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TALAT Lecture 5203

                        Anodizing of Aluminium
                                  27 pages, 24 figures

                                   Advanced Level

     prepared by José L.Gazapo and J. Gea, INESPAL Laminación, Alicante




Objectives:

− to describe the process of anodic oxidation of aluminium, which is one of the most
  unique and commonly used surface treatment techniques for aluminium

− to illustrate the weathering behaviour of anodized surfaces




Prerequisites:

− TALAT lectures 5101, 5102, 5103, 5104




Date of Issue: 1994
 EAA - European Aluminium Association
5203 Anodizing of Aluminium

Table of Contents

5203 Anodizing of Aluminium ...............................................................................2
   5203.01 Importance, Objectives and Methods of Surface Treatments for
   Aluminium................................................................................................................. 3
     The European Aluminium Consumption for Building Applications in 1990..........3
      The Aluminium Surface Treatment .........................................................................3
      Dimensional Effects of Anodizing, Plating and Painting ........................................5
   5203.02 The Anodizing Process ............................................................................... 6
     The Anodizing Cell..................................................................................................6
      Changes in Current and Voltage during Anodizing.................................................7
      Anodic Coating Structure/Cell Dimensions.............................................................8
      Anodizing Solutions ..............................................................................................10
        Barrier Type Electrolytes.................................................................................. 10
         Porous type electrolytes.................................................................................... 10
      Change in Film Thickness during Anodizing ........................................................12
      Influence of Type of Alloy on Film Weight (Figure 5203.02.08) .........................12
      Influence of Electrolyte Temperature ....................................................................13
      Influence of Current Density..................................................................................14
      Influence of Acid Concentration............................................................................15
      Colouring Anodized Aluminium ...........................................................................15
         Dying................................................................................................................. 16
         Self Colouring, Integral Colouring................................................................... 16
         Electrolytic Colouring ...................................................................................... 16
      Sealing of Anodic Films ........................................................................................17
      Properties of Anodic Film......................................................................................18
      Operational Sequences for Anodizing ...................................................................20
   5203.03 Quality Control and Standards ............................................................. 21
     Quality Control ......................................................................................................21
     Standards (Figures 5203.03.02 and 5203.03.03) ...................................................22
     EWAA - EURAS Quality Label/ QUALANOD....................................................23
   5203.04 Behaviour of Anodized Aluminium......................................................... 24
   5203.05 Literature................................................................................................. 27
   5203.06 List of Figures........................................................................................... 27




TALAT 5203                                                          2
5203.01         Importance, Objectives and Methods of Surface
                Treatments for Aluminium

            •   The European aluminium consumption for building applications in 1990
            •   The aluminium surface treatment
            •   Dimensional effects of anodizing, plating and painting


Anodizing is an electrochemical process for producing stable oxide films on the surface of
metals. Anodic coating can be produced on aluminium by using a wide variety of
electrolytes with AC, DC or a combination of both. In order to generate an anodic film, the
aluminium piece must be the anode and an other suitable metal or alloy the cathode.
Anodic coatings are classified according to the solvent action of the electrolyte used to
produce the anodic film. Some of them are of porous nature as for example in phosphoric
and sulphuric electrolytes. Others are essentially non-porous and are called "barrier layer"
films and are generated in "low solvents power" electrolytes such as ammonium tartrate,
ammonium borate, etc.
Sulphuric acid is by far the most important anodizing process due to the characteristics of
the process (allows a wide variety of thickness) and the properties of the film (produce a
clear coating than can be easily coloured by many different ways and sealed).


The European Aluminium Consumption for Building Applications in 1990

The European consumption of aluminium for building in 1990 has been around one
million tonnes. Around 45% of the total has been anodized and around 30% has been
painted, using a 25% of material without any surface protection (Figure 5203.01.01).
The EEC market for architectural anodizing total estimated is 200 millions m2 by year.


The Aluminium Surface Treatment

There are few people today who are not familiar with some modern applications of
aluminium and its alloys and the enormous number of applications is mainly due to the
excellent corrosion resistance of this metal.
The corrosion resistance of aluminium is achieved due to the affinity of this metal for
oxygen that generates on its surface a very thin oxide film which covers the surface of a
freshly-cut piece of metal is exposed to the atmosphere. However, in some cases it is
necessary to have a higher degree of protection (corrosion or chemical resistance) or to
modify the surface appearance (changing, colour, texture, etc.) or creating technical-
physical surface properties (increasing the abrasion resistance and hardness, achieving
coating with anti-friction properties, getting coatings with increased bonding strength,
etc.).




TALAT 5203                                      3
European Aluminium Consumption
                                                            for Building Applications 1990

                                    ANODIZED                                                             UNPROTECTED
                                      460                                                                    255




                                                                                                             PAINTED
                                                                                                              300

                                                                                                          (Tonnes x 1000)

                                                alu                    Aluminium Consumption
                                       alu

         Training in Aluminium Application Technologies        for Building Applications (Europe 1990)                 5203.01.01



The application areas of aluminium surface treatment are very wide: e.g. it is used in
architecture, transport, and consumer goods. Due to the characteristics of the surface after
treatment aluminium can also be used as high efficiency reflectors or as solar selective
surface with a high absorptivity and low emissivity values (see Figure 5203.01.02, also
Figure 5203.01.03).


                                                   O JE TIV S of A M IU S R C T E TM N
                                                    B C E         LU IN M U FA E R A E T



                                                                                                              3- C E E
                                                                                                                  R AT
                                                                           2- M D
                                                                               O IFY                      TEC N A H S A
                                                                                                             H IC L-P Y IC L
                                             1- P R TE T
                                                   O C                     A P R N E
                                                                            P EA A C                     S R C P O E TIE
                                                                                                          U FA E R P R S




                                       -C R O N
                                         O R SIO                         -G S
                                                                           LO S                      -A R S N R IS N E
                                                                                                       B A IO ES TA C
                                        R S T C
                                         E IS AN E                       -C LO R
                                                                           O U                       -H R N S
                                                                                                       A D ES
                                       -C E IC L
                                         H M A                           -TE T R
                                                                            XU E                     -A T
                                                                                                       N I-FR TIO
                                                                                                             IC N
                                        R S T C
                                         E IS AN E                                                   -B N IN , E C
                                                                                                       O D G T .




                                                                         A P AT N A E
                                                                          P LIC IO R A
                    1-2                                                                                                     2-3

                                                                                                    -H H T H O G
                                                                                                      IG EC N LO Y
                      -A C IT TU E
                        R H EC R
                                                                                                    -M C A IC L
                                                                                                      E H N A
                      -TR N PO T
                         A S R
                                                                                                    -E G E R G
                                                                                                      N IN E IN
                      -C N U E G O S
                        O S MR O D                                                                  -O TIC
                                                                                                      P AL, E .
                                                                                                              TC



                                               alu

        Training in Aluminium Application Technologies
                                                              Objectives of Aluminium Surface Treatments               5203.01.02



The first application of anodizing was for dielectric film produced by the boric acid
process for use in electrolytic capacitors.




TALAT 5203                                                                           4
INORGANIC COATINGS                                                           ORGANIC COATINGS

                       PHYSICAL-CHEMICAL                                                            PHYSICAL-CHEMICAL

                       CONVERSION                                                                   WET PAINT AND LACQUERS,
                       OXIDE (BOEHMITE),                                                            POWDER PAINT
                       PHOSPHATE, CHROMATE,                       OTHERS

                       ELECTROLESS PLATING

                       NICKEL,              OTHERS

                       ENAMEL

                       OTHER TECHNIQUES
                       PVD, CVD, OTHERS


                       ELECTRO-CHEMICAL                                                             ELECTRO-CHEMICAL

                       ANODIZING                                             PLATING                ELECTROPHORETIC

                       SULPHURIC ACID,    CHROMIC ACID                       COPPER, NICKEL
                       PHOSPHORIC ACID,    OXALIC ACID                       CHROMIUM, SILVER
                       BARRIER LAYER: BORIC ACID                             OTHERS
                       CITRIC ACID

                                                 alu

          Training in Aluminium Application Technologies
                                                           Survey of Methods for Aluminium Surface Treatments      5203.01.03




Dimensional Effects of Anodizing, Plating and Painting

Anodizing is an electrochemical process in which the part is made the anode. A potential
is applied to this piece high enough to allow the development of oxygen on the aluminium
surface.
In anodizing the coating is produced by "reaction" of the metal with the "ions" of the
electrolyte producing generally a coating with greater volume than the aluminium
substrate. There is normally an overall increase in dimension of the pieces after anodizing.
For conventional sulphuric and chromic anodizing this overall increase in dimension is
approximately one-third of the coating thickness; for hard anodizing it is approximately
one-half the coating thickness.
The basic "dimensional" differences among anodizing, plating and painting is that the
former is produced from the substrate while plating or painting are deposited on the
substrate (additive process) (see Figure 5203.01.04).
There are many practical ways to anodize depending on the type of material to treat, for
example small parts such a rivets may be anodized in bulk by means of barrel or basket
anodizing. Extrusions normally up to 9-10 meters long are used in the standard batch
anodizing. In this technique the aluminium pieces are positioned on jigs and racks and
they provide the supports and the electrical contact for the components being anodized.
For aluminium coil, the continuous anodizing process has potential advantages as a cheap
process, very uniform in characteristics. The typical applications of this process are:
lithographic plates, name plates, decoratives trims, siding and roofing products lighting
reflectors etc.
In summary, anodizing can be carried out in many different ways depending on the type of
material being anodized and the final application.




TALAT 5203                                                                             5
Dimensional Effects of Anodizing, Plating and Painting


                                            Anodic Film                                                Paint or Metal




                         Anodizing                                          Before Treatment                Plating & Painting

                                                               Aluminium                                                Aluminium




                                                  alu
                                                            Dimensional Effects of Anodizing, Plating and Painting      5203.01.04
           Training in Aluminium Application Technologies




5203.02 The Anodizing Process

          • The anodizing cell
          • Changes in current and voltage during anodizing
          • Anodic coating structure/cell dimensions
          • Anodizing solutions
          • Change in film thickness during anodizing
          • Influence of type of alloy on film weight
          • Influence of electrolyte temperature
          • Influence of current density
          • Influence of acid concentration
          • Colouring anodized aluminium
            − Dying
            − Self colouring, integral colouring
            − Electrolytic colouring
          • Sealing of anodic films
          • Properties of anodic film
          • Operational sequences for anodizing




The Anodizing Cell
      (Figure 5203.02.01)

As previously mentioned when a current is passed through an electrolyte in which an
aluminium piece is used as anode, the negatively charged ions migrates to the anode where
one or more electrons are discharged. In an aqueous solution the ion consists in part of
oxygen which reacts chemically with the aluminium.


TALAT 5203                                                                              6
Anodizing Cell
                      BATCH ANODIZING                                                    CONTINUOS ANODIZING

                                                                                          CONTACT
                                                                                           AREA
                  CATHODE ANODE CATHODE                                           WEB           CATHODES
                       -    +   -                                                                 -   -


                                                                     ELECTROLYTE    ROLL
                                                                                    CONTACT
                                                                                    ANODE+
                                                                                                                   RECIRCULATION
                                                                                                                     AND
                                                                          RECIRCULATION                              COOLING
                                                                             AND
                                                                           COOLING



                                                                                ELECTROLYTE




                                                          alu

                   Training in Aluminium Application Technologies
                                                                                   Anodizing Cell                    5203.02.01




A DC, AC or a combination of both can be used as power supply for anodizing. For
standard sulphuric acid anodizing a 24 V rectifier is suitable, however, for chromic acid
anodizing or anodizing in organic acid voltages up to 60-70 V are needed. For hard
anodizing and for production of barrier-layer films higher voltages are needed.
Recently anodizing using pulsed power supplies is being recommended mainly for
applications where high anodizing currents are required, or where difficult alloys are being
processed (high copper contents).



