SlideShare a Scribd company logo
CHAPTER 6: MODALITY
(Interpersonal meaning)
1.1.Definition
 Modality is what the speaker is doing with the whole
proposition.
Bybee (1985)
 Modality is the semantic information associated with the
speaker’s attitude or opinion what as said .
Pamper (1986)
- Jespersen : 2 kind of modality
Relating to an a element of will .
=> Deontic modality
 Containing no will .
=> Epistemis modality
Nguyễn Thị Mai
Searle ‘s speech act theory : Modality
connected to act
• Assertives
• Directives
• Commissives
• Declaratives
• Expressives
Nguyễn Thị Mai
 Assertives
(word fit the world-the speaker’s belief or commitment to the truth
value of the proposition-epistemic)
o Examples
• “Socrated is blad “.
• “2+2 =4”.
• “All a men are mortal “.
• “Barack Obama is president of the United States”.
 Directives
(Words change the world –deontic)
o Examples
• “Please bless my family “.
• “Go to your room”.
• “Pass the salt”.
• “Vote for me “. Nguyễn Thị Mai
Commissives
(word change the world-hearer- oriented- denontic )
Examples
“ I promise to exercise everyday “.
“I solemnly swear to truth “.
“I will be there at 9 o’clock “.
 Declaratives
(Words change the world –epistemic)
o Examples
“I now pronounce you husband and wife”.
“I promise to come and see you”.
Nguyễn Thị Mai
 Expressives
(Words fit the world –epistemic)
Example
“Thank you for giving me the money”.
“I apologize for stepping on your face”.
“Congratulations on marrying a libertarian “.
=> Sentence meaning =Propositional content + Non-propositional content
Nguyễn Thị Mai
1.2. Conclusion
* Definition
Modality is the non – propositional part of
the sentence which concerns its factual status.
Modality express necessity and possibility
Example : The bee is an insect vs The bee can
ignorant you .
neces. poss.
Dương Thanh Mai
In English , Modality is expessed by Modal verbs ,
Adverbs and Adjectives
* Modal verbs
Low modality shows less certainty.
• I might leave early today.
• You could try to do it again.
• She may want to check the results.
High modality shows a high degree of certainty.
• I must leave early today.
• You will do it again.
• She has to check the results.
Dương Thanh Mai
* Adverbs ( perhaps , possibly , possible , sometimes ,
certainly , definitely , …..)
• Example
I could possibly go , perhaps I will go .
Another example
She certainly didn’t feel any different .
* Adjectives ( possible , probable , obligatory ,
necessary , required, determined , likely , …. )
Example
It is the most likely event to occur .
Dương Thanh Mai
Modality : The factual status of
the proposition
Proposition
• What we say
• Invariant meaning ( constant )
devoid of modality and
without reference to context .
Modality
• What we do with what we say
thinking, promising .. . It can
be correspondingly as
locutionary and illocutionary .
• Type of meaning which
expesses the speaker and
attitude towards the
propositional content .
Dương Thanh Mai
Types of
Modality
Epistemic
Judgments
Evidentials
Deontic
Imperatives
Directives
Commissives
Vũ Thanh Xuân
Epistemic Modality
 “Epistemic” means “understanding” or “knowledge”.
 Epistemic modality refers to the degree of commitments
by the speaker to what he says – the extent to which the
truth of a proposition is possible.
 Fx: She must love him. ____ She might love him.
 Epistemic is possibility-based and concerned with truth,
belief and knowledge.
 Epistemic has the declarative as its unmarked member of
the modal system.
She may be cute.
Judgment
Possibility
& Necessity
Subjective
Evidential
Direct &
Indirect
Objective
Vũ Thanh Xuân
It’s about the speaker’s qualification of his or her epistemic
commitment. It concerns his beliefs, attitudes or
knowledge.
Fx: I think he will love her.
=> It’s possible that he will love her (it can be true or not)
It means the propositional content will be a
matter of fact.
Fx: He says that he loves her.
“I love her,” John says.
Deontic Modality
 Deontic contains an element of will, concerning with
actions rather than with belief, knowledge and truth.
 Deontic is necessity-based/ obligation- based.
 Fx: You need to leave now => You will leave. (You are
obligated to leave now)
It is necessary that you come in time. => You will
come in time (It’s necessary for you to come in time)
 Expression: Verbs & Adjectives
• Come in!
Imperatives
• You must do exercises everyday.
Directives
• I promise that I will help you.
Commissives (Declaratives)
speech acts are to cause the hearer to
take a particular action, e.g. requests,
commands and advices
speech acts that commit a
speaker to some future actions,
e.g. promises and swears
Epistemic Modality
• It’s about
“understanding” or
“knowledge”.
• Epistemic is
possibility-based.
• It is concerned with
truth, belief and
knowledge.
Deontic Modality
• It’s about will,
permission or
obligation.
• Deontic is necessity-
based/ obligation-
based.
• It’s concerned with
actions.
Vũ Thanh Xuân
(a) I must be getting sick.
(b) Nitric acid will dissolve zinc.
(c) He can miss the class.
(d) I should work faster.
(e) He said you may be pregnant.
(f) We should arrive on time.
(g) Harris has to retire next year.
Determine whether the following sentences with modal expressions, in
normal readings, have deontic or epistemic meaning or are ambiguous:
a. It’s possible that I am getting sick. =>
Epistemic (subjective)
b. It’s certain that N.A dissolves zinc, I
know. => Epistemic (subjective)
c. He has permission to miss class or
he’s able to miss class => Deontic
(directive)
d. It’s possible that I work faster. =>
Epistemic (subjective and objective)
e. It’s possible that you are pregnant. =>
Epistemic (objective)
f. Deontic (commissive): We are under
an obligation to arrive on time.
Epistemic (subjective): It’s likely that
we will arrive on time.
g. Harry is obliged to retire. => Deontic
(Directive)
mood
modality
 Mood is a syntactic concept,
referring to the way in which
Verb express the attitude of
the Addresser towards the
factual content of what is
being communicated.
 whether it is being asserted,
questioned, demanded,etc...
 Modality is a
semantic concept,
providing the
semantic
information
associated with the
speaker’s attitude or
opinion about what
is said.
Trần Thị Linh
mood
• Indicative: is used in sentence or clauses -> make factual
statement
E.g: The sun rises at 6:00 a.m torrow morning.
+a past tense inflection, namely -ed.
E.g: the door closed.
• Imperative: is described as the form of a verb that is normally
used in directing or commanding people to do something.
E.g: Leave your coat in the hallway, please.
• subjunctive: traditionally seen as the form of a verb that it
used to speak about hypothetical, desirable or necessary
situations.
E.g: It’s important that she be informed of the changes.
Trần Thị Linh
modality
• Deontic:
When a modal verb is used to affect a situation, by
giving permission, etc, this is deontic modality
E.g: You can go when you've finished.
You may go at four o’clock.
• epistemic:
When a modal verb is used to express the speaker's
opinion about a statement, then this is epistemic
modality:
E.g: It might be true.
Here, the speaker is expressing their attitude about
whether it is true or not, accepting that there is a
possibility, but not being certain
Trần Thị Linh
• Expression of mood: opposite form of Lexical Verbs and modal
auxiliaries, Adjective.
• one mood can show different types of modality:
E.g: He must be on plane. (indicative)
+epistemic: surely he must be on the plane.
+deontic: I order him to be on the plane.
• Expression of modality: opposite forms of modal verb
(may, can,...), +Adj (necessary, imperative, obvious,...),
+Adv(possibly, surely,...),
+nouns (likelihood,probability,...),
+Lexical verbs ( i think you should, i ask you,...)
• modality is formalized in Mood.
Declaretives express epistemic modality.
Imperatives can show deonic modality.
Personal modality
Form-modality markers
-> That nobody expected it to happen is obvious
-> That they arrived home early is surprising
Đặng Thị Ngọc
Content-modality markers
-> I am serious to ask whether you love her or not.
-> It is my personal idea that I don’t like chess
Đặng Thị Ngọc
Modality in subordinate clauses
3 types of subordinate clause
Nominal clauses
Adverbial clause
Relative clause
Đặng Thị Ngọc
SUMARRY
• Definition of Modality:
- Modality is the non – propositional part of the
sentence which concerns its factual status.
- Modality express necessity and possibility.
- Modality: the factual status of proposition.
▪ Types of Modality: Epistemic and Deontic.
 Distinction b.w Mood and Modality.
 Personal modality.
 Modality in subordinates clauses.
THANK YOU
FOR
ENJOYING!

