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Passive Voice
When do we use Passive Voice?

 When the agent (active subject)is unknown
     People speak English all over the worl
       English is spoken all over the world.

 when the agent is understood or not important.
      Don Quixote was written in 1605 (by….)
        Guernica was painted in 1937 (by..)
When do we use it?

To make the object of the active verb more important

 Christopher Columbus discovered America
       subject                    object

America was discovered by Christopher Columbus
 subject
We use the passive when:

 we want to make the active object more
  important
 we do not know the active subject
  FUNCTION         SUBJECT     VERB         OBJECT
  Give             President   was killed   by Lee Harvey Oswald
  importance to    Kennedy
  active object
                   My wallet   has been     ¿?
  Active subject               robbed
  unknown
Structure of the sentence
Subject: Person or object that suffered/enjoyed
Subject
the results of an action.
The verb "to be" in the tense the action ocurred.
              be
The Past Participle of the verb that represents
the action itself.
Whatever complements that verb needs.
In a few special cases we can also use by + the
agent.
agent
THE PASSIVE VERB
             to BE (in the active tense) + Past Participle (main verb)



     to BE gives us the tense of the action

                               the principal verb is always in Past Participle

               ACTIVE                                    PASSIVE

     She wants an ice-cream                     An ice-cream is   wanted
           He sent a letter                        A letter was sent

 We will   buy a new car next week             A new car will be bought


They have   been cutting the grass          The grass has   been being cut
Passive Tenses
passive            Form                    Examples

Present Simple     Am/is/ are + PP         The house is cleaned everyday

Past Simple        Was/ Were + PP          The house was cleaned yesterday

Present/Past                               The house is being cleaned now.
Continuous         Am/are/is being + PP
                                           The house was being cleaned
                   Was/ were being +PP    yesterday at 7:00


Present Perfect/   Has been+ PP            The house has been cleaned
Past Perfect       Had been + PP          today
                                           The house had been cleaned
                                           before we arrived
Will               Will be + PP            The house will be cleaned
                                           tomorrow
Structure of the verb
       TENSES                               EXAMPLES
Present Simple        Pigs are often used to find truffles
Present Continuous    My house is being redecorated at the moment
Present Perfect       I have never been given flowers on my birthday
Past Simple           Guernica was painted by Picasso
Past Continuous       When I saw him he was being followed by the
                      police
Past Perfect          She was angry because she had already been told
                      three times
Future Simple         When you get there everything will be finished
Going to - Future     They are not going to be easily convinced
Conditional Simple    You would be punished if they found out
Conditional Perfect   If you hadn’t told them would I have been invited?
The passive sentence
           ACTIVE VOICE
Robert       gave          a coin
  Active     Active            Direct
 Subject     Verb              Object




 Passive    Passive                Agent
 Subject     Verb
                          by

           PASSIVE VOICE
           was given     by
The passive sentence                    (no)



              ACTIVE VOICE
Robert      gave      a coin      to Tom
  Active    Active       Direct        Indirect
 Subject     Verb        Object         Object




 Passive    Passive      Direct              Agent
 Subject     Verb        Object
                                   by

                PASSIVE VOICE
           was given              by
Examples
1/They built this house in 1466
2/ This house was built in 1466

1/ Swiss people speak French & German
2/ French & German are spoken by Swiss people

1/ This book will change your life
2/ Your life will be changed by this book
Examples
1/ They have cut the grass
2/ The grass has been cut



1/ They can’t answer your question
2/ Your question can’t be answered
More examples with 2 objects

1/ Someone had to take her to hospital after this
2/ She had to be taken to hospital after the crash

1/ They shouldn’t allow the children to do these things
2/ The children shouldn’t be allowed to do these things

1/ Someone must tell him if we want him to know
2/ He must be told if we want him to know
More examples with 2 objects

1/ My mother is going to give me a present
2/ I am going to be given a present by my
  mother
1/ Susan wrote an e-mail to him
1/ He was written an e-mail by Susan
Active or Passive Quiz
   1    I ate a piece of chocolate cake.