Changes in Current and Voltage during Anodizing

As any electrolytic process anodizing is controlled by current density (Figure 5203.02.02).


                 Changes in Voltage and Current Density during Anodizing

                                                                                CURRENT
                                                                                DENSITY




                                                                            VOLTAGE




                                                                                                                    TIME

                                                       alu
                                                                    Voltage and Current Density During Anodizing       5203.02.02
              Training in Aluminium Application Technologies




During the initial period of anodizing the aluminium piece is protected by a thin
aluminium oxide film that offers little resistance to the current. If anodizing is carried-out
at constant voltage a quick rise of current is produced, and later on, a slow drop to a steady

TALAT 5203                                                                                   7
state value. This curve is interpreted as the result of two overlapping process; one of these
is the exponential decrease of barrier film formation and the second represents the pore
formation current. At a certain time the current of these processes reach a stady-state value
and the film thickness grows proportionally to the charge per surface area in the
aluminium piece being anodized.
In the case of barrier layer anodizing when the voltage is maintained constant the current
initially increases rapidly and then decreases to very low values (µA/cm2). The leakage
current flowing under constant voltage conditions is electronic but if the voltage is
increased then, ionic current begins to flow again with further film formation until a new
equilibrium is established. The maximum potential used to produce a barrier layer film is
between 500-700 volts due to breakdown and arcing in the barrier layer.



Anodic Coating Structure/Cell Dimensions

As early as in 1932 it was shown that the anodic film consists of two layers, the porous
thick layer growing on an inert layer which is thin, dense and dielectrically and normally
called barrier layer (Figure 5203.02.03).



                     Structure
                     of the
                     Anodic Cell


                                                                                             POROUS
                                                                                             LAYER



                                                                                             BARRIER
                                                                                             LAYER


                                                                                             ALUMINIUM


                                                    alu
                                                              Structure of the Anodic Cell       5203.02.03
             Training in Aluminium Application Technologies




The thickness of the barrier layer depends on the composition of the electrolyte and the
operating conditions.
During anodizing the barrier layer is formed first and its thickness varies directly with the
forming voltage.
The barrier layer is non-porous, and conducts current only due to its thickness and faults,
the outer layer, is microsporous and built upon a columnar structure.
If no dissolution occurs by the electrolyte; the barrier layer grows at a rate of 14 Å per volt.
This value theoretical is obtained only in solutions in which little or nosolvent action
occurs. For electrolytes with solvent action values between 10-11.5 A/volts have been
reported.


TALAT 5203                                                                  8
Once the barrier layer has been formed, this begin to transform in a crystalline structure in
the outer part of the barrier layer if the electrolyte has enough solving power.
The mechanism of pore formation is still a matter of discussion but according to some
authors the formation of the porous layer is due to a local dissolution of the barrier layer,
followed by the passage of the current, which rises. The temperature of the solution at this
point further increases and so the rate of dissolution. This fact is responsible for the
perpetuation of pores. As the current flows through the simple pore with a roughly
hemispherical end and a central cylindrical pore is built up in accordance with the
electrical field. As the formation of the film progresses the shape of the cells is altered to
give a hexagonal prism shape. The structure of the anodic film is independed of the type of
electrolyte and the same structure is obtained in sulphuric, chromic, oxalic or phosphoric
electrolytes.
For sulphuric anodizing the rate of growth of porous layer is constant at a constant current
density and takes approximately a value of 0.4 µm/min for a current density of 1.3 A/dm2.
As the barrier layer thickness remains constant, it should correspond to a similar rate of
dissolution at the base of the pores.
The dimensions of the oxide cells are directly influenced by the anodizing conditions
(Figure 5203.02.04). Depending on the solving power of the electrolyte the dimension of
pores and cells are different being bigger in phosphoric and smaller in sulphuric acid. With
increasing voltage, cell size increases and the number of pores decreases accordingly. The
relation-ship between cell size and voltage is approximately linear, and the higher the
voltage the bigger is the cell size.
During anodizing there is a chemical attack from the electrolyte to the anodic film
producing pores wider in the outer than in the inner part of the film.



                                                  PO E D
                                                    R IAMETER                               14,5 -18 nm


                                                  PO E P PU
                                                    R O LATION                              40-80 .10 9pores/cm 2


                                                  CELL DIAMETER                             40 - 53 nm


                                                  PO O
                                                    R SITY                                  15 %


                                                  BAR R LAYE TH NES
                                                     RIE    R ICK  S                        14 - 18 nm


                                                  PO O S LAYER TH
                                                    R U          ICKNESS                    5-25 µ m
                                                                                            (protective purposes)



                                     alu
                                                 alu
                                                           Typical D ensions of the Anodic C (Sulphuric A Anodizing)
                                                                    im                      ell          cid           5203.02.04
          Training in Aluminium Application Technologies




TALAT 5203                                                                              9
Anodizing Solutions
(Figure 5203.02.05)



                                                           ANODIZING SOLUTIONS FOR ALUMINIUM



                            SULPHURIC ACID                                            USED FOR PROTECTIVE
                                                                                      AND DECORATIVE APPLICATIONS
                            OXALIC ACID

                            SULPHO-ORGANIC ACIDS

                            CHROMIC ACID
                                                                                      USED AS PRETREATMENTS
                            PHOSPHORIC ACID

                            CITRIC ACID                                               BARRIER LAYER ANODIZING FOR
                                                                                      ELECTROLYTIC CAPACITORS
                            BORIC ACID



                                     alu
                                                 alu

          Training in Aluminium Application Technologies
                                                                  Anodizing Solutions for Aluminium           5203.02.05



Among the anodizing electrolytes two kinds can be clearly distinguished:
                                                                − Barrier type electrolytes
                                                                − Porous type electrolytes


Barrier Type Electrolytes
The main application of these electrolytes is by far the fabrication of electrolytic
capacitors, however, it can also be used for protective purposes. The most commonly-used
barrier type electrolytes used for protective applications are ammonium tartrate and boric
acid solutions. The concentration of this solution is around 3% Ammonium tartrate at a pH
≅ 5.5.
The usual electrolyte for the fabrication of electrolytic capacitor in a continuous process
was the hot electrolyte (95-100 °C) of about 10% boric acid. Actually organic electrolytes
are used as solvents based on dimethyl formamide.



Porous type electrolytes
      (Figure 5203.02.06)
The sulphuric acid process is by far the most extensively used all over the world and
actually many variations of the process are used.
Early solutions contained approximately 25% (w) sulphuric acid, recently the acid
concentration has been reduced to 10-20% (w) according to the film properties required,
current densities are normally of the order of 1-2 A/dm2 with a voltage 12-20 volts and
temperatures 18-25 °C for anodizing times of up to about 60 minutes.


TALAT 5203                                                                          10
MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF ANODIZING PROCESSES USED
                     FOR PROTECTIVE AND DECORATIVE APPLICATIONS



                    TYPE OF                          CONCENTRATION CURRENT VOLTAGE TEMP.              TIME    COLOUR OF
              ELECTROLYTE                                (%)           DENSITY
                                                                            2
                                                                                   (V.DC)     (°C)    (min)   ANODIC FILM
                                                                        A/dm

                 SULPHURIC                                                                                    COLOURLESS
                                                        15-20             1-2      12-20      18-25   5-60
                   ACID

                OXALIC ACID
                                                         3-5              1-2      40-60      18-20   40-60    YELLOW
                 (Elosal GX)

              CHROMIC ACID                                                                                      OPAQUE
               (Bengough-                             2,5-3 (CrO3 )     0,1-0,5        0-50    40     10-60
                 -Stuart)                                                                                        -GREY



                                           alu

    Training in Aluminium Application Technologies
                                                                Parameters of the Anodizing Process               5203.02.06




On most aluminium alloys this electrolyte produces colourless, transparent anodic coatings
than can be easily coloured.
The chromic acid process consists of a solution containing 30-50 g CrO3/l. Current is
applied so that the voltage is increased in steps up to a voltage of 40-50 volts. The current
density is in the range of 0.1-0.5 A/dm2 and the temperature around 40 °C.
The oxalic acid process was first developed in Japan and later on introduced in Europe.
This process produces hard coatings coloured in gold or light bronze, depending of the
alloy used. The oxalic and process is more expensive than the sulphuric one in chemicals
and power, another extra disadvantage of this process is that oxalic and poisonous.
The concentration of the electrolyte is approximately 3-5% (w), the current density 1-2
A/dm2, the voltage 40-60 volts and the temperature 18-20 °C.
The phosphoric acid anodizing process is rarely used to produce decorative or protective
finishes, it is being increasingly used as a pretreatment for application of organic or plated
pretreatment. Lately the phosphoric anodizing process have been extensively used as
pretreatment for adhesive bonding in the aerospace industry. The process is known as the
Boeing Process an uses a concentration 10-12% (w) at 10-15 volts and a temperature of
21-24 °C for 20-25 min.
Other electrolytes such as sulphonic and malonic acids have been used for protective and
decorative anodizing, these electrolytes produce generally harder films than standard
sulphuric anodizing y colours varying from light bronze to black.




TALAT 5203                                                                        11
Change in Film Thickness during Anodizing


The thickness of the anodic film increases with treatment time. However, the rate of
thickness growing depends of several factors such as: type of electrolyte, current density,
treatment time, etc.
Initially there is a rapid and constant increase in the actual thickness, followed, after
anodizing for an appreciable period of time, by a small but growing decrease in the rate of
thickness growth, heading finally to a stage where the thickness remains approximately
constant in spite of continued application of current. During anodizing there are a
continuous, thickness growth of the anodic film and a dissolution by chemical attack. The
actual thickness is the theoretical thickness minus the thickness of oxide dissolved (Figure
5302.02.07).

               Changes in
               Film Thickness
               during Anodizing
                                                             Anodic Film Thickness




                                                                                     theoretical
                                                                                                           Dissolution
                                                                                                               by
                                                                                                           Electrolyte




                                                                                            actual

                                                                                                          Treatment Time
                                       alu
                                                   alu

            Training in Aluminium Application Technologies
                                                             Changes in Film Thickness during Anodizing         5203.02.07




The theoretical value is proportional to the treatment time when anodizing at constant
current density acid it depends upon Faraday's Law, which states that the oxide formed is
proportional to the electric charge passed (ampere-seconds) through the anode.



Influence of Type of Alloy on Film Weight (Figure 5203.02.08)


Generally aluminium anodizes better than its alloys and the appearance and performance
in service can be related to the alloy and metallurgical history. Size, shape and distribution
of intermetallic compound also affect the behaviour and anodizing response.
The composition of the alloy is quite important in some applications such as bright
anodizing where the level of insoluble particles must be a low as possible.
The anodic coating on 99.99% aluminium will be clear and transparent, with a level of
iron of 0.08% it is slightly less clear and becomes increasingly cloudy as the film thickness
is increased. With the level of insolubles of the AA-1050 alloy the coating becomes quite


TALAT 5203                                                                           12
cloudy in comparison with the more pure metal.

                                  Anodic Coating Weights of Aluminium Alloys
                                                                                    12
                                                                                                                                     Theoretical
                                                                                               1099
                                                                                                                                       Al2O3
                                                                                               6063-T5
                                                                                    10
                                                                                               7072




                                                          Coating Weight (mg/cm )
                                                                                               1100




                                                          2
                                                                                               5005
                                                                                    8          5050
                                                                                               3003
                                                                                               5052
                                                                                    6          6061-T6

                                                                                                                                     7075-T6

                                                                                     4
                                                                                                                                  2024-T3

                                                                                     2

                                                                                                           (15 % H 2SO4 , 1,3 amp./dm² , 20 °C)

                                                                                     0         20         40         60      80          100      120
                                                                                                              Anodizing Time (Minutes)
                                                   alu
                                             alu


         Training in Aluminium Application Technologies
                                                                                         Anodic Coating Weights                                5203.02.08



Generally among the aluminium alloys, the series 5xxx y 6xxx produce the best decorative
and protective coatings, some 7xxx series alloys also produce clear coatings with good
performance. Usually the 2xxx series produce coating colours of inferior quality.
The behaviour of intermetallic compounds during anodizing is different depending on the
type intermetallic and anodizing solution.
Some of the intermetallics are oxidized or dissolved much more rapidly then aluminium
(ß Al-Mg) producing porous coatings. Others as silicon particles are practically insolubles
during anodizing, producing inclusions in the anodic film. Intermediate between the two
extremes are constituents (FeAl3, αAl-Fe-Si etc) of which part is dissolved and part
remains in the coating, and which affects the colour transparency and continuity of the
film to varying degrees.