More Related Content

What's hot

1. An Overview of Functional Grammar
1. An Overview of Functional Grammar1. An Overview of Functional Grammar
1. An Overview of Functional Grammar
Melia Nesti Ayu
 
Foregrounding
ForegroundingForegrounding
Foregrounding
Faiza Sandhu
 
Cooperation And Implicature By Dr.Shadia.Pptx
Cooperation And Implicature By Dr.Shadia.PptxCooperation And Implicature By Dr.Shadia.Pptx
Cooperation And Implicature By Dr.Shadia.Pptx
Dr. Shadia Banjar
 
Pragmatic politeness
Pragmatic politenessPragmatic politeness
Pragmatic politeness
Indra Malasyah
 
Ambiguity
AmbiguityAmbiguity
Ambiguity
mavs morales
 
The Role of context (Discourse Analysis)
The Role of context (Discourse Analysis)The Role of context (Discourse Analysis)
The Role of context (Discourse Analysis)
Faiza Sandhu
 
what is stylistics and its levels 1.Phonological level 2.Graphological leve...
what is stylistics and its levels 1.Phonological level   2.Graphological leve...what is stylistics and its levels 1.Phonological level   2.Graphological leve...
what is stylistics and its levels 1.Phonological level 2.Graphological leve...
RajpootBhatti5
 
Pragmatics implicature 2
Pragmatics implicature 2Pragmatics implicature 2
Pragmatics implicature 2
phannguyen161
 