   2    The librarian read the book to the students.

   3    The money was stolen.

   4    They are paid on Fridays.

   5    The movie is being made in Hollywood.

   6    I washed my car three weeks ago.

   7    His hair was cut by a professional.

   8    I will introduce you to my boss this week.

   9    It would have been fixed on the weekend.

   10   The national anthem is being sung by Jason this time.


Active or Passive Quiz ANSWERS
   1    I ate a piece of chocolate cake. ACTIVE

   2    The librarian read the book to the students. ACTIVE

   3    The money was stolen. PASSIVE

   4    They are paid on Fridays. PASSIVE

   5    The movie is being made in Hollywood. PASSIVE

   6    I washed my car three weeks ago. ACTIVE

   7    His hair was cut by a professional. PASSIVE

   8    I will introduce you to my boss this week. ACTIVE

   9    It would have been fixed on the weekend. PASSIVE

   10   The national anthem is being sung by Jason this time. PASSIVE
Links to activities
o http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/exercises_list/passiv.htm




o http://wiki-u.wikispaces.com/Passive+Voice




o http://www.grammar-quizzes.com/passivesum.html     (for advanced students)
More passive stuff
GET is used instead of BE with passive
meaning. Informal English.
   I got stuck in a traffic jam
   She is getting married
After NEED/WANT the -ing form can be used
      NEED
with passive meaning
   This job needs doing
   That room wants cleaning
More passive stuff
HAVE/ GET something done: Arranging for or
paying for somebody to do something for you.
(Get is more informal).
                            HAVE + Object +
He had his hair cut          Past Participle

She got her carpet cleaned
We have had our car mended
They had got their book translated
More passive stuff
  Verbs like: Believe, Think, Consider, Say,
  Report, Know, Expect, Feel, Understand, Find
   1. Introductory IT is used

  IT + passive verb + complete subordinate sentence
                    without changes

It is said that he started the fire
It is thought that she doesn't live in London
It was known that the King is coming tomorrow
More passive stuff
  Verbs like: Believe, Think, Consider, Say,
  Report, Know, Expect, Feel, Understand, Find
Subordinate subject + verb passive + subordinate
           active verb in INFINITIVE.

It is said that he started the fire (action in the Past)
He is said to have started the fire (Infinitive Perfect)
It is thought that she doesn't live in London (Present)
She is thought to live in London (Infinitive Present)

