationic dye removal because the positive charge on the solution interface will decrease and the adsorbent surface appears negatively charged. • Low pH solution results in an increase in the percentage of anionic dye removal because of the electrostatic attraction between anionic dye and the positive surface charge of the adsorbent.
  • 21. Adsorbent Dosage • In general, the dye removal percentage is increasing with the increase of the adsorbent dosage. • When excess adsorbent dosage is used, a significant portion of the adsorption sites remain unsaturated. This obviously leads to low specific adsorption capacity. • When the adsorbent dosage was lowered, the number of active sites saturated with dyes increased; therefore, specific uptake also increased.
  • 22. Time • At higher contact time, the rate of adsorption decreases, gradually leading to equilibrium due to decrease in total adsorbent surface area and less available binding sites. • The decrease in dye removal with time may be due to aggregation of the dye molecules around the adsorbent particles.
  • 23. • Is an empirical relation between the concentration of a solute on the surface of an adsorbent to the concentration of the solute in the liquid with which it is in contact. Freundlich adsorption isotherm • The Freundlich Adsorption Isotherm is mathematically expressed as 𝑞 = 𝐾𝑝 1 𝑛 It can be written as, Or 𝑥 𝑚 = 𝐾𝐶 1 𝑛 log 𝑞 = log 𝐾 + 1 𝑛 log 𝐶 • Freundlich adsorption isotherm failed at higher pressure. log 𝑞 = log 𝐾 + 1 𝑛 log 𝑝 Where, q = amount of solute adsorbed C= eq. concentration K= adsorption coefficient n= slope
  • 24. Simple isotherm equations: Langmuir Assumptions: - Single layer - Interaction between molecules in the layer are negligible i i Kp Kp   1  i ii i Kp pKn n   1 max max i i n n  max in max i i n n 
  • 25. Simple isotherm equations: Langmuir i ii i Kp pKn n   1 max maxmax 1 i i ii i n p Knn p  ip i i n p max 1 in Kni max 1 bY HY q   1 More convenient units q [kg of adsorbate]/ [kg of pure adsorbent] Y [kg of adsorbate/kg carrier gas]
  • 26. Lagergren equation • Lagergren first order model which is generally expressed as 𝑑𝑞 𝑑𝑡 = 𝑘1(𝑞 𝑒 − 𝑞) Where, k1 is the first-order-rate constant. • The kinetic rate expression can be written as log(𝑞 𝑒 − 𝑞)= log 𝑞 𝑒 − 𝑘1 2.303 𝑡
  • 27. • Low cost adsorbents can be used for water treatment and waste management. • There is a need to develop more efficient selective, inexpensive and eco-friendly low cost adsorbents for water treatment. • Continuous process can be used for adsorption process. • Many work is to be carried out in the area of desorption process. 5. Future scope
  • 28. [1] A.L. Ahmad, S.W. Puasa, Reactive dyes decolourization from an aqueous solution by combined coagulation/micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration process, Chemical Engineering Journal 132 (2007) 257–265. [2] Aysegul Pala, Enis Tokat, Color removal from cotton textile industry wastewater in an activated sludge system with various additives, Water Research 36 (2002) 2920–2925. [3] B.H. Hameed, A.L. Ahmad, K.N.A. Latiff, Adsorption of basic dye (methylene blue) onto activated carbon prepared from rattan sawdust, Dyes and Pigments 75 (2007) 143-149. [4] C. Namasivayam, D. Kavitha, Removal of Congo Red from water by adsorption onto activated carbon prepared from coir pith, an agricultural solid waste, Dyes and Pigments 54 (2002) 47–58. [5] Dipa Ghosh, Krishna G. Bhattacharyya, Adsorption of methylene blue on kaolinite, Applied Clay Science 20 (2002) 295– 300. [6] Esther Forgacs, Tibor Cserhati, Gyula Oros, Removal of synthetic dyes from wastewaters: a review, Environment International 30 (2004) 953– 971. [7] F. Ferrero, Dye removal by low cost adsorbents: Hazelnut shells in comparison with wood sawdust, Journal of Hazardous Materials 142 (2007) 144–152. 6. References