Presupposition And Entailment By Dr.Shadia
Presupposition And Entailment By Dr.ShadiaPresupposition And Entailment By Dr.Shadia
Presupposition And Entailment By Dr.Shadia
Dr. Shadia Banjar
 
Hedges
Hedges Hedges
Hedges
claraigoma
 
Constatives & performatives
Constatives & performativesConstatives & performatives
Constatives & performatives
Ali Furqan Syed
 
Politeness - Pragmatic
Politeness - PragmaticPoliteness - Pragmatic
Politeness - Pragmatic
Lucia Pratama
 
Discourse analysis and grammar
Discourse analysis and grammarDiscourse analysis and grammar
Discourse analysis and grammar
Amal Mustafa
 
Flouting and violating maxims
Flouting and violating maximsFlouting and violating maxims
Flouting and violating maxims
Universitas Negeri Jakarta
 
Pragmatics: Deixis And Distance By Dr.Shadia.Pptx
Pragmatics:  Deixis And Distance By Dr.Shadia.PptxPragmatics:  Deixis And Distance By Dr.Shadia.Pptx
Pragmatics: Deixis And Distance By Dr.Shadia.Pptx
Dr. Shadia Banjar
 
Presupposition And Entailment
Presupposition And EntailmentPresupposition And Entailment
Presupposition And Entailment
hanieh habibi
 
Sense and reference
Sense and referenceSense and reference
Sense and reference
ojenytan
 
Pragmatics implicature
Pragmatics implicaturePragmatics implicature
Pragmatics implicature
phannguyen161
 
Discourse analysis
Discourse analysisDiscourse analysis
Discourse analysis
Alvy Mayrina
 
Ellipsis in english
Ellipsis in englishEllipsis in english
Ellipsis in english
Ahmed Qadoury Abed
 

What's hot (20)

1. An Overview of Functional Grammar
1. An Overview of Functional Grammar1. An Overview of Functional Grammar
1. An Overview of Functional Grammar
 
Foregrounding
ForegroundingForegrounding
Foregrounding
 
Cooperation And Implicature By Dr.Shadia.Pptx
Cooperation And Implicature By Dr.Shadia.PptxCooperation And Implicature By Dr.Shadia.Pptx
Cooperation And Implicature By Dr.Shadia.Pptx
 
Pragmatic politeness
Pragmatic politenessPragmatic politeness
Pragmatic politeness
 
Ambiguity
AmbiguityAmbiguity
Ambiguity
 
The Role of context (Discourse Analysis)
The Role of context (Discourse Analysis)The Role of context (Discourse Analysis)
The Role of context (Discourse Analysis)
 
what is stylistics and its levels 1.Phonological level 2.Graphological leve...
what is stylistics and its levels 1.Phonological level   2.Graphological leve...what is stylistics and its levels 1.Phonological level   2.Graphological leve...
what is stylistics and its levels 1.Phonological level 2.Graphological leve...
 
Pragmatics implicature 2
Pragmatics implicature 2Pragmatics implicature 2
Pragmatics implicature 2
 
Presupposition And Entailment By Dr.Shadia
Presupposition And Entailment By Dr.ShadiaPresupposition And Entailment By Dr.Shadia
Presupposition And Entailment By Dr.Shadia
 
Hedges
Hedges Hedges
Hedges
 
Constatives & performatives
Constatives & performativesConstatives & performatives
Constatives & performatives
 
Politeness - Pragmatic
Politeness - PragmaticPoliteness - Pragmatic
Politeness - Pragmatic
 
Discourse analysis and grammar
Discourse analysis and grammarDiscourse analysis and grammar
Discourse analysis and grammar
 
Flouting and violating maxims
Flouting and violating maximsFlouting and violating maxims
Flouting and violating maxims
 
Pragmatics: Deixis And Distance By Dr.Shadia.Pptx
Pragmatics:  Deixis And Distance By Dr.Shadia.PptxPragmatics:  Deixis And Distance By Dr.Shadia.Pptx
Pragmatics: Deixis And Distance By Dr.Shadia.Pptx
 
Presupposition And Entailment
Presupposition And EntailmentPresupposition And Entailment
Presupposition And Entailment
 
Sense and reference
Sense and referenceSense and reference
Sense and reference
 
Pragmatics implicature
Pragmatics implicaturePragmatics implicature
Pragmatics implicature
 
Discourse analysis
Discourse analysisDiscourse analysis
Discourse analysis
 
Ellipsis in english
Ellipsis in englishEllipsis in english
Ellipsis in english
 

Similar to Modality

Unit one grammar crash course latin i ncvps 1 (1)
Unit one grammar crash course latin i ncvps 1 (1)Unit one grammar crash course latin i ncvps 1 (1)
Unit one grammar crash course latin i ncvps 1 (1)
Jennifer Kunka
 
UNIT1 PART of speech 1.pptx
UNIT1 PART of speech 1.pptxUNIT1 PART of speech 1.pptx
UNIT1 PART of speech 1.pptx
TaskMate
 