Influence of Electrolyte Temperature


The effect of an increase of electrolyte temperature is a proportional increase in the rate of
dissolution of the anodic film resulting in thinner, more porous and softer films
(Figure 5203.02.09).
Low temperatures are used to produce hard coatings normally in combination with high
current densities and vigorous agitation.
In decorative and protective anodizing temperatures in the range of 15-25 °C are normally
used.
If temperature is increased further the maximum thickness is reduced to lower values due
to the higher dissolving power of the electrolyte.



TALAT 5203                                                                                               13
Effect of Electrolyte Temperature on Coating Weight
                                                                                                                                 10 °C

                                                                                                                                 20 °C




                                                                   Coating Weight
                                                                                                                                 30 °C




                                                                                                                                 50 °C



                                                                                                  Anodizing time
                                                          alu
                                                                                    Electrolyte Temperature and Coating Weight           5203.02.09
             Training in Aluminium Ap plication Technolog ies




Influence of Current Density
The range of current density used in standard anodizing varies from 1-2 A/dm2, for certain
application up to 3 A/dm2. Current densities below this range produce soft, porous and
thin films. As the current density is increased, the film forms more quickly with relatively
less dissolution by the electrolyte, consequently the film is harder and less porous. At very
high current densities, there is a tendency for "burning"; this is the development of
excessively high current flow at local areas with overheating at such areas (Figure
5203.02.10).


                                           Effect of Current Density on Film Thickness



                                                                                                               Burning
                                                  Film Thickness




                                                                                           Soft Films

                                                                                                        Current Density

                                                            alu
                                                                                          Current Density and Film Thickness             5203.02.10
              Training in Aluminium Application Technologies




When reflectivity and image clarity are of importance, normally special conditions are
used and low current densities in the range of 1 A/dm2 tend to improve image clarity.




TALAT 5203                                                                                                  14
Influence of Acid Concentration
The effect of increased concentration on the coating characteristics is similar to
temperature increase, although the effect of temperature is more important than that of
concentration.
The increase in concentration limitates the maximum film thickness due to the higher
dissolving power of the concentrate solutions (Figure 5203.02.11).

               Influence of
               Acid Concentration on                                                                     7
                                                                                                              Process Parameters:
                                                                                                              1.6 A/dm² and 21 °C
               Anodic Coating Weight                                                                                                    5%




                                                                               Coating Weight (mg/dm²)
                                                                                                         6
                                                                                                                                               15 %
                                                                                                         5

                                                                                                         4                                     30 %


                                                                                                         3

                                                                                                         2                                     50 %

                                                                                                         1
                                                                                                                  2         3          4        5
                                                                                                                          Metal Loss ( mg/cm² )
                                                                                                             10        Anodizing Time (min)     60

                                                       alu

              Training in Aluminium Ap plication Technolog ies
                                                                 Acid Concentration and Anodic Coating Weight                                  5203.02.11




Colouring Anodized Aluminium
The development of colour anodized aluminium is almost simultaneous to the
development of anodizing, and several methods have been developed using different
techniques to obtain different colours and shades. The most important are:
        − Dying
        − Self colouring, integral colouring
        − Electrolytic colouring (Figure 5203.02.12)

                                                                      Colouring Systems

                                                   DYING                                                                 ELECTROLYTIC COLOURING
                                                                                                                               Scattering




                             SELF COLOURING
                           INTEGRAL COLOURING                                                                                   Interference




                                                        alu
                                                                              Colouring Systems                                                5203.02.12
              Training in Aluminium Application Technologies




TALAT 5203                                                                                                        15
Dying
Hundreds of commercial dyestuffs are available for colouring anodic films produced by
most anodizing conditions yielding a wide range of attractive colours. The colour intensity
depends on the amount of dye taken up by the film.
The absorption mechanism o chelate complex is produced in the upper part of the anodic
film (in the 3-4 external µm).
The most widely process to produce gold colour by immersion with inorganic dyes are
ammonium oxalate solutions. The solution has normally a concentration of 5-50 g/l and a
temperature 30-60 °C at a pH around 4.5. In this case the colour obtained by precipitation
of iron salts, is basically iron oxide.



Self Colouring, Integral Colouring
In both processes the colour is produced during anodizing in the first case due to the
constituents of the alloy in the second case due to the inclusions during anodizing
produced by using special electrolytes.
The most common alloy for obtaining grey shades when anodize in sulphuric and is an Al-
5% Si alloy. The colour and uniformity of the finishes are depending on composition and
metallurgical history. The mechanism of colour formation in that case is the occlusion of
silicon crystals in the anodic film.
Probably the first integral colour anodizing is the oxalic process which under controlled
conditions can give coatings coloured from pale yellow to deep bronze. The colour on
these type of finishes is dependent on film thickness and the thicker the film the darker the
colour.
Many electrolytes have been used to produce integral colours or "hardcolour", the main
constituent are: sulphosalicylic, sulphosphthalic and sulphuric acid; maleic and, etc.
The range of colour using integral colouring are: different topes of gold and bronze to deep
black.



Electrolytic Colouring
The electrolytic colouring or "Two Step anodizing" has been developed industrially in the
sixties.
The process consists of immersing the anodize work in an and solution containing metallic
salts ant to apply and AC or DC voltage. Under these conditions metallic deposit are
formed at the bottom of the pores in the interphase between barrier a crystalline layer. The
colour depends on the nature of the electrolyte; most metals give a bronze to black colour
(Sn, Ni, Co, etc) some as copper gives reds etc.
The colour is independent to a certain extent of the thickness of the anodic coating and is
only dependent of the amount of metal deposited (200 mg/m2 Sn produces a light bronze
and 2000 mg/2 Sn producer a deep black).
The properties of electrolytic finishes are similar to the normal sulphuric and films. The
light fastness of the finishes produced with most electrolytes are very good.



TALAT 5203                                      16
In the late seventies electrolytic colouring took a step forward with the development of
interference colouring.
This procedure allows to produce a wide range of colours using an electrolyte due to a
mechanism of optical interference. Normally a pore enlargement treatment is necessary
between anodizing and electrolytic colouring in order to increase the intensity of the
colour.
The amount of metal deposited in conventional bronze electrolytic finish is higher than
and standard interference colours however, in this case is "packed" uniformly at the
bottom of the pores.
The main advantage of interference colour it is de wide variety of colours that it is possible
to produce.



Sealing of Anodic Films
Sealing is the last step in the anodizing process and is essential for retention during service
of the initial appearance of the anodized material. Water sealing seems to produce little
change in the bulk oxide film (increases water content up 4 to 10 percent) but causes
major pore blockage, closure of the intercrystaline regions and formation of various forms
of hydrated alumina, the most important of which is probably boehemite.
The mechanism of water sealing (Figure 5203.02.13) consists of three overlapping stages:
       − Precipitation of gel out of the pore walls and near the outer film surface
       − Condensation of gel to form pseudo böhemite, continuing reaction rate
          controlled by diffusion of water into film and anions into the liquid
       − Recrystallisation to form boehemite starting at the surface, intermediate layer
          formed by diffusion
After a correct sealing the crystalline material is largely böhemite and is the cause of the
visible "smut" seen on most sealed anodic film surfaces.
The change in properties produced by sealing are basically:
        − Increase of the corrosion resistance
        − Reduction of the retention of dyes
        − Reduction of "bloom" formation under outdoor exposure
        − Increase in impedance of the anodic film
        − Reduction in hardness and abrasion resistance
        − Reduction of thermal crazing temperature
        − Reduction of paint or adhesive adhesion
Sealing is commonly done by immersion in good quality water heated to 95-100 °C at a
pH of 6.0 ± 0.5 for a period of 2-3 min/µm. Some impurities such as: phosphates, silicates
or fluorides can inhibit the sealing process.
Some metal salts are frequently used as sealing additives. The salts are absorbed into the
coating where they are hydrolysed and precipitated as hydroxides. Nickel and cobalt are
the more common and are very suitable to reduce losses of colour after dying.




TALAT 5203                                       17
Water Sealing of Anodic Oxide Coatings
             (a)            Unsealed anodic film structure              (b)       Precipitation of gel on pore walls
                                                                                  and outside of films
                                               Al2O3 + Anion
                                                                                         H2O approx. 100 °C




             (c)          Codensation of gel forms Pseudo-              (d)       Recrystallisation to form Boehmite
                          Boehmite, continuing reaction rate                      starting at the surface:
                          controlled by diffusion of water into                   intermediate layer formed by diffusion
                          film and of anions into the liquid                                     Intermediate Layer
                         H2O                  Anion




                                                     ALUMINIUM                                 ALUMINIUM

                                               alu
                                                                  Water Sealing                                5203.02.13
        Training in Aluminium Application Technologies




The Dichromat sealing has been used in some application where enhanced corrosion
resistance is necessary.
A practical cold seal system has recently been developed (used at around 30 °C). The seal
solution normally contain fluoride or silica compounds in the presence of nickel salts often
in a water-alcohol mixture.


Properties of Anodic Film
      (Figure 5203.02.14)

These properties are:
1. Generate clear crystalline coatings
Anodic films on aluminium are used for lighting reflector due to the good reflective
  properties of aluminium in combination with the clear and protective anodic coating.
  The clear crystalline coating formed during anodizing of pure aluminium maintain the
  metallic aspect and most optical properties of bright aluminium.
2. Increase of surface hardness and abrasion resistance
The anodic oxide film is very hard and will protect aluminium from surface scratches but
  is generally too thin to protect the metal from deep scratches or strong pressure.
The hardness and abrasion resistance is inversely proportional to the porosity; thus the
  surface layer is softer than the inner layer.
Sealing decreases abrasion resistance in hard and architectural anodizing.




TALAT 5203                                                              18
3. Increase corrosion resistance
The corrosion resistance of anodic films is influenced by several factors as: type of alloy,
  anodizing condition, anodic film, thickness, quality of sealing and maintenance
  procedures.
The major factor controlling pitting performance is according to several exposure
  programs film thickness.
Generally marine atmospheres are less aggressive than industrial ones and the rate of film
  thickness removal is half in marine atmospheres than in industrial ones.
4. Able to keep good brightness and image clarity
Pure aluminium is able to maintain a high value of total and specular reflectance. This
  values are around 90 and 85% respectively and are only slightly affected by film
  thickness. When the content of alloy elements or impurities increases (1050 alloy) it is
  possible to obtain a good image clarity after brightening but it is lost when a 2 µm film
  of anodic film is applied.
5. Easy to colour
Anodized aluminium is able to adsorb dyes easily or to be coloured electrolytically in
  many different colours or tones. The behaviour of the different colours depends on the
  type of colouring method and material deposited to obtain the colour.
Generally electrolytic colours are of resistant to fading and there are experiences for more
  than twenty years on buildings and outdoor exposure programmes which confirm the
  good behaviour of these finishes.
6. Electrical and thermal insolulators.
   One of the main application of anodizing is the fabrication of electrolytic capacitors,
   the dielectric constant is around 8.5 for barrier layer films.
   Anodic coatings are good insulators, though they tend to craze at high temperatures, the
   breakdown voltage is not seriously affected by this as cracks are filled with air. The
   specific resistance is around 4.1015 Ω.cm and the breakdown voltage depends on the
   anodizing procedures and will vary between 8-50 V/µm.
                       General Properties                                            GENERATE CLEAR-CRYSTALLINE
                                                                                             COATINGS
                       of the Anodic Film
                                                                                           INCREASE SURFACE
                                                                                               HARDNESS


                                                                                          INCREASE ABRASION
                                                                                             RESISTANCE


                                                                                         INCREASE CORROSION
                                                                                             RESISTANCE


                                                                                    ABLE TO KEEP GOOD BRIGHTNESS
                                                                                          AND IMAGE QUALITY


                                                                               EASY TO COLOUR (DYES OR ELECTROLITYC)


                                                                                       ELECTRICAL AND THERMAL
                                                                                            INSULATORS

                                                           alu

                    Training in Aluminium Application Technologies
                                                                     General Properties of the Anodic Film        5203.02.14




TALAT 5203                                                                            19
Operational Sequences for Anodizing

In Figure 5203.02.15 we try to explain briefly the different steps of an industrial anodizing
process.
The material to be anodized can be as fabricated (extrusion, mill finish for sheets, or
castings) or has been mechanically prefinished (buffing, polishing, grinding, etc).