  • 29. [8] G. Atun, G. Hisarli, W.S. Sheldrick, and M. Muhler, Adsorptive removal of methylene blue from colored effluents on fuller’s earth, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 261 (2003) 32–39. [9] Gregorio Crini, Recent developments in polysaccharide-based materials used as adsorbents in wastewater treatment, Prog. Polym. Sci. 30 (2005) 38–70. [10] Hung-Yee Shu, Ming-Chin Chang, Decolorization and mineralization of a phthalocyanine dye C.I. Direct Blue 199 using UV/H2O2 process, Journal of Hazardous Materials B125 (2005) 96–101. [11] Imran Ali, Mohd. Asim, Tabrez A. Khan, Low cost adsorbents for the removal of organic pollutants from wastewater, Journal of Environmental Management 113 (2012) 170-183. [12] K. Santhy, P. Selvapathy, Removal of reactive dyes from wastewater by adsorption on coir pith activated carbon, Bioresource Technology 97 (2006) 1329–1336.Klaus Hunger (Editor), Industrial Dyes Chemistry, Properties, Applications, 2003. [13] Li-yan Fu, Xiang-hua Wen, Li-jie Xu, Yi Qian, Removal of a copper-phthalocyanine dye from wastewater by acclimated sludge under anaerobic or aerobic conditions, Process Biochemistry 37 (2002) 1151–1156. [14] Maria Cristina Silva, Angelita Duarte Correa Decolorization of the phthalocyanine dye reactive blue 21 by turnip peroxidase and assessment of its oxidation products, Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic 77 (2012) 9– 14.
  • 30. [15] Nevine Kamal Amin, Removal of reactive dye from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto activated carbons prepared from sugarcane bagasse pith, Desalination 223 (2008) 152–161. [16] P.K. Malik, Dye removal from wastewater using activated carbon developed from sawdust: adsorption equilibrium and kinetics, Journal of Hazardous Materials B113 (2004) 81–88. [17] Sanna Hokkanen, Amit Bhatnagar, Mika Sillanpaa, A review on modification methods to cellulose-based adsorbents to improve adsorption capacity, Water Research 91 (2016) 156-173. [18] Sarika Diwaniyan, Deepti Kharb, Chandralata Raghukumar, Ramesh Chander Kuhad, Decolorization of Synthetic Dyes and Textile Effluents by Basidiomycetous Fungi, Water Air Soil Pollut (2010) 210:409–419. [19] Shaobin Wang, Yuelian Peng, Natural zeolites as effective adsorbents in water and wastewater treatment, Chemical Engineering Journal 156 (2010) 11–24. [20] V. J. P. Poots, G. McKay and J. J. Healy, Removal of Basic Dye from Effluent Using Wood as an Adsorbent, Journal (Water Pollution Control Federation), Vol. 50, No. 5 (May, 1978), pp. 926-935. [21] V.K. Garg, Moirangthem Amita, Rakesh Kumar, Renuka Gupta, Basic dye (methylene blue) removal from simulated wastewater by adsorption using Indian Rosewood sawdust: a timber industry waste, Dyes and Pigments 63 (2004) 243-250.
  • 31. [22] V.K. Garg, Renuka Gupta, Anu Bala Yadav, Rakesh Kumar, Dye removal from aqueous solution by adsorption on treated sawdust, Bioresource Technology 89 (2003) 121–124. [23] V.K. Gupta, Suhas, Application of low-cost adsorbents for dye removal – A review, Journal of Environmental Management 90 (2009) 2313–2342. [24] W.T. Tsai, K.J. Hsien and J.M. Yang, Silica adsorbent prepared from spent diatomaceous earth and its application to removal of dye from aqueous solution, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 275 (2004) 428–433.