Logic
LogicLogic
Grammar
Grammar Grammar
Grammar
National Louis
 
eng_429_-_chapter_3_-_discourse_and_pragmatics.pdf
eng_429_-_chapter_3_-_discourse_and_pragmatics.pdfeng_429_-_chapter_3_-_discourse_and_pragmatics.pdf
eng_429_-_chapter_3_-_discourse_and_pragmatics.pdf
UroojYahya3
 
Discourse Analysis
Discourse AnalysisDiscourse Analysis
Discourse Analysis
Ayesha Mir
 
Discourse analysis
Discourse analysisDiscourse analysis
Discourse analysis
cilla key
 
Moods of Verbs for Discussion in classroom.pptx
Moods of Verbs for Discussion in classroom.pptxMoods of Verbs for Discussion in classroom.pptx
Moods of Verbs for Discussion in classroom.pptx
MelayAlmorado1
 
Rzeszov ling pragmatics
Rzeszov ling pragmatics Rzeszov ling pragmatics
Rzeszov ling pragmatics
云珍 邓
 
Modal auxilary
Modal auxilaryModal auxilary
Modal auxilary
Mantha Nainggolan
 
Parts of speech
Parts of speechParts of speech
Parts of speech
Dr. Anshu Raj Purohit
 
Hxe302 speech acts (1)
Hxe302 speech acts (1)Hxe302 speech acts (1)
Hxe302 speech acts (1)
Muhammad Al Fateh
 
Clause As Exchange In Functional Grammar
Clause As Exchange In Functional GrammarClause As Exchange In Functional Grammar
Clause As Exchange In Functional Grammar
Dr. Cupid Lucid
 
Clause As Exchange In Functional Grammar
Clause As Exchange In Functional GrammarClause As Exchange In Functional Grammar
Clause As Exchange In Functional Grammar
Dr. Cupid Lucid
 
Grammar Proficiency - Phrases and Clausessession 3.pptx
Grammar Proficiency - Phrases and Clausessession 3.pptxGrammar Proficiency - Phrases and Clausessession 3.pptx
Grammar Proficiency - Phrases and Clausessession 3.pptx
NafisaHaque7
 
Copy Of Clause As Exchange Final 123
Copy Of Clause As Exchange Final 123Copy Of Clause As Exchange Final 123
Copy Of Clause As Exchange Final 123
Dr. Cupid Lucid
 
Clause As Exchange Final 123
Clause As Exchange Final 123Clause As Exchange Final 123
Clause As Exchange Final 123
Dr. Cupid Lucid
 
Copy Of Clause As Exchange Final 123
Copy Of Clause As Exchange Final 123Copy Of Clause As Exchange Final 123
Copy Of Clause As Exchange Final 123
Dr. Cupid Lucid
 
Clause As Exchange Final 123
Clause As Exchange Final 123Clause As Exchange Final 123
Clause As Exchange Final 123
Dr. Cupid Lucid
 
Semantics 1
Semantics 1Semantics 1

Similar to Modality (20)

Unit one grammar crash course latin i ncvps 1 (1)
Unit one grammar crash course latin i ncvps 1 (1)Unit one grammar crash course latin i ncvps 1 (1)
Unit one grammar crash course latin i ncvps 1 (1)
 
UNIT1 PART of speech 1.pptx
UNIT1 PART of speech 1.pptxUNIT1 PART of speech 1.pptx
UNIT1 PART of speech 1.pptx
 
Logic
LogicLogic
Logic
 
Grammar
Grammar Grammar
Grammar
 
eng_429_-_chapter_3_-_discourse_and_pragmatics.pdf
eng_429_-_chapter_3_-_discourse_and_pragmatics.pdfeng_429_-_chapter_3_-_discourse_and_pragmatics.pdf
eng_429_-_chapter_3_-_discourse_and_pragmatics.pdf
 
Discourse Analysis
Discourse AnalysisDiscourse Analysis
Discourse Analysis
 
Discourse analysis
Discourse analysisDiscourse analysis
Discourse analysis
 
Moods of Verbs for Discussion in classroom.pptx
Moods of Verbs for Discussion in classroom.pptxMoods of Verbs for Discussion in classroom.pptx
Moods of Verbs for Discussion in classroom.pptx
 
Rzeszov ling pragmatics
Rzeszov ling pragmatics Rzeszov ling pragmatics
Rzeszov ling pragmatics
 
Modal auxilary
Modal auxilaryModal auxilary
Modal auxilary
 
Parts of speech
Parts of speechParts of speech
Parts of speech
 
Hxe302 speech acts (1)
Hxe302 speech acts (1)Hxe302 speech acts (1)
Hxe302 speech acts (1)
 
Clause As Exchange In Functional Grammar
Clause As Exchange In Functional GrammarClause As Exchange In Functional Grammar
Clause As Exchange In Functional Grammar
 
Clause As Exchange In Functional Grammar
Clause As Exchange In Functional GrammarClause As Exchange In Functional Grammar
Clause As Exchange In Functional Grammar
 