                                                         Operational Sequence for Anodizing
                         Mechanical
                                                                            Rack                       As fabricated
                          Pre-finish




                                                                            Clean

                                                                                                 Chemical or electro-
                                       Matt etch
                                                                                                 chemical brightening

                                                                           Anodic
                                                                          oxidation


                                         Colour

                                                                             Seal
                                                                                                        Unrack
                                               alu

        Training in Aluminium Application Technologies
                                                                Operational Sequence for Anodizing            5203.02.15



The first step in the anodizing operation is racking. Racking is the operation that provides
support and electrical contact for the components being anodized. After racking the
material is cleaned in a solution in order to remove: oils, solid particles and even the
oxides on surface. Once the material is clean there are three possibilities of treatment:
direct anodizing, matt etching or chemical or electrochemical brightening.
Direct anodizing is carried out when a mechanical pre-finish is sufficient, or for very low
quality finishes. Matt etching is normally carried-out in a alkaline type of bath base on
caustic soda, this operation removes the material on surface and produces a matt, light
diffusion finish.
If a bright or mirror like finish must be obtained the aluminium pieces should be treated
normally in a solution with current (electrobrightening) or without current (chemical
brightening). These procedure remove aluminium generating a very even surface normally
with high gloss and image clarity. After chemical or electrochemical pretreatment the
aluminium is anodized under prefixed conditions.
After anodizing the load could be coloured, or directly sealed if the finish is natural
anodizing. The load could be coloured according to the different procedures (dying,
integral, electrolytic colouring etc).
After anodizing or colouring the load is normally sealed in order to "close" the pores. This
operation is essential for retention during service of the initial appearance of the anodized
material.


TALAT 5203                                                                       20
After sealing the pieces are taking out of the racks to end the anodizing operation.




5203.03                      Quality Control and Standards
              •         Quality control
              •         Standards


Quality Control
Normally for routine control and acceptance testing checks on film thickness and sealing
quality are sufficient to ensure quality, but however, other test are necessary in order to
know the overall quality (Figure 5203.03.01).



                                               Controls and Standards on Anodic Films

                                                                               Weight-Loss (ISO 2106)
                                   Film                                Eddy Current Measurement (ISO 2360)
                                Thickness                              Micrographic Cross-Section (ISO 1436)
                                                                         Split-Beam Microscope (ISO 2128)

                                   Sealing                                      Admittance (ISO 2931)
                                   Quality                                      Weight-Loss (ISO 3210)
                                                                                 Dye Spot (ISO 2143)

                               Corrosion
                               Resistance                                         Salt Spray (ISO 3768)
                                                                            Acetic Acid Salt Spray (ISO 3769)

                                  Colour
                                 Fastness                                     Ultra Violet Light (ISO 6581)
                                                                               Artificial Light (ISO 2135)

                                Abrasion                                       Abrasive Wheel (ISO-8252)
                               Resistance                                       Abrasive Jet (ISO-8251)


                                                alu

         Training in Aluminium Application Technologies
                                                           Controls and Standards                             5203.03.01




Film thickness in practice is one of the most important control parameters and numerous
methods have been suggested. Some film thickness meters are now accurate and
dependable (Eddy current measument), but the referee methods in cases of dispute
inevitably nivolve destruction of the coating (Micrographic cross-section).
Sealing quality is another routine control for acceptance in an anodizing plant. Many tests
have been developed along time, as in the case of film thickness the reference methods
involve attack of the coating.
The dye spot test or dye absorption and impedance test are used because they are quick
and non destructive.
The weight-loss test is the reference method but involves to treat a sample in a phosphoric-
chromic acid solution and to determine the weight loss.


TALAT 5203                                                             21
As corrosion resistance tests for anodic coatings standard methods used for other
applications are also carried-out such as: neutral salt spray (NSS), acetic and salt spray
(AAS), Copper acetic and salt spray (CASS), etc.
The use of colour anodized finishes for outdoor architectural applications has lead to
develop some test on colour fastness and attempts to correlate such tests with outdoor
behaviour. The test normally used are de U.V. light (UVIARC) or artificial light
(XENOTEST).
Another important property is the abrasion resistance and two different method have been
developed for this application. The first is based on the abrasive wheel and the second on
abrasive jet. This property allows to distinguish between soft and hard films.



Standards (Figures 5203.03.02 and 5203.03.03)


               EWAA - EURAS Quality Label "QUALANOD"

               The European Anodizers Assoc. (EURAS) has fixed minimum quality standards for anodized
               aluminium which guarantee the quality level in plants having this label

               Thickness
               Standards
                 ISO-2360 (Eddy-Current Measurements)
                 ISO 2128 (Split-Beam-Microscope)
                 ISO 1436 (Micrographic Cross Section)
                 ISO 2106 (Weight-Loss)

               Reference Standard
                ISO 2106 (Weight-Loss)

               Thickness Classes
                Indoor Exposure............................5 and 10 µm
                Outdoor Exposure..................15, 20 and 25 µm



     TALAT                                    alu

      Training in Aluminium Application Technologies
                                                       EWAA - EURAS Quality Label "QUALANOD" (I)   5203.03.02




TALAT 5203                                                                 22
Sealing Quality
       Standards
         ISO-2143 (Dye Spot)
         ISO 3210 (Weight Loss)
         ISO 2931 (Admittance)

       Reference Standard
        ISO 3210 (Weight Loss)

       Level of Quality
        ISO-2143 (Dye Spot) ................ Values 0 - 2 are accepted
                                             Values 3 - 5 are not accepted
        ISO-3210 (Weight Loss) ........... Maximum Weight Loss - 30 mg/dm²
        ISO-2931 (Admittance) ............ Maximum recommended admittance for a 20 µm
                                             clear anodized film is 20 µS

       Colour
       The diference in colour of all products must be between the reference samples for each colour
       (maximum and minimum), and must be an agreement between two parts.

       Light Fastness (Coloured Products)
       Products for outdoor exposure must have a light fastness higher than 8 in the international
       "Blue Scale" according to ISO-2135.


      TALAT                                   alu

      Training in Aluminium Application Technologies
                                                       EWAA - EURAS Quality Label "QUALANOD" (II)   5203.03.03




EWAA - EURAS Quality Label/ QUALANOD
The European Anodizers Association (EURAS) has selected a series of standards and
fixed a minimum quality for anodized aluminium in order to guarantee a quality level in
the plants having this label. The standards and minimum Quality levels established by
QUALANOD are the following:

  Thickness
                            Standards
                                   ISO - 2360                    Eddy-Current Measurement
                                   ISO - 2128                    Split-Beam-Microscope
                                   ISO - 1436                    Micrographic Cross Section
                                   ISO - 2106                    Weight Loss
                            Reference Standard
                                   ISO - 2106                    Weight Loss
                            Thickness Classes
                                  Indoor exposure                        5 and 10 µm
                                  Outdoor exposure                       15, 20 and 25 µm




TALAT 5203                                                                 23
Sealing Quality
             Standards
                    ISO - 2143       Dye Spot
                    ISO - 3210       Weight Loss
                    ISO - 2931       Admittance
             Reference Standard
                    ISO - 3210       Weight Loss
             Level of Quality
                    ISO - 2143       Dye Spot
                    Values 0 - 2 are accepted
                    Values 3 - 5 are not accepted
                     ISO - 3210  Weight Loss
                     Maximum weight loss - 30 mg/dm2
                     ISO - 2931  Admittance
            Maximum recommended admittance for a 20 µm clear anodized film is 20 µS.

   Colour
             The difference in colour for all products must be between the reference
             samples for each colour (maximum and minimum), and must be an
             agreement between two parts.

   Light Fastness (Coloured Products)
             Products for outdoor exposure must have a light fastness higher than 8
             inches in the international „Blue Scale“ according to ISO - 2135.




5203.04 Behaviour of Anodized Aluminium

Chemical resistance of anodic coatings is greatest in approximately neutral solutions (pH 4
- 8,5). In general, acidic or alkaline solutions attack anodic coatings.
Anodic coatings are resistant to most weathering conditions.
The corrosion resistance and atmospheric weathering of anodic coating depend on several
factors. The most important are:
                        Type of base metal
                        Pretreatment before anodizing
                        Thickness of anodic coating
                        Anodic coating Quality
                        Quality of sealing
                        Maintenance procedures
Weathering involves a relatively uniform erosion of the anodic film.
Type of Alloy
The nature of the alloy has a marked influence on the corrosion and weathering resistance

TALAT 5203                                     24
of anodized aluminium.
The approximate order of resistance to pitting of alloys which are commonly anodized is
as follows:
5251                  more resistant to pitting
5005
6063
1050
1200
3103
6351
2014                  less resistant to pitting


Pretreatment before anodizing
The pretreatment used before anodizing affects only the pitting resistance of an anodic
film and not its tendency to bloom formation. In general, the smoother the surface
produced during pretreatment the greater the resistance to pitting.
Material that has been mechanically or electrochemically brightened before anodizing has
a higher pitting resistance than material that is etched.

Anodic Quality
Temperature and concentration of anodizing electrolyte affect film quality and therefore
resistance to weathering.

Quality of Sealing
The sealing quality has a relatively minor effect in determining the resistance to pitting,
however, it is a major effect in the determination of resistance to bloom formation.
Anodized aluminium sealed in a chromate solution increase the resistance to pitting.

Maintenance Procedures
Maintenance procedures are important in obtaining the maximum life from anodized
aluminium.
In industrial areas due to accumulation of dirt and contamination is an increase in the rate
of pitting with reference to rural areas and frequent maintenance is necessary to reduce it.
To remove dirt from an anodized aluminium surface a mild abrasive or a neutral detergent
should be sufficient.
Care should be taken not to use harsh abrasives such as emery, sandpaper, steel-wool, etc.
during cleaning. Chemical cleaners that ate strongly acidic or alkaline must not be used
with anodized aluminium.
Influence of Film Thickness
Anodic film thickness is the most important single factor governing the pitting resistance
of anodized aluminium (Figure 5203.04.01).
The number of pits developed in the base metal decrease exponentially with increasing


TALAT 5203                                        25
film thickness.
Optimum protection against atmospheric corrosion is achieved in the coating thickness
range of 15 - 30 µm.


             Effect of                                                                                                                         10 9

             Anodic Film Thickness                                                                                                                                  Panels exposed 8½ years.
             on




                                                                                                             Number of pits per square meter
                                                                                                                                               10 8          Industrial
             Pitting Corrosion                                                                                                                               environments
             Resistance
                                                                                                                                               10 7                  Highly aggressive
                                                                                                                                                                     environments
            ! Anodic film thickness is the single most
              important factor governing the pitting                                                                                           10 6
              resistance of anodized aluminium.                                                                                                                                   Less aggressive
            ! The number of pits developed in the                                                                                                                                 nonindustrial
               base metal decreases exponentially                                                                                                                                 environments
               with increasing film thickness.                                                                                                 10 5

            ! Optimum protection against
              atmospheric corrosion is achieved in the
              coating thickness range of 15 to 30 µm.                                                                                          10 4
                                                                                                                                                   0     5     10      15        20        25      30    35
                                                                                                                                                          Original anodic coating thickness, µm.