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The passive

  • 2. When do we use Passive Voice?  When the agent (active subject)is unknown People speak English all over the worl English is spoken all over the world.  when the agent is understood or not important.  Don Quixote was written in 1605 (by….)  Guernica was painted in 1937 (by..)
  • 3. When do we use it? To make the object of the active verb more important Christopher Columbus discovered America subject object America was discovered by Christopher Columbus subject
  • 4. We use the passive when:  we want to make the active object more important  we do not know the active subject FUNCTION SUBJECT VERB OBJECT Give President was killed by Lee Harvey Oswald importance to Kennedy active object My wallet has been ¿? Active subject robbed unknown
  • 5.
  • 6. Structure of the sentence Subject: Person or object that suffered/enjoyed Subject the results of an action. The verb "to be" in the tense the action ocurred. be The Past Participle of the verb that represents the action itself. Whatever complements that verb needs. In a few special cases we can also use by + the agent. agent
  • 7. THE PASSIVE VERB to BE (in the active tense) + Past Participle (main verb) to BE gives us the tense of the action the principal verb is always in Past Participle ACTIVE PASSIVE She wants an ice-cream An ice-cream is wanted He sent a letter A letter was sent We will buy a new car next week A new car will be bought They have been cutting the grass The grass has been being cut
  • 8. Passive Tenses passive Form Examples Present Simple Am/is/ are + PP The house is cleaned everyday Past Simple Was/ Were + PP The house was cleaned yesterday Present/Past The house is being cleaned now. Continuous Am/are/is being + PP The house was being cleaned Was/ were being +PP yesterday at 7:00 Present Perfect/ Has been+ PP  The house has been cleaned Past Perfect Had been + PP today The house had been cleaned before we arrived Will Will be + PP The house will be cleaned tomorrow
  • 9. Structure of the verb TENSES EXAMPLES Present Simple Pigs are often used to find truffles Present Continuous My house is being redecorated at the moment Present Perfect I have never been given flowers on my birthday Past Simple Guernica was painted by Picasso Past Continuous When I saw him he was being followed by the police Past Perfect She was angry because she had already been told three times Future Simple When you get there everything will be finished Going to - Future They are not going to be easily convinced Conditional Simple You would be punished if they found out Conditional Perfect If you hadn’t told them would I have been invited?
  • 10. The passive sentence ACTIVE VOICE Robert gave a coin Active Active Direct Subject Verb Object Passive Passive Agent Subject Verb by PASSIVE VOICE was given by
  • 11. The passive sentence (no) ACTIVE VOICE Robert gave a coin to Tom Active Active Direct Indirect Subject Verb Object Object Passive Passive Direct Agent Subject Verb Object by PASSIVE VOICE was given by
  • 12. Examples 1/They built this house in 1466 2/ This house was built in 1466 1/ Swiss people speak French & German 2/ French & German are spoken by Swiss people 1/ This book will change your life 2/ Your life will be changed by this book
  • 13. Examples 1/ They have cut the grass 2/ The grass has been cut 1/ They can’t answer your question 2/ Your question can’t be answered
  • 14. More examples with 2 objects 1/ Someone had to take her to hospital after this 2/ She had to be taken to hospital after the crash 1/ They shouldn’t allow the children to do these things 2/ The children shouldn’t be allowed to do these things 1/ Someone must tell him if we want him to know 2/ He must be told if we want him to know
  • 15. More examples with 2 objects 1/ My mother is going to give me a present 2/ I am going to be given a present by my mother 1/ Susan wrote an e-mail to him 1/ He was written an e-mail by Susan
  • 16. Active or Passive Quiz  1 I ate a piece of chocolate cake.  2 The librarian read the book to the students.  3 The money was stolen.  4 They are paid on Fridays.  5 The movie is being made in Hollywood.  6 I washed my car three weeks ago.  7 His hair was cut by a professional.  8 I will introduce you to my boss this week.  9 It would have been fixed on the weekend.  10 The national anthem is being sung by Jason this time. 
  • 17. Active or Passive Quiz ANSWERS  1 I ate a piece of chocolate cake. ACTIVE  2 The librarian read the book to the students. ACTIVE  3 The money was stolen. PASSIVE  4 They are paid on Fridays. PASSIVE  5 The movie is being made in Hollywood. PASSIVE  6 I washed my car three weeks ago. ACTIVE  7 His hair was cut by a professional. PASSIVE  8 I will introduce you to my boss this week. ACTIVE  9 It would have been fixed on the weekend. PASSIVE  10 The national anthem is being sung by Jason this time. PASSIVE
  • 18. Links to activities o http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/exercises_list/passiv.htm o http://wiki-u.wikispaces.com/Passive+Voice o http://www.grammar-quizzes.com/passivesum.html (for advanced students)
  • 19. More passive stuff GET is used instead of BE with passive meaning. Informal English. I got stuck in a traffic jam She is getting married After NEED/WANT the -ing form can be used NEED with passive meaning This job needs doing That room wants cleaning
  • 20. More passive stuff HAVE/ GET something done: Arranging for or paying for somebody to do something for you. (Get is more informal). HAVE + Object + He had his hair cut Past Participle She got her carpet cleaned We have had our car mended They had got their book translated
  • 21. More passive stuff Verbs like: Believe, Think, Consider, Say, Report, Know, Expect, Feel, Understand, Find 1. Introductory IT is used IT + passive verb + complete subordinate sentence without changes It is said that he started the fire It is thought that she doesn't live in London It was known that the King is coming tomorrow
  • 22. More passive stuff Verbs like: Believe, Think, Consider, Say, Report, Know, Expect, Feel, Understand, Find Subordinate subject + verb passive + subordinate active verb in INFINITIVE. It is said that he started the fire (action in the Past) He is said to have started the fire (Infinitive Perfect) It is thought that she doesn't live in London (Present) She is thought to live in London (Infinitive Present)