Grammar Proficiency - Phrases and Clausessession 3.pptx
Grammar Proficiency - Phrases and Clausessession 3.pptxGrammar Proficiency - Phrases and Clausessession 3.pptx
Grammar Proficiency - Phrases and Clausessession 3.pptx
 
Copy Of Clause As Exchange Final 123
Copy Of Clause As Exchange Final 123Copy Of Clause As Exchange Final 123
Copy Of Clause As Exchange Final 123
 
Clause As Exchange Final 123
Clause As Exchange Final 123Clause As Exchange Final 123
Clause As Exchange Final 123
 
Copy Of Clause As Exchange Final 123
Copy Of Clause As Exchange Final 123Copy Of Clause As Exchange Final 123
Copy Of Clause As Exchange Final 123
 
Clause As Exchange Final 123
Clause As Exchange Final 123Clause As Exchange Final 123
Clause As Exchange Final 123
 
Semantics 1
Semantics 1Semantics 1
Semantics 1
 

More from Mery Kul

Elections in Britain
Elections in BritainElections in Britain
Elections in Britain
Mery Kul
 
Subjectivity and objectivity
Subjectivity and objectivitySubjectivity and objectivity
Subjectivity and objectivity
Mery Kul
 
Apposition
AppositionApposition
Apposition
Mery Kul
 
Command, Exclamation and Concord
Command, Exclamation and ConcordCommand, Exclamation and Concord
Command, Exclamation and Concord
Mery Kul
 
Coordination and Ellipsis
Coordination and Ellipsis Coordination and Ellipsis
Coordination and Ellipsis
Mery Kul
 
The summary about Jack london
The summary about Jack londonThe summary about Jack london
The summary about Jack london
Mery Kul
 
Sentence Classification
Sentence ClassificationSentence Classification
Sentence Classification
Mery Kul
 
The Complex sentence - Coordination and Subordination
The Complex sentence - Coordination and SubordinationThe Complex sentence - Coordination and Subordination
The Complex sentence - Coordination and Subordination
Mery Kul
 
The Simple Sentence
The Simple Sentence The Simple Sentence
The Simple Sentence
Mery Kul
 
Hoi an ancient town
Hoi  an  ancient  townHoi  an  ancient  town
Hoi an ancient town
Mery Kul
 
4 types of economy
4 types of economy4 types of economy
4 types of economy
Mery Kul
 
Competion and monopolies
Competion and monopoliesCompetion and monopolies
Competion and monopolies
Mery Kul
 

More from Mery Kul (12)

Elections in Britain
Elections in BritainElections in Britain
Elections in Britain
 
Subjectivity and objectivity
Subjectivity and objectivitySubjectivity and objectivity
Subjectivity and objectivity
 
Apposition
AppositionApposition
Apposition
 
Command, Exclamation and Concord
Command, Exclamation and ConcordCommand, Exclamation and Concord
Command, Exclamation and Concord
 
Coordination and Ellipsis
Coordination and Ellipsis Coordination and Ellipsis
Coordination and Ellipsis
 
The summary about Jack london
The summary about Jack londonThe summary about Jack london
The summary about Jack london
 
Sentence Classification
Sentence ClassificationSentence Classification
Sentence Classification
 
The Complex sentence - Coordination and Subordination
The Complex sentence - Coordination and SubordinationThe Complex sentence - Coordination and Subordination
The Complex sentence - Coordination and Subordination
 
The Simple Sentence
The Simple Sentence The Simple Sentence
The Simple Sentence
 
Hoi an ancient town
Hoi  an  ancient  townHoi  an  ancient  town
Hoi an ancient town
 
4 types of economy
4 types of economy4 types of economy
4 types of economy
 
Competion and monopolies
Competion and monopoliesCompetion and monopolies
Competion and monopolies
 

Recently uploaded

Temple of Asclepius in Thrace. Excavation results
Temple of Asclepius in Thrace. Excavation resultsTemple of Asclepius in Thrace. Excavation results
Temple of Asclepius in Thrace. Excavation results
Krassimira Luka
 
Elevate Your Nonprofit's Online Presence_ A Guide to Effective SEO Strategies...
Elevate Your Nonprofit's Online Presence_ A Guide to Effective SEO Strategies...Elevate Your Nonprofit's Online Presence_ A Guide to Effective SEO Strategies...
Elevate Your Nonprofit's Online Presence_ A Guide to Effective SEO Strategies...
TechSoup
 
The basics of sentences session 7pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 7pptx.pptxThe basics of sentences session 7pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 7pptx.pptx
heathfieldcps1
 
Standardized tool for Intelligence test.
Standardized tool for Intelligence test.Standardized tool for Intelligence test.
Standardized tool for Intelligence test.
deepaannamalai16
 
Lifelines of National Economy chapter for Class 10 STUDY MATERIAL PDF
Lifelines of National Economy chapter for Class 10 STUDY MATERIAL PDFLifelines of National Economy chapter for Class 10 STUDY MATERIAL PDF
Lifelines of National Economy chapter for Class 10 STUDY MATERIAL PDF
Vivekanand Anglo Vedic Academy
 