                                                   alu

            Training in Aluminium Application Technologies
                                                                                         Anodic Film Thickness and Pitting Corrosion Resistance                                                 5203.04.01




Anodic Film Erosion
Weathering involves a relatively uniform erosion of the anodic film (Figure 5203.04.02).

                                                                                        Erosion Behaviour of Anodic Films
                                                    Weathering involves a relatively uniform erosion of the anodic film.
                                                    ! The average erosion rate is 0,33 µm/year.
                                                    ! Values between 0.07 and 0.50 µm/year have been obtained
                                                      depending on atmosphere aggressiveness.

                                                                                        25
                                                      Remaining coating thickness, µm




                                                                                                                                                       Average erosion rate
                                                                                                                                                         0.33 µm/year

                                                                                        20




                                                                                        15




                                                                                        10
                                                                                             0   4      8    12   16     20    24                                    28     32        36
                                                                                                            Exposure time, years.

                                                    alu

             Training in Aluminium Application Technologies
                                                                                                     Erosion Behaviour of Anodic Films                                                          5203.04.02



The average erosion rate is 0.33 µm/year. Values between 0.07 and 0.50 µm/year have
been obtained depending on atmosphere agressivity.




TALAT 5203                                                                                                                                             26
5203.05      Literature

Hübner, W. and Speiser, C. Th.: Die Praxis der anodischen Oxidation des Aluminiums,
3. Auflage, Aluminium-Verlag, Düsseldorf, 1977

Wernick, Pinner and Sheasby: The Surface Treatment and Finishing of Aluminium and
its Alloys, Fifth Edition, Volume 1, ASM International Finishing Publications Ltd,
England (1987)




5203.06 List of Figures



Figure No.   Figure Title (Overhead)
5203.01.01   European Aluminium Consumption for Building Applications 1990
5203.01.02   Objectives of Aluminium Surface Treatments
5203.01.03   Survey of Methods for Aluminium Surface Treatments
5203.01.04   Dimensional Effects of Anodizing, Plating and Painting

5203.02.01   Anodizing Cell
5203.02.02   Changes in Voltage and Current Density During Anodizing
5203.02.03   Structure of the Anodic Cell
5203.02.04   Typical Dimensions of the Anodic Cell (Sulphuric Acid Anodizing)
5203.02.05   Anodizing Solutions for Aluminium
5203.02.06   Parameters of the Anodizing Process
5203.02.07   Changes in Film Thickness During Anodizing
5203.02.08   Anodic Coating Weights of Aluminium Alloys (15% H2SO4, 1.3
             amp./dm2, 20°C)
5203.02.09   Effect of Electrolyte Temperature on Coating Weight
5203.02.10   Effect of Current Density on Film Thickness
5203.02.11   Influence of Acid Concentration on Anodic Coating Weight
5203.02.12   Colouring Systems
5203.02.13   Water Sealing of Anodic Oxide Coatings
5203.02.14   General Properties of the Anodic Film
5203.02.15   Operational Sequence for Anodizing

5203.03.01   Controls and Standards on Anodic Films
5203.03.02   EWAA - EURAS Quality Label „QUALANOD“ (I)
5203.03.03   EWAA - EURAS Quality Label „QUALANOD“ (II)

5203.04.01   Effect of Anodic Film Thickness on Pitting Corrosion Resistance
5203.04.02   Erosion Behaviour of Anodic Films




TALAT 5203                                 27

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TALAT Lecture 5203: Anodizing of Aluminium

