SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 13
Scale up of fermentation
Dr. Pavan J Kundur, M.Sc., Ph.D.,
Assistant Professor
Department of Biotechnology
P C Jabin Science College,
Hubballi, Karnataka, India
Scaleup•Scale up studies refers to the act of using
results obtained from laboratory studies for
designing a prototype and a pilot plant
process; construction a pilot plant and using
pilot plant data for designing and
constructing a full scale plant.
Scale up
Scale up
Why conduct Scale up Studies?
• A pilot plant allows investigation of a product and process
on an intermediate scale before large amounts of money
are committed to full-scale production.
• It is usually not possible to predict the effects of a many-
fold increase in scale.
• Scale up studies are studies carried out at the laboratory or
even pilot plant scale fermentors to yield data that could
be used to to extrapolate and build the large scale
industrial fermentors with sufficient confidence it will
function properly with all its behaviours anticipated.
Importance of scale up studies
• More important during scale up exercises is that we are trying
to build industrial size fermentor capable or close of producing
the fermentation products as efficient as those produced in
small scale fermentors.
• It must be appreciated as the size of fermentation increases
during scale up various parameters measured might not show
a predictable linear co-relationships. Certain parameters
changes. Some remained constant. Some parameters need to
be modified and adjusted during scale up studies. The
objective is to try to get the same fermentation efficiency as
obtained in small scale fermentors at the most economical
values.
•Determining the various operational parameters
for optimized oxygen supply to the fermentation
process.
•Selection of optimum operative modes of the
fermentor
•Determining the changes in rheological properties
and its effect on the fermentation process.
•Modeling and formulation of process controls
•Sensors and controls
There are few crucial studies which will only be
answered by carrying it out on the pilot plant such
as:
Steps in Scale-Up
• Define product economics based on projected market size and
competitive selling and provide guidance for allowable
manufacturing costs
• Conduct laboratory studies and scale-up planning at the same time
• Define key rate-controlling steps in the proposed process
• Conduct preliminary larger-than-laboratory studies with equipment
to be used in rate-controlling step to aid in plant design
• Design and construct a pilot plant including provisions for process
and environmental controls, cleaning and sanitizing systems,
packaging and waste handling systems, and meeting regulatory
agency requirements
• Evaluate pilot plant results (product and process) including process
economics to make any corrections and a decision on whether or
not to proceed with a full scale plant development
INITIAL SCALE UP STUDIES
Most scale up studies are usually carried at different phases
involving different scales of fermentors.
Preliminary work are carried out at the level of petri dishes and small
scale laboratory fermentors to establish whether the process is
technically viable, meaning it is possible to produce such
fermentation process and the products on the small scale.
Additional parameters not provided by petri dishes studies and for
more confidence are obtained by carrying further studies using
submerged liquid fermentation using various sizes laboratory scale
fermentors and even a pilot plant fermentor.
Rules followed while doing scale-up
• There are a few rules of the thumb followed when doing scale
up studies such as:
1. Similarity in the geometry and configuration of fermentors
used in scaling up
•
2. A minimum of three or four stages of increment in the
scaling up of the volume of fermentation studies. Each jump in
scale should be by a magnitude or power increase and not an
increase of a few litres capacity. Slight increase in the working
volume would not yield significant data for scale up operation
A pilot plant can be used for
• Evaluating the results of laboratory studies and making
product and process corrections and improvements
• Producing small quantities of product for sensory,
chemical, microbiological evaluations, limited market
testing or furnishing samples to potential customers,
shelf-live and storage stability studies
• Determining possible salable by-products or waste
stream requiring treatment before discharge
• Providing data that can be used in making a decision on
whether or not to proceed to a full-scale production
process; and in the case of a positive decision, designing
and constructing a full-size plant or modifying an
existing plant
Studies carried out during scale up
1. Inoculum development
2. Sterilization establishing the correct sterilization
cycle at larger loads
3. Environmental parameters such as nutrient
availability, pH, temperature, dissolved
oxygen, dissolved carbon dioxide,
4. Shear conditions, foam production
Thank You

More Related Content

What's hot

Tower Fermernter
Tower FermernterTower Fermernter
Tower Fermernter
Dinesh S
 
Inocula development for yeast processes
Inocula development for yeast processesInocula development for yeast processes
Inocula development for yeast processes
RipuDas
 
Industrial production of chemical acids glutamic acid
Industrial production of chemical acids glutamic acidIndustrial production of chemical acids glutamic acid
Industrial production of chemical acids glutamic acid
Esam Yahya
 

What's hot (20)

Anti-foaming agents, inducers, precursors and inhibitors in Fermentation tech...
Anti-foaming agents, inducers, precursors and inhibitors in Fermentation tech...Anti-foaming agents, inducers, precursors and inhibitors in Fermentation tech...
Anti-foaming agents, inducers, precursors and inhibitors in Fermentation tech...
 
Citric acid production
Citric acid productionCitric acid production
Citric acid production
 
Ethanol fermentation
Ethanol fermentationEthanol fermentation
Ethanol fermentation
 
MEDIA FORMULATION
MEDIA FORMULATIONMEDIA FORMULATION
MEDIA FORMULATION
 
Tower Fermernter
Tower FermernterTower Fermernter
Tower Fermernter
 
FERMENTERS( BIOREACTORS) AND THEIR TYPES
FERMENTERS( BIOREACTORS) AND THEIR TYPESFERMENTERS( BIOREACTORS) AND THEIR TYPES
FERMENTERS( BIOREACTORS) AND THEIR TYPES
 
Upstream processing
Upstream processing Upstream processing
Upstream processing
 
Inoculum development.pptx
Inoculum development.pptxInoculum development.pptx
Inoculum development.pptx
 
Fermenter and its components
Fermenter and its componentsFermenter and its components
Fermenter and its components
 
Inocula development for yeast processes
Inocula development for yeast processesInocula development for yeast processes
Inocula development for yeast processes
 
Immobilization of enzymes and cells
Immobilization of enzymes and cellsImmobilization of enzymes and cells
Immobilization of enzymes and cells
 
Upstream and down stream process
Upstream and down stream processUpstream and down stream process
Upstream and down stream process
 
Strain Improvement
Strain ImprovementStrain Improvement
Strain Improvement
 
fermentation range
fermentation rangefermentation range
fermentation range
 
Industrial production of chemical acids glutamic acid
Industrial production of chemical acids glutamic acidIndustrial production of chemical acids glutamic acid
Industrial production of chemical acids glutamic acid
 
Baker’s yeast production
Baker’s yeast productionBaker’s yeast production
Baker’s yeast production
 
Unit 2 fermentation media and sterilization
Unit 2 fermentation media and sterilizationUnit 2 fermentation media and sterilization
Unit 2 fermentation media and sterilization
 
Media for industrial fermentation
Media for industrial fermentationMedia for industrial fermentation
Media for industrial fermentation
 
Downstream processing - industrial microbiology
Downstream processing - industrial microbiology