Mule event processing models | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #47
Mule event processing models | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #47Mule event processing models | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #47
Mule event processing models | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #47
MysoreMuleSoftMeetup
 
BBR 2024 Summer Sessions Interview Training
BBR  2024 Summer Sessions Interview TrainingBBR  2024 Summer Sessions Interview Training
BBR 2024 Summer Sessions Interview Training
Katrina Pritchard
 
Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray (9)
Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray  (9)Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray  (9)
Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray (9)
nitinpv4ai
 
Stack Memory Organization of 8086 Microprocessor
Stack Memory Organization of 8086 MicroprocessorStack Memory Organization of 8086 Microprocessor
Stack Memory Organization of 8086 Microprocessor
JomonJoseph58
 
Jemison, MacLaughlin, and Majumder "Broadening Pathways for Editors and Authors"
Jemison, MacLaughlin, and Majumder "Broadening Pathways for Editors and Authors"Jemison, MacLaughlin, and Majumder "Broadening Pathways for Editors and Authors"
Jemison, MacLaughlin, and Majumder "Broadening Pathways for Editors and Authors"
National Information Standards Organization (NISO)
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...
Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
Pharmaceutics Pharmaceuticals best of brub
Pharmaceutics Pharmaceuticals best of brubPharmaceutics Pharmaceuticals best of brub
Pharmaceutics Pharmaceuticals best of brub
danielkiash986
 
Leveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit Innovation
Leveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit InnovationLeveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit Innovation
Leveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit Innovation
TechSoup
 
مصحف القراءات العشر أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
مصحف القراءات العشر   أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdfمصحف القراءات العشر   أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
مصحف القراءات العشر أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
سمير بسيوني
 
What is Digital Literacy? A guest blog from Andy McLaughlin, University of Ab...
What is Digital Literacy? A guest blog from Andy McLaughlin, University of Ab...What is Digital Literacy? A guest blog from Andy McLaughlin, University of Ab...
What is Digital Literacy? A guest blog from Andy McLaughlin, University of Ab...
GeorgeMilliken2
 
How to Predict Vendor Bill Product in Odoo 17
How to Predict Vendor Bill Product in Odoo 17How to Predict Vendor Bill Product in Odoo 17
How to Predict Vendor Bill Product in Odoo 17
Celine George
 
Juneteenth Freedom Day 2024 David Douglas School District
Juneteenth Freedom Day 2024 David Douglas School DistrictJuneteenth Freedom Day 2024 David Douglas School District
Juneteenth Freedom Day 2024 David Douglas School District
David Douglas School District
 
Haunted Houses by H W Longfellow for class 10
Haunted Houses by H W Longfellow for class 10Haunted Houses by H W Longfellow for class 10
Haunted Houses by H W Longfellow for class 10
nitinpv4ai
 
C1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptx
C1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptxC1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptx
C1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptx
mulvey2
 
RESULTS OF THE EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE.pptx
RESULTS OF THE EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE.pptxRESULTS OF THE EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE.pptx
RESULTS OF THE EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE.pptx
zuzanka
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Temple of Asclepius in Thrace. Excavation results
Temple of Asclepius in Thrace. Excavation resultsTemple of Asclepius in Thrace. Excavation results
Temple of Asclepius in Thrace. Excavation results
 
Elevate Your Nonprofit's Online Presence_ A Guide to Effective SEO Strategies...
Elevate Your Nonprofit's Online Presence_ A Guide to Effective SEO Strategies...Elevate Your Nonprofit's Online Presence_ A Guide to Effective SEO Strategies...
Elevate Your Nonprofit's Online Presence_ A Guide to Effective SEO Strategies...
 
The basics of sentences session 7pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 7pptx.pptxThe basics of sentences session 7pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 7pptx.pptx
 
Standardized tool for Intelligence test.
Standardized tool for Intelligence test.Standardized tool for Intelligence test.
Standardized tool for Intelligence test.
 
Lifelines of National Economy chapter for Class 10 STUDY MATERIAL PDF
Lifelines of National Economy chapter for Class 10 STUDY MATERIAL PDFLifelines of National Economy chapter for Class 10 STUDY MATERIAL PDF
Lifelines of National Economy chapter for Class 10 STUDY MATERIAL PDF
 
Mule event processing models | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #47
Mule event processing models | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #47Mule event processing models | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #47
Mule event processing models | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #47
 
BBR 2024 Summer Sessions Interview Training
BBR  2024 Summer Sessions Interview TrainingBBR  2024 Summer Sessions Interview Training
BBR 2024 Summer Sessions Interview Training
 
Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray (9)
Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray  (9)Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray  (9)
Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray (9)
 
Stack Memory Organization of 8086 Microprocessor
Stack Memory Organization of 8086 MicroprocessorStack Memory Organization of 8086 Microprocessor
Stack Memory Organization of 8086 Microprocessor
 
Jemison, MacLaughlin, and Majumder "Broadening Pathways for Editors and Authors"
Jemison, MacLaughlin, and Majumder "Broadening Pathways for Editors and Authors"Jemison, MacLaughlin, and Majumder "Broadening Pathways for Editors and Authors"
Jemison, MacLaughlin, and Majumder "Broadening Pathways for Editors and Authors"
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...
 