  • 1. TALAT Lecture 5203 Anodizing of Aluminium 27 pages, 24 figures Advanced Level prepared by José L.Gazapo and J. Gea, INESPAL Laminación, Alicante Objectives: − to describe the process of anodic oxidation of aluminium, which is one of the most unique and commonly used surface treatment techniques for aluminium − to illustrate the weathering behaviour of anodized surfaces Prerequisites: − TALAT lectures 5101, 5102, 5103, 5104 Date of Issue: 1994  EAA - European Aluminium Association
  • 2. 5203 Anodizing of Aluminium Table of Contents 5203 Anodizing of Aluminium ...............................................................................2 5203.01 Importance, Objectives and Methods of Surface Treatments for Aluminium................................................................................................................. 3 The European Aluminium Consumption for Building Applications in 1990..........3 The Aluminium Surface Treatment .........................................................................3 Dimensional Effects of Anodizing, Plating and Painting ........................................5 5203.02 The Anodizing Process ............................................................................... 6 The Anodizing Cell..................................................................................................6 Changes in Current and Voltage during Anodizing.................................................7 Anodic Coating Structure/Cell Dimensions.............................................................8 Anodizing Solutions ..............................................................................................10 Barrier Type Electrolytes.................................................................................. 10 Porous type electrolytes.................................................................................... 10 Change in Film Thickness during Anodizing ........................................................12 Influence of Type of Alloy on Film Weight (Figure 5203.02.08) .........................12 Influence of Electrolyte Temperature ....................................................................13 Influence of Current Density..................................................................................14 Influence of Acid Concentration............................................................................15 Colouring Anodized Aluminium ...........................................................................15 Dying................................................................................................................. 16 Self Colouring, Integral Colouring................................................................... 16 Electrolytic Colouring ...................................................................................... 16 Sealing of Anodic Films ........................................................................................17 Properties of Anodic Film......................................................................................18 Operational Sequences for Anodizing ...................................................................20 5203.03 Quality Control and Standards ............................................................. 21 Quality Control ......................................................................................................21 Standards (Figures 5203.03.02 and 5203.03.03) ...................................................22 EWAA - EURAS Quality Label/ QUALANOD....................................................23 5203.04 Behaviour of Anodized Aluminium......................................................... 24 5203.05 Literature................................................................................................. 27 5203.06 List of Figures........................................................................................... 27 TALAT 5203 2
  • 3. 5203.01 Importance, Objectives and Methods of Surface Treatments for Aluminium • The European aluminium consumption for building applications in 1990 • The aluminium surface treatment • Dimensional effects of anodizing, plating and painting Anodizing is an electrochemical process for producing stable oxide films on the surface of metals. Anodic coating can be produced on aluminium by using a wide variety of electrolytes with AC, DC or a combination of both. In order to generate an anodic film, the aluminium piece must be the anode and an other suitable metal or alloy the cathode. Anodic coatings are classified according to the solvent action of the electrolyte used to produce the anodic film. Some of them are of porous nature as for example in phosphoric and sulphuric electrolytes. Others are essentially non-porous and are called "barrier layer" films and are generated in "low solvents power" electrolytes such as ammonium tartrate, ammonium borate, etc. Sulphuric acid is by far the most important anodizing process due to the characteristics of the process (allows a wide variety of thickness) and the properties of the film (produce a clear coating than can be easily coloured by many different ways and sealed). The European Aluminium Consumption for Building Applications in 1990 The European consumption of aluminium for building in 1990 has been around one million tonnes. Around 45% of the total has been anodized and around 30% has been painted, using a 25% of material without any surface protection (Figure 5203.01.01). The EEC market for architectural anodizing total estimated is 200 millions m2 by year. The Aluminium Surface Treatment There are few people today who are not familiar with some modern applications of aluminium and its alloys and the enormous number of applications is mainly due to the excellent corrosion resistance of this metal. The corrosion resistance of aluminium is achieved due to the affinity of this metal for oxygen that generates on its surface a very thin oxide film which covers the surface of a freshly-cut piece of metal is exposed to the atmosphere. However, in some cases it is necessary to have a higher degree of protection (corrosion or chemical resistance) or to modify the surface appearance (changing, colour, texture, etc.) or creating technical- physical surface properties (increasing the abrasion resistance and hardness, achieving coating with anti-friction properties, getting coatings with increased bonding strength, etc.). TALAT 5203 3
  • 4. European Aluminium Consumption for Building Applications 1990 ANODIZED UNPROTECTED 460 255 PAINTED 300 (Tonnes x 1000) alu Aluminium Consumption alu Training in Aluminium Application Technologies for Building Applications (Europe 1990) 5203.01.01 The application areas of aluminium surface treatment are very wide: e.g. it is used in architecture, transport, and consumer goods. Due to the characteristics of the surface after treatment aluminium can also be used as high efficiency reflectors or as solar selective surface with a high absorptivity and low emissivity values (see Figure 5203.01.02, also Figure 5203.01.03). O JE TIV S of A M IU S R C T E TM N B C E LU IN M U FA E R A E T 3- C E E R AT 2- M D O IFY TEC N A H S A H IC L-P Y IC L 1- P R TE T O C A P R N E P EA A C S R C P O E TIE U FA E R P R S -C R O N O R SIO -G S LO S -A R S N R IS N E B A IO ES TA C R S T C E IS AN E -C LO R O U -H R N S A D ES -C E IC L H M A -TE T R XU E -A T N I-FR TIO IC N R S T C E IS AN E -B N IN , E C O D G T . A P AT N A E P LIC IO R A 1-2 2-3 -H H T H O G IG EC N LO Y -A C IT TU E R H EC R -M C A IC L E H N A -TR N PO T A S R -E G E R G N IN E IN -C N U E G O S O S MR O D -O TIC P AL, E . TC alu Training in Aluminium Application Technologies Objectives of Aluminium Surface Treatments 5203.01.02 The first application of anodizing was for dielectric film produced by the boric acid process for use in electrolytic capacitors. TALAT 5203 4
  • 5. INORGANIC COATINGS ORGANIC COATINGS PHYSICAL-CHEMICAL PHYSICAL-CHEMICAL CONVERSION WET PAINT AND LACQUERS, OXIDE (BOEHMITE), POWDER PAINT PHOSPHATE, CHROMATE, OTHERS ELECTROLESS PLATING NICKEL, OTHERS ENAMEL OTHER TECHNIQUES PVD, CVD, OTHERS ELECTRO-CHEMICAL ELECTRO-CHEMICAL ANODIZING PLATING ELECTROPHORETIC SULPHURIC ACID, CHROMIC ACID COPPER, NICKEL PHOSPHORIC ACID, OXALIC ACID CHROMIUM, SILVER BARRIER LAYER: BORIC ACID OTHERS CITRIC ACID alu Training in Aluminium Application Technologies Survey of Methods for Aluminium Surface Treatments 5203.01.03 Dimensional Effects of Anodizing, Plating and Painting Anodizing is an electrochemical process in which the part is made the anode. A potential is applied to this piece high enough to allow the development of oxygen on the aluminium surface. In anodizing the coating is produced by "reaction" of the metal with the "ions" of the electrolyte producing generally a coating with greater volume than the aluminium substrate. There is normally an overall increase in dimension of the pieces after anodizing. For conventional sulphuric and chromic anodizing this overall increase in dimension is approximately one-third of the coating thickness; for hard anodizing it is approximately one-half the coating thickness. The basic "dimensional" differences among anodizing, plating and painting is that the former is produced from the substrate while plating or painting are deposited on the substrate (additive process) (see Figure 5203.01.04). There are many practical ways to anodize depending on the type of material to treat, for example small parts such a rivets may be anodized in bulk by means of barrel or basket anodizing. Extrusions normally up to 9-10 meters long are used in the standard batch anodizing. In this technique the aluminium pieces are positioned on jigs and racks and they provide the supports and the electrical contact for the components being anodized. For aluminium coil, the continuous anodizing process has potential advantages as a cheap process, very uniform in characteristics. The typical applications of this process are: lithographic plates, name plates, decoratives trims, siding and roofing products lighting reflectors etc. In summary, anodizing can be carried out in many different ways depending on the type of material being anodized and the final application. TALAT 5203 5
  • 6. Dimensional Effects of Anodizing, Plating and Painting Anodic Film Paint or Metal Anodizing Before Treatment Plating & Painting Aluminium Aluminium alu Dimensional Effects of Anodizing, Plating and Painting 5203.01.04 Training in Aluminium Application Technologies 5203.02 The Anodizing Process • The anodizing cell • Changes in current and voltage during anodizing • Anodic coating structure/cell dimensions • Anodizing solutions • Change in film thickness during anodizing • Influence of type of alloy on film weight • Influence of electrolyte temperature • Influence of current density • Influence of acid concentration • Colouring anodized aluminium − Dying − Self colouring, integral colouring − Electrolytic colouring • Sealing of anodic films • Properties of anodic film • Operational sequences for anodizing The Anodizing Cell (Figure 5203.02.01) As previously mentioned when a current is passed through an electrolyte in which an aluminium piece is used as anode, the negatively charged ions migrates to the anode where one or more electrons are discharged. In an aqueous solution the ion consists in part of oxygen which reacts chemically with the aluminium. TALAT 5203 6
  • 7. Anodizing Cell BATCH ANODIZING CONTINUOS ANODIZING CONTACT AREA CATHODE ANODE CATHODE WEB CATHODES - + - - - ELECTROLYTE ROLL CONTACT ANODE+ RECIRCULATION AND RECIRCULATION COOLING AND COOLING ELECTROLYTE alu Training in Aluminium Application Technologies Anodizing Cell 5203.02.01 A DC, AC or a combination of both can be used as power supply for anodizing. For standard sulphuric acid anodizing a 24 V rectifier is suitable, however, for chromic acid anodizing or anodizing in organic acid voltages up to 60-70 V are needed. For hard anodizing and for production of barrier-layer films higher voltages are needed. Recently anodizing using pulsed power supplies is being recommended mainly for applications where high anodizing currents are required, or where difficult alloys are being processed (high copper contents). Changes in Current and Voltage during Anodizing As any electrolytic process anodizing is controlled by current density (Figure 5203.02.02). Changes in Voltage and Current Density during Anodizing CURRENT DENSITY VOLTAGE TIME alu Voltage and Current Density During Anodizing 5203.02.02 Training in Aluminium Application Technologies During the initial period of anodizing the aluminium piece is protected by a thin aluminium oxide film that offers little resistance to the current. If anodizing is carried-out at constant voltage a quick rise of current is produced, and later on, a slow drop to a steady TALAT 5203 7
  • 8. state value. This curve is interpreted as the result of two overlapping process; one of these is the exponential decrease of barrier film formation and the second represents the pore formation current. At a certain time the current of these processes reach a stady-state value and the film thickness grows proportionally to the charge per surface area in the aluminium piece being anodized. In the case of barrier layer anodizing when the voltage is maintained constant the current initially increases rapidly and then decreases to very low values (µA/cm2). The leakage current flowing under constant voltage conditions is electronic but if the voltage is increased then, ionic current begins to flow again with further film formation until a new equilibrium is established. The maximum potential used to produce a barrier layer film is between 500-700 volts due to breakdown and arcing in the barrier layer. Anodic Coating Structure/Cell Dimensions As early as in 1932 it was shown that the anodic film consists of two layers, the porous thick layer growing on an inert layer which is thin, dense and dielectrically and normally called barrier layer (Figure 5203.02.03). Structure of the Anodic Cell POROUS LAYER BARRIER LAYER ALUMINIUM alu Structure of the Anodic Cell 5203.02.03 Training in Aluminium Application Technologies The thickness of the barrier layer depends on the composition of the electrolyte and the operating conditions. During anodizing the barrier layer is formed first and its thickness varies directly with the forming voltage. The barrier layer is non-porous, and conducts current only due to its thickness and faults, the outer layer, is microsporous and built upon a columnar structure. If no dissolution occurs by the electrolyte; the barrier layer grows at a rate of 14 Å per volt. This value theoretical is obtained only in solutions in which little or nosolvent action occurs. For electrolytes with solvent action values between 10-11.5 A/volts have been reported. TALAT 5203 8
  • 9. Once the barrier layer has been formed, this begin to transform in a crystalline structure in the outer part of the barrier layer if the electrolyte has enough solving power. The mechanism of pore formation is still a matter of discussion but according to some authors the formation of the porous layer is due to a local dissolution of the barrier layer, followed by the passage of the current, which rises. The temperature of the solution at this point further increases and so the rate of dissolution. This fact is responsible for the perpetuation of pores. As the current flows through the simple pore with a roughly hemispherical end and a central cylindrical pore is built up in accordance with the electrical field. As the formation of the film progresses the shape of the cells is altered to give a hexagonal prism shape. The structure of the anodic film is independed of the type of electrolyte and the same structure is obtained in sulphuric, chromic, oxalic or phosphoric electrolytes. For sulphuric anodizing the rate of growth of porous layer is constant at a constant current density and takes approximately a value of 0.4 µm/min for a current density of 1.3 A/dm2. As the barrier layer thickness remains constant, it should correspond to a similar rate of dissolution at the base of the pores. The dimensions of the oxide cells are directly influenced by the anodizing conditions (Figure 5203.02.04). Depending on the solving power of the electrolyte the dimension of pores and cells are different being bigger in phosphoric and smaller in sulphuric acid. With increasing voltage, cell size increases and the number of pores decreases accordingly. The relation-ship between cell size and voltage is approximately linear, and the higher the voltage the bigger is the cell size. During anodizing there is a chemical attack from the electrolyte to the anodic film producing pores wider in the outer than in the inner part of the film. PO E D R IAMETER 14,5 -18 nm PO E P PU R O LATION 40-80 .10 9pores/cm 2 CELL DIAMETER 40 - 53 nm PO O R SITY 15 % BAR R LAYE TH NES RIE R ICK S 14 - 18 nm PO O S LAYER TH R U ICKNESS 5-25 µ m (protective purposes) alu alu Typical D ensions of the Anodic C (Sulphuric A Anodizing) im ell cid 5203.02.04 Training in Aluminium Application Technologies TALAT 5203 9