Pharmaceutics Pharmaceuticals best of brub
Pharmaceutics Pharmaceuticals best of brubPharmaceutics Pharmaceuticals best of brub
Pharmaceutics Pharmaceuticals best of brub
 
Leveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit Innovation
Leveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit InnovationLeveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit Innovation
Leveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit Innovation
 
مصحف القراءات العشر أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
مصحف القراءات العشر   أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdfمصحف القراءات العشر   أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
مصحف القراءات العشر أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
 
What is Digital Literacy? A guest blog from Andy McLaughlin, University of Ab...
What is Digital Literacy? A guest blog from Andy McLaughlin, University of Ab...What is Digital Literacy? A guest blog from Andy McLaughlin, University of Ab...
What is Digital Literacy? A guest blog from Andy McLaughlin, University of Ab...
 
How to Predict Vendor Bill Product in Odoo 17
How to Predict Vendor Bill Product in Odoo 17How to Predict Vendor Bill Product in Odoo 17
How to Predict Vendor Bill Product in Odoo 17
 
Juneteenth Freedom Day 2024 David Douglas School District
Juneteenth Freedom Day 2024 David Douglas School DistrictJuneteenth Freedom Day 2024 David Douglas School District
Juneteenth Freedom Day 2024 David Douglas School District
 
Haunted Houses by H W Longfellow for class 10
Haunted Houses by H W Longfellow for class 10Haunted Houses by H W Longfellow for class 10
Haunted Houses by H W Longfellow for class 10
 
C1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptx
C1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptxC1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptx
C1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptx
 
RESULTS OF THE EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE.pptx
RESULTS OF THE EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE.pptxRESULTS OF THE EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE.pptx
RESULTS OF THE EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE.pptx
 

Modality

  • 2. 1.1.Definition  Modality is what the speaker is doing with the whole proposition. Bybee (1985)  Modality is the semantic information associated with the speaker’s attitude or opinion what as said . Pamper (1986) - Jespersen : 2 kind of modality Relating to an a element of will . => Deontic modality  Containing no will . => Epistemis modality Nguyễn Thị Mai
  • 3. Searle ‘s speech act theory : Modality connected to act • Assertives • Directives • Commissives • Declaratives • Expressives Nguyễn Thị Mai
  • 4.  Assertives (word fit the world-the speaker’s belief or commitment to the truth value of the proposition-epistemic) o Examples • “Socrated is blad “. • “2+2 =4”. • “All a men are mortal “. • “Barack Obama is president of the United States”.  Directives (Words change the world –deontic) o Examples • “Please bless my family “. • “Go to your room”. • “Pass the salt”. • “Vote for me “. Nguyễn Thị Mai
  • 5. Commissives (word change the world-hearer- oriented- denontic ) Examples “ I promise to exercise everyday “. “I solemnly swear to truth “. “I will be there at 9 o’clock “.  Declaratives (Words change the world –epistemic) o Examples “I now pronounce you husband and wife”. “I promise to come and see you”. Nguyễn Thị Mai
  • 6.  Expressives (Words fit the world –epistemic) Example “Thank you for giving me the money”. “I apologize for stepping on your face”. “Congratulations on marrying a libertarian “. => Sentence meaning =Propositional content + Non-propositional content Nguyễn Thị Mai
  • 7. 1.2. Conclusion * Definition Modality is the non – propositional part of the sentence which concerns its factual status. Modality express necessity and possibility Example : The bee is an insect vs The bee can ignorant you . neces. poss. Dương Thanh Mai
  • 8. In English , Modality is expessed by Modal verbs , Adverbs and Adjectives * Modal verbs Low modality shows less certainty. • I might leave early today. • You could try to do it again. • She may want to check the results. High modality shows a high degree of certainty. • I must leave early today. • You will do it again. • She has to check the results. Dương Thanh Mai
  • 9. * Adverbs ( perhaps , possibly , possible , sometimes , certainly , definitely , …..) • Example I could possibly go , perhaps I will go . Another example She certainly didn’t feel any different . * Adjectives ( possible , probable , obligatory , necessary , required, determined , likely , …. ) Example It is the most likely event to occur . Dương Thanh Mai
  • 10. Modality : The factual status of the proposition Proposition • What we say • Invariant meaning ( constant ) devoid of modality and without reference to context . Modality • What we do with what we say thinking, promising .. . It can be correspondingly as locutionary and illocutionary . • Type of meaning which expesses the speaker and attitude towards the propositional content . Dương Thanh Mai
  • 12. Epistemic Modality  “Epistemic” means “understanding” or “knowledge”.  Epistemic modality refers to the degree of commitments by the speaker to what he says – the extent to which the truth of a proposition is possible.  Fx: She must love him. ____ She might love him.  Epistemic is possibility-based and concerned with truth, belief and knowledge.  Epistemic has the declarative as its unmarked member of the modal system. She may be cute.
  • 13. Judgment Possibility & Necessity Subjective Evidential Direct & Indirect Objective Vũ Thanh Xuân It’s about the speaker’s qualification of his or her epistemic commitment. It concerns his beliefs, attitudes or knowledge. Fx: I think he will love her. => It’s possible that he will love her (it can be true or not) It means the propositional content will be a matter of fact. Fx: He says that he loves her. “I love her,” John says.
  • 14. Deontic Modality  Deontic contains an element of will, concerning with actions rather than with belief, knowledge and truth.  Deontic is necessity-based/ obligation- based.  Fx: You need to leave now => You will leave. (You are obligated to leave now) It is necessary that you come in time. => You will come in time (It’s necessary for you to come in time)  Expression: Verbs & Adjectives
  • 15. • Come in! Imperatives • You must do exercises everyday. Directives • I promise that I will help you. Commissives (Declaratives) speech acts are to cause the hearer to take a particular action, e.g. requests, commands and advices speech acts that commit a speaker to some future actions, e.g. promises and swears
  • 16. Epistemic Modality • It’s about “understanding” or “knowledge”. • Epistemic is possibility-based. • It is concerned with truth, belief and knowledge. Deontic Modality • It’s about will, permission or obligation. • Deontic is necessity- based/ obligation- based. • It’s concerned with actions. Vũ Thanh Xuân
  • 17. (a) I must be getting sick. (b) Nitric acid will dissolve zinc. (c) He can miss the class. (d) I should work faster. (e) He said you may be pregnant. (f) We should arrive on time. (g) Harris has to retire next year. Determine whether the following sentences with modal expressions, in normal readings, have deontic or epistemic meaning or are ambiguous: a. It’s possible that I am getting sick. => Epistemic (subjective) b. It’s certain that N.A dissolves zinc, I know. => Epistemic (subjective) c. He has permission to miss class or he’s able to miss class => Deontic (directive) d. It’s possible that I work faster. => Epistemic (subjective and objective) e. It’s possible that you are pregnant. => Epistemic (objective) f. Deontic (commissive): We are under an obligation to arrive on time. Epistemic (subjective): It’s likely that we will arrive on time. g. Harry is obliged to retire. => Deontic (Directive)
  • 18. mood modality  Mood is a syntactic concept, referring to the way in which Verb express the attitude of the Addresser towards the factual content of what is being communicated.  whether it is being asserted, questioned, demanded,etc...  Modality is a semantic concept, providing the semantic information associated with the speaker’s attitude or opinion about what is said. Trần Thị Linh
  • 19. mood • Indicative: is used in sentence or clauses -> make factual statement E.g: The sun rises at 6:00 a.m torrow morning. +a past tense inflection, namely -ed. E.g: the door closed. • Imperative: is described as the form of a verb that is normally used in directing or commanding people to do something. E.g: Leave your coat in the hallway, please. • subjunctive: traditionally seen as the form of a verb that it used to speak about hypothetical, desirable or necessary situations. E.g: It’s important that she be informed of the changes. Trần Thị Linh
  • 20. modality • Deontic: When a modal verb is used to affect a situation, by giving permission, etc, this is deontic modality E.g: You can go when you've finished. You may go at four o’clock. • epistemic: When a modal verb is used to express the speaker's opinion about a statement, then this is epistemic modality: E.g: It might be true. Here, the speaker is expressing their attitude about whether it is true or not, accepting that there is a possibility, but not being certain Trần Thị Linh
  • 21. • Expression of mood: opposite form of Lexical Verbs and modal auxiliaries, Adjective. • one mood can show different types of modality: E.g: He must be on plane. (indicative) +epistemic: surely he must be on the plane. +deontic: I order him to be on the plane. • Expression of modality: opposite forms of modal verb (may, can,...), +Adj (necessary, imperative, obvious,...), +Adv(possibly, surely,...), +nouns (likelihood,probability,...), +Lexical verbs ( i think you should, i ask you,...) • modality is formalized in Mood. Declaretives express epistemic modality. Imperatives can show deonic modality.
  • 22. Personal modality Form-modality markers -> That nobody expected it to happen is obvious -> That they arrived home early is surprising Đặng Thị Ngọc
  • 23. Content-modality markers -> I am serious to ask whether you love her or not. -> It is my personal idea that I don’t like chess Đặng Thị Ngọc
  • 24. Modality in subordinate clauses 3 types of subordinate clause Nominal clauses Adverbial clause Relative clause Đặng Thị Ngọc
  • 25. SUMARRY • Definition of Modality: - Modality is the non – propositional part of the sentence which concerns its factual status. - Modality express necessity and possibility. - Modality: the factual status of proposition. ▪ Types of Modality: Epistemic and Deontic.  Distinction b.w Mood and Modality.  Personal modality.  Modality in subordinates clauses.