  • 10. Anodizing Solutions (Figure 5203.02.05) ANODIZING SOLUTIONS FOR ALUMINIUM SULPHURIC ACID USED FOR PROTECTIVE AND DECORATIVE APPLICATIONS OXALIC ACID SULPHO-ORGANIC ACIDS CHROMIC ACID USED AS PRETREATMENTS PHOSPHORIC ACID CITRIC ACID BARRIER LAYER ANODIZING FOR ELECTROLYTIC CAPACITORS BORIC ACID alu alu Training in Aluminium Application Technologies Anodizing Solutions for Aluminium 5203.02.05 Among the anodizing electrolytes two kinds can be clearly distinguished: − Barrier type electrolytes − Porous type electrolytes Barrier Type Electrolytes The main application of these electrolytes is by far the fabrication of electrolytic capacitors, however, it can also be used for protective purposes. The most commonly-used barrier type electrolytes used for protective applications are ammonium tartrate and boric acid solutions. The concentration of this solution is around 3% Ammonium tartrate at a pH ≅ 5.5. The usual electrolyte for the fabrication of electrolytic capacitor in a continuous process was the hot electrolyte (95-100 °C) of about 10% boric acid. Actually organic electrolytes are used as solvents based on dimethyl formamide. Porous type electrolytes (Figure 5203.02.06) The sulphuric acid process is by far the most extensively used all over the world and actually many variations of the process are used. Early solutions contained approximately 25% (w) sulphuric acid, recently the acid concentration has been reduced to 10-20% (w) according to the film properties required, current densities are normally of the order of 1-2 A/dm2 with a voltage 12-20 volts and temperatures 18-25 °C for anodizing times of up to about 60 minutes. TALAT 5203 10
  • 11. MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF ANODIZING PROCESSES USED FOR PROTECTIVE AND DECORATIVE APPLICATIONS TYPE OF CONCENTRATION CURRENT VOLTAGE TEMP. TIME COLOUR OF ELECTROLYTE (%) DENSITY 2 (V.DC) (°C) (min) ANODIC FILM A/dm SULPHURIC COLOURLESS 15-20 1-2 12-20 18-25 5-60 ACID OXALIC ACID 3-5 1-2 40-60 18-20 40-60 YELLOW (Elosal GX) CHROMIC ACID OPAQUE (Bengough- 2,5-3 (CrO3 ) 0,1-0,5 0-50 40 10-60 -Stuart) -GREY alu Training in Aluminium Application Technologies Parameters of the Anodizing Process 5203.02.06 On most aluminium alloys this electrolyte produces colourless, transparent anodic coatings than can be easily coloured. The chromic acid process consists of a solution containing 30-50 g CrO3/l. Current is applied so that the voltage is increased in steps up to a voltage of 40-50 volts. The current density is in the range of 0.1-0.5 A/dm2 and the temperature around 40 °C. The oxalic acid process was first developed in Japan and later on introduced in Europe. This process produces hard coatings coloured in gold or light bronze, depending of the alloy used. The oxalic and process is more expensive than the sulphuric one in chemicals and power, another extra disadvantage of this process is that oxalic and poisonous. The concentration of the electrolyte is approximately 3-5% (w), the current density 1-2 A/dm2, the voltage 40-60 volts and the temperature 18-20 °C. The phosphoric acid anodizing process is rarely used to produce decorative or protective finishes, it is being increasingly used as a pretreatment for application of organic or plated pretreatment. Lately the phosphoric anodizing process have been extensively used as pretreatment for adhesive bonding in the aerospace industry. The process is known as the Boeing Process an uses a concentration 10-12% (w) at 10-15 volts and a temperature of 21-24 °C for 20-25 min. Other electrolytes such as sulphonic and malonic acids have been used for protective and decorative anodizing, these electrolytes produce generally harder films than standard sulphuric anodizing y colours varying from light bronze to black. TALAT 5203 11
  • 12. Change in Film Thickness during Anodizing The thickness of the anodic film increases with treatment time. However, the rate of thickness growing depends of several factors such as: type of electrolyte, current density, treatment time, etc. Initially there is a rapid and constant increase in the actual thickness, followed, after anodizing for an appreciable period of time, by a small but growing decrease in the rate of thickness growth, heading finally to a stage where the thickness remains approximately constant in spite of continued application of current. During anodizing there are a continuous, thickness growth of the anodic film and a dissolution by chemical attack. The actual thickness is the theoretical thickness minus the thickness of oxide dissolved (Figure 5302.02.07). Changes in Film Thickness during Anodizing Anodic Film Thickness theoretical Dissolution by Electrolyte actual Treatment Time alu alu Training in Aluminium Application Technologies Changes in Film Thickness during Anodizing 5203.02.07 The theoretical value is proportional to the treatment time when anodizing at constant current density acid it depends upon Faraday's Law, which states that the oxide formed is proportional to the electric charge passed (ampere-seconds) through the anode. Influence of Type of Alloy on Film Weight (Figure 5203.02.08) Generally aluminium anodizes better than its alloys and the appearance and performance in service can be related to the alloy and metallurgical history. Size, shape and distribution of intermetallic compound also affect the behaviour and anodizing response. The composition of the alloy is quite important in some applications such as bright anodizing where the level of insoluble particles must be a low as possible. The anodic coating on 99.99% aluminium will be clear and transparent, with a level of iron of 0.08% it is slightly less clear and becomes increasingly cloudy as the film thickness is increased. With the level of insolubles of the AA-1050 alloy the coating becomes quite TALAT 5203 12
  • 13. cloudy in comparison with the more pure metal. Anodic Coating Weights of Aluminium Alloys 12 Theoretical 1099 Al2O3 6063-T5 10 7072 Coating Weight (mg/cm ) 1100 2 5005 8 5050 3003 5052 6 6061-T6 7075-T6 4 2024-T3 2 (15 % H 2SO4 , 1,3 amp./dm² , 20 °C) 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Anodizing Time (Minutes) alu alu Training in Aluminium Application Technologies Anodic Coating Weights 5203.02.08 Generally among the aluminium alloys, the series 5xxx y 6xxx produce the best decorative and protective coatings, some 7xxx series alloys also produce clear coatings with good performance. Usually the 2xxx series produce coating colours of inferior quality. The behaviour of intermetallic compounds during anodizing is different depending on the type intermetallic and anodizing solution. Some of the intermetallics are oxidized or dissolved much more rapidly then aluminium (ß Al-Mg) producing porous coatings. Others as silicon particles are practically insolubles during anodizing, producing inclusions in the anodic film. Intermediate between the two extremes are constituents (FeAl3, αAl-Fe-Si etc) of which part is dissolved and part remains in the coating, and which affects the colour transparency and continuity of the film to varying degrees. Influence of Electrolyte Temperature The effect of an increase of electrolyte temperature is a proportional increase in the rate of dissolution of the anodic film resulting in thinner, more porous and softer films (Figure 5203.02.09). Low temperatures are used to produce hard coatings normally in combination with high current densities and vigorous agitation. In decorative and protective anodizing temperatures in the range of 15-25 °C are normally used. If temperature is increased further the maximum thickness is reduced to lower values due to the higher dissolving power of the electrolyte. TALAT 5203 13
  • 14. Effect of Electrolyte Temperature on Coating Weight 10 °C 20 °C Coating Weight 30 °C 50 °C Anodizing time alu Electrolyte Temperature and Coating Weight 5203.02.09 Training in Aluminium Ap plication Technolog ies Influence of Current Density The range of current density used in standard anodizing varies from 1-2 A/dm2, for certain application up to 3 A/dm2. Current densities below this range produce soft, porous and thin films. As the current density is increased, the film forms more quickly with relatively less dissolution by the electrolyte, consequently the film is harder and less porous. At very high current densities, there is a tendency for "burning"; this is the development of excessively high current flow at local areas with overheating at such areas (Figure 5203.02.10). Effect of Current Density on Film Thickness Burning Film Thickness Soft Films Current Density alu Current Density and Film Thickness 5203.02.10 Training in Aluminium Application Technologies When reflectivity and image clarity are of importance, normally special conditions are used and low current densities in the range of 1 A/dm2 tend to improve image clarity. TALAT 5203 14
  • 15. Influence of Acid Concentration The effect of increased concentration on the coating characteristics is similar to temperature increase, although the effect of temperature is more important than that of concentration. The increase in concentration limitates the maximum film thickness due to the higher dissolving power of the concentrate solutions (Figure 5203.02.11). Influence of Acid Concentration on 7 Process Parameters: 1.6 A/dm² and 21 °C Anodic Coating Weight 5% Coating Weight (mg/dm²) 6 15 % 5 4 30 % 3 2 50 % 1 2 3 4 5 Metal Loss ( mg/cm² ) 10 Anodizing Time (min) 60 alu Training in Aluminium Ap plication Technolog ies Acid Concentration and Anodic Coating Weight 5203.02.11 Colouring Anodized Aluminium The development of colour anodized aluminium is almost simultaneous to the development of anodizing, and several methods have been developed using different techniques to obtain different colours and shades. The most important are: − Dying − Self colouring, integral colouring − Electrolytic colouring (Figure 5203.02.12) Colouring Systems DYING ELECTROLYTIC COLOURING Scattering SELF COLOURING INTEGRAL COLOURING Interference alu Colouring Systems 5203.02.12 Training in Aluminium Application Technologies TALAT 5203 15
  • 16. Dying Hundreds of commercial dyestuffs are available for colouring anodic films produced by most anodizing conditions yielding a wide range of attractive colours. The colour intensity depends on the amount of dye taken up by the film. The absorption mechanism o chelate complex is produced in the upper part of the anodic film (in the 3-4 external µm). The most widely process to produce gold colour by immersion with inorganic dyes are ammonium oxalate solutions. The solution has normally a concentration of 5-50 g/l and a temperature 30-60 °C at a pH around 4.5. In this case the colour obtained by precipitation of iron salts, is basically iron oxide. Self Colouring, Integral Colouring In both processes the colour is produced during anodizing in the first case due to the constituents of the alloy in the second case due to the inclusions during anodizing produced by using special electrolytes. The most common alloy for obtaining grey shades when anodize in sulphuric and is an Al- 5% Si alloy. The colour and uniformity of the finishes are depending on composition and metallurgical history. The mechanism of colour formation in that case is the occlusion of silicon crystals in the anodic film. Probably the first integral colour anodizing is the oxalic process which under controlled conditions can give coatings coloured from pale yellow to deep bronze. The colour on these type of finishes is dependent on film thickness and the thicker the film the darker the colour. Many electrolytes have been used to produce integral colours or "hardcolour", the main constituent are: sulphosalicylic, sulphosphthalic and sulphuric acid; maleic and, etc. The range of colour using integral colouring are: different topes of gold and bronze to deep black. Electrolytic Colouring The electrolytic colouring or "Two Step anodizing" has been developed industrially in the sixties. The process consists of immersing the anodize work in an and solution containing metallic salts ant to apply and AC or DC voltage. Under these conditions metallic deposit are formed at the bottom of the pores in the interphase between barrier a crystalline layer. The colour depends on the nature of the electrolyte; most metals give a bronze to black colour (Sn, Ni, Co, etc) some as copper gives reds etc. The colour is independent to a certain extent of the thickness of the anodic coating and is only dependent of the amount of metal deposited (200 mg/m2 Sn produces a light bronze and 2000 mg/2 Sn producer a deep black). The properties of electrolytic finishes are similar to the normal sulphuric and films. The light fastness of the finishes produced with most electrolytes are very good. TALAT 5203 16
  • 17. In the late seventies electrolytic colouring took a step forward with the development of interference colouring. This procedure allows to produce a wide range of colours using an electrolyte due to a mechanism of optical interference. Normally a pore enlargement treatment is necessary between anodizing and electrolytic colouring in order to increase the intensity of the colour. The amount of metal deposited in conventional bronze electrolytic finish is higher than and standard interference colours however, in this case is "packed" uniformly at the bottom of the pores. The main advantage of interference colour it is de wide variety of colours that it is possible to produce. Sealing of Anodic Films Sealing is the last step in the anodizing process and is essential for retention during service of the initial appearance of the anodized material. Water sealing seems to produce little change in the bulk oxide film (increases water content up 4 to 10 percent) but causes major pore blockage, closure of the intercrystaline regions and formation of various forms of hydrated alumina, the most important of which is probably boehemite. The mechanism of water sealing (Figure 5203.02.13) consists of three overlapping stages: − Precipitation of gel out of the pore walls and near the outer film surface − Condensation of gel to form pseudo böhemite, continuing reaction rate controlled by diffusion of water into film and anions into the liquid − Recrystallisation to form boehemite starting at the surface, intermediate layer formed by diffusion After a correct sealing the crystalline material is largely böhemite and is the cause of the visible "smut" seen on most sealed anodic film surfaces. The change in properties produced by sealing are basically: − Increase of the corrosion resistance − Reduction of the retention of dyes − Reduction of "bloom" formation under outdoor exposure − Increase in impedance of the anodic film − Reduction in hardness and abrasion resistance − Reduction of thermal crazing temperature − Reduction of paint or adhesive adhesion Sealing is commonly done by immersion in good quality water heated to 95-100 °C at a pH of 6.0 ± 0.5 for a period of 2-3 min/µm. Some impurities such as: phosphates, silicates or fluorides can inhibit the sealing process. Some metal salts are frequently used as sealing additives. The salts are absorbed into the coating where they are hydrolysed and precipitated as hydroxides. Nickel and cobalt are the more common and are very suitable to reduce losses of colour after dying. TALAT 5203 17
  • 18. Water Sealing of Anodic Oxide Coatings (a) Unsealed anodic film structure (b) Precipitation of gel on pore walls and outside of films Al2O3 + Anion H2O approx. 100 °C (c) Codensation of gel forms Pseudo- (d) Recrystallisation to form Boehmite Boehmite, continuing reaction rate starting at the surface: controlled by diffusion of water into intermediate layer formed by diffusion film and of anions into the liquid Intermediate Layer H2O Anion ALUMINIUM ALUMINIUM alu Water Sealing 5203.02.13 Training in Aluminium Application Technologies The Dichromat sealing has been used in some application where enhanced corrosion resistance is necessary. A practical cold seal system has recently been developed (used at around 30 °C). The seal solution normally contain fluoride or silica compounds in the presence of nickel salts often in a water-alcohol mixture. Properties of Anodic Film (Figure 5203.02.14) These properties are: 1. Generate clear crystalline coatings Anodic films on aluminium are used for lighting reflector due to the good reflective properties of aluminium in combination with the clear and protective anodic coating. The clear crystalline coating formed during anodizing of pure aluminium maintain the metallic aspect and most optical properties of bright aluminium. 2. Increase of surface hardness and abrasion resistance The anodic oxide film is very hard and will protect aluminium from surface scratches but is generally too thin to protect the metal from deep scratches or strong pressure. The hardness and abrasion resistance is inversely proportional to the porosity; thus the surface layer is softer than the inner layer. Sealing decreases abrasion resistance in hard and architectural anodizing. TALAT 5203 18
  • 19. 3. Increase corrosion resistance The corrosion resistance of anodic films is influenced by several factors as: type of alloy, anodizing condition, anodic film, thickness, quality of sealing and maintenance procedures. The major factor controlling pitting performance is according to several exposure programs film thickness. Generally marine atmospheres are less aggressive than industrial ones and the rate of film thickness removal is half in marine atmospheres than in industrial ones. 4. Able to keep good brightness and image clarity Pure aluminium is able to maintain a high value of total and specular reflectance. This values are around 90 and 85% respectively and are only slightly affected by film thickness. When the content of alloy elements or impurities increases (1050 alloy) it is possible to obtain a good image clarity after brightening but it is lost when a 2 µm film of anodic film is applied. 5. Easy to colour Anodized aluminium is able to adsorb dyes easily or to be coloured electrolytically in many different colours or tones. The behaviour of the different colours depends on the type of colouring method and material deposited to obtain the colour. Generally electrolytic colours are of resistant to fading and there are experiences for more than twenty years on buildings and outdoor exposure programmes which confirm the good behaviour of these finishes. 6. Electrical and thermal insolulators. One of the main application of anodizing is the fabrication of electrolytic capacitors, the dielectric constant is around 8.5 for barrier layer films. Anodic coatings are good insulators, though they tend to craze at high temperatures, the breakdown voltage is not seriously affected by this as cracks are filled with air. The specific resistance is around 4.1015 Ω.cm and the breakdown voltage depends on the anodizing procedures and will vary between 8-50 V/µm. General Properties GENERATE CLEAR-CRYSTALLINE COATINGS of the Anodic Film INCREASE SURFACE HARDNESS INCREASE ABRASION RESISTANCE INCREASE CORROSION RESISTANCE ABLE TO KEEP GOOD BRIGHTNESS AND IMAGE QUALITY EASY TO COLOUR (DYES OR ELECTROLITYC) ELECTRICAL AND THERMAL INSULATORS alu Training in Aluminium Application Technologies General Properties of the Anodic Film 5203.02.14 TALAT 5203 19
  • 20. Operational Sequences for Anodizing In Figure 5203.02.15 we try to explain briefly the different steps of an industrial anodizing process. The material to be anodized can be as fabricated (extrusion, mill finish for sheets, or castings) or has been mechanically prefinished (buffing, polishing, grinding, etc). Operational Sequence for Anodizing Mechanical Rack As fabricated Pre-finish Clean Chemical or electro- Matt etch chemical brightening Anodic oxidation Colour Seal Unrack alu Training in Aluminium Application Technologies Operational Sequence for Anodizing 5203.02.15 The first step in the anodizing operation is racking. Racking is the operation that provides support and electrical contact for the components being anodized. After racking the material is cleaned in a solution in order to remove: oils, solid particles and even the oxides on surface. Once the material is clean there are three possibilities of treatment: direct anodizing, matt etching or chemical or electrochemical brightening. Direct anodizing is carried out when a mechanical pre-finish is sufficient, or for very low quality finishes. Matt etching is normally carried-out in a alkaline type of bath base on caustic soda, this operation removes the material on surface and produces a matt, light diffusion finish. If a bright or mirror like finish must be obtained the aluminium pieces should be treated normally in a solution with current (electrobrightening) or without current (chemical brightening). These procedure remove aluminium generating a very even surface normally with high gloss and image clarity. After chemical or electrochemical pretreatment the aluminium is anodized under prefixed conditions. After anodizing the load could be coloured, or directly sealed if the finish is natural anodizing. The load could be coloured according to the different procedures (dying, integral, electrolytic colouring etc). After anodizing or colouring the load is normally sealed in order to "close" the pores. This operation is essential for retention during service of the initial appearance of the anodized material. TALAT 5203 20
  • 21. After sealing the pieces are taking out of the racks to end the anodizing operation. 5203.03 Quality Control and Standards • Quality control • Standards Quality Control Normally for routine control and acceptance testing checks on film thickness and sealing quality are sufficient to ensure quality, but however, other test are necessary in order to know the overall quality (Figure 5203.03.01). Controls and Standards on Anodic Films Weight-Loss (ISO 2106) Film Eddy Current Measurement (ISO 2360) Thickness Micrographic Cross-Section (ISO 1436) Split-Beam Microscope (ISO 2128) Sealing Admittance (ISO 2931) Quality Weight-Loss (ISO 3210) Dye Spot (ISO 2143) Corrosion Resistance Salt Spray (ISO 3768) Acetic Acid Salt Spray (ISO 3769) Colour Fastness Ultra Violet Light (ISO 6581) Artificial Light (ISO 2135) Abrasion Abrasive Wheel (ISO-8252) Resistance Abrasive Jet (ISO-8251) alu Training in Aluminium Application Technologies Controls and Standards 5203.03.01 Film thickness in practice is one of the most important control parameters and numerous methods have been suggested. Some film thickness meters are now accurate and dependable (Eddy current measument), but the referee methods in cases of dispute inevitably nivolve destruction of the coating (Micrographic cross-section). Sealing quality is another routine control for acceptance in an anodizing plant. Many tests have been developed along time, as in the case of film thickness the reference methods involve attack of the coating. The dye spot test or dye absorption and impedance test are used because they are quick and non destructive. The weight-loss test is the reference method but involves to treat a sample in a phosphoric- chromic acid solution and to determine the weight loss. TALAT 5203 21
  • 22. As corrosion resistance tests for anodic coatings standard methods used for other applications are also carried-out such as: neutral salt spray (NSS), acetic and salt spray (AAS), Copper acetic and salt spray (CASS), etc. The use of colour anodized finishes for outdoor architectural applications has lead to develop some test on colour fastness and attempts to correlate such tests with outdoor behaviour. The test normally used are de U.V. light (UVIARC) or artificial light (XENOTEST). Another important property is the abrasion resistance and two different method have been developed for this application. The first is based on the abrasive wheel and the second on abrasive jet. This property allows to distinguish between soft and hard films. Standards (Figures 5203.03.02 and 5203.03.03) EWAA - EURAS Quality Label "QUALANOD" The European Anodizers Assoc. (EURAS) has fixed minimum quality standards for anodized aluminium which guarantee the quality level in plants having this label Thickness Standards ISO-2360 (Eddy-Current Measurements) ISO 2128 (Split-Beam-Microscope) ISO 1436 (Micrographic Cross Section) ISO 2106 (Weight-Loss) Reference Standard ISO 2106 (Weight-Loss) Thickness Classes Indoor Exposure............................5 and 10 µm Outdoor Exposure..................15, 20 and 25 µm TALAT alu Training in Aluminium Application Technologies EWAA - EURAS Quality Label "QUALANOD" (I) 5203.03.02 TALAT 5203 22
  • 23. Sealing Quality Standards ISO-2143 (Dye Spot) ISO 3210 (Weight Loss) ISO 2931 (Admittance) Reference Standard ISO 3210 (Weight Loss) Level of Quality ISO-2143 (Dye Spot) ................ Values 0 - 2 are accepted Values 3 - 5 are not accepted ISO-3210 (Weight Loss) ........... Maximum Weight Loss - 30 mg/dm² ISO-2931 (Admittance) ............ Maximum recommended admittance for a 20 µm clear anodized film is 20 µS Colour The diference in colour of all products must be between the reference samples for each colour (maximum and minimum), and must be an agreement between two parts. Light Fastness (Coloured Products) Products for outdoor exposure must have a light fastness higher than 8 in the international "Blue Scale" according to ISO-2135. TALAT alu Training in Aluminium Application Technologies EWAA - EURAS Quality Label "QUALANOD" (II) 5203.03.03 EWAA - EURAS Quality Label/ QUALANOD The European Anodizers Association (EURAS) has selected a series of standards and fixed a minimum quality for anodized aluminium in order to guarantee a quality level in the plants having this label. The standards and minimum Quality levels established by QUALANOD are the following: Thickness Standards ISO - 2360 Eddy-Current Measurement ISO - 2128 Split-Beam-Microscope ISO - 1436 Micrographic Cross Section ISO - 2106 Weight Loss Reference Standard ISO - 2106 Weight Loss Thickness Classes Indoor exposure 5 and 10 µm Outdoor exposure 15, 20 and 25 µm TALAT 5203 23
  • 24. Sealing Quality Standards ISO - 2143 Dye Spot ISO - 3210 Weight Loss ISO - 2931 Admittance Reference Standard ISO - 3210 Weight Loss Level of Quality ISO - 2143 Dye Spot Values 0 - 2 are accepted Values 3 - 5 are not accepted ISO - 3210 Weight Loss Maximum weight loss - 30 mg/dm2 ISO - 2931 Admittance Maximum recommended admittance for a 20 µm clear anodized film is 20 µS. Colour The difference in colour for all products must be between the reference samples for each colour (maximum and minimum), and must be an agreement between two parts. Light Fastness (Coloured Products) Products for outdoor exposure must have a light fastness higher than 8 inches in the international „Blue Scale“ according to ISO - 2135. 5203.04 Behaviour of Anodized Aluminium Chemical resistance of anodic coatings is greatest in approximately neutral solutions (pH 4 - 8,5). In general, acidic or alkaline solutions attack anodic coatings. Anodic coatings are resistant to most weathering conditions. The corrosion resistance and atmospheric weathering of anodic coating depend on several factors. The most important are: Type of base metal Pretreatment before anodizing Thickness of anodic coating Anodic coating Quality Quality of sealing Maintenance procedures Weathering involves a relatively uniform erosion of the anodic film. Type of Alloy The nature of the alloy has a marked influence on the corrosion and weathering resistance TALAT 5203 24
  • 25. of anodized aluminium. The approximate order of resistance to pitting of alloys which are commonly anodized is as follows: 5251 more resistant to pitting 5005 6063 1050 1200 3103 6351 2014 less resistant to pitting Pretreatment before anodizing The pretreatment used before anodizing affects only the pitting resistance of an anodic film and not its tendency to bloom formation. In general, the smoother the surface produced during pretreatment the greater the resistance to pitting. Material that has been mechanically or electrochemically brightened before anodizing has a higher pitting resistance than material that is etched. Anodic Quality Temperature and concentration of anodizing electrolyte affect film quality and therefore resistance to weathering. Quality of Sealing The sealing quality has a relatively minor effect in determining the resistance to pitting, however, it is a major effect in the determination of resistance to bloom formation. Anodized aluminium sealed in a chromate solution increase the resistance to pitting. Maintenance Procedures Maintenance procedures are important in obtaining the maximum life from anodized aluminium. In industrial areas due to accumulation of dirt and contamination is an increase in the rate of pitting with reference to rural areas and frequent maintenance is necessary to reduce it. To remove dirt from an anodized aluminium surface a mild abrasive or a neutral detergent should be sufficient. Care should be taken not to use harsh abrasives such as emery, sandpaper, steel-wool, etc. during cleaning. Chemical cleaners that ate strongly acidic or alkaline must not be used with anodized aluminium. Influence of Film Thickness Anodic film thickness is the most important single factor governing the pitting resistance of anodized aluminium (Figure 5203.04.01). The number of pits developed in the base metal decrease exponentially with increasing TALAT 5203 25
  • 26. film thickness. Optimum protection against atmospheric corrosion is achieved in the coating thickness range of 15 - 30 µm. Effect of 10 9 Anodic Film Thickness Panels exposed 8½ years. on Number of pits per square meter 10 8 Industrial Pitting Corrosion environments Resistance 10 7 Highly aggressive environments ! Anodic film thickness is the single most important factor governing the pitting 10 6 resistance of anodized aluminium. Less aggressive ! The number of pits developed in the nonindustrial base metal decreases exponentially environments with increasing film thickness. 10 5 ! Optimum protection against atmospheric corrosion is achieved in the coating thickness range of 15 to 30 µm. 10 4 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Original anodic coating thickness, µm. alu Training in Aluminium Application Technologies Anodic Film Thickness and Pitting Corrosion Resistance 5203.04.01 Anodic Film Erosion Weathering involves a relatively uniform erosion of the anodic film (Figure 5203.04.02). Erosion Behaviour of Anodic Films Weathering involves a relatively uniform erosion of the anodic film. ! The average erosion rate is 0,33 µm/year. ! Values between 0.07 and 0.50 µm/year have been obtained depending on atmosphere aggressiveness. 25 Remaining coating thickness, µm Average erosion rate 0.33 µm/year 20 15 10 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 Exposure time, years. alu Training in Aluminium Application Technologies Erosion Behaviour of Anodic Films 5203.04.02 The average erosion rate is 0.33 µm/year. Values between 0.07 and 0.50 µm/year have been obtained depending on atmosphere agressivity. TALAT 5203 26
  • 27. 5203.05 Literature Hübner, W. and Speiser, C. Th.: Die Praxis der anodischen Oxidation des Aluminiums, 3. Auflage, Aluminium-Verlag, Düsseldorf, 1977 Wernick, Pinner and Sheasby: The Surface Treatment and Finishing of Aluminium and its Alloys, Fifth Edition, Volume 1, ASM International Finishing Publications Ltd, England (1987) 5203.06 List of Figures Figure No. Figure Title (Overhead) 5203.01.01 European Aluminium Consumption for Building Applications 1990 5203.01.02 Objectives of Aluminium Surface Treatments 5203.01.03 Survey of Methods for Aluminium Surface Treatments 5203.01.04 Dimensional Effects of Anodizing, Plating and Painting 5203.02.01 Anodizing Cell 5203.02.02 Changes in Voltage and Current Density During Anodizing 5203.02.03 Structure of the Anodic Cell 5203.02.04 Typical Dimensions of the Anodic Cell (Sulphuric Acid Anodizing) 5203.02.05 Anodizing Solutions for Aluminium 5203.02.06 Parameters of the Anodizing Process 5203.02.07 Changes in Film Thickness During Anodizing 5203.02.08 Anodic Coating Weights of Aluminium Alloys (15% H2SO4, 1.3 amp./dm2, 20°C) 5203.02.09 Effect of Electrolyte Temperature on Coating Weight 5203.02.10 Effect of Current Density on Film Thickness 5203.02.11 Influence of Acid Concentration on Anodic Coating Weight 5203.02.12 Colouring Systems 5203.02.13 Water Sealing of Anodic Oxide Coatings 5203.02.14 General Properties of the Anodic Film 5203.02.15 Operational Sequence for Anodizing 5203.03.01 Controls and Standards on Anodic Films 5203.03.02 EWAA - EURAS Quality Label „QUALANOD“ (I) 5203.03.03 EWAA - EURAS Quality Label „QUALANOD“ (II) 5203.04.01 Effect of Anodic Film Thickness on Pitting Corrosion Resistance 5203.04.02 Erosion Behaviour of Anodic Films TALAT 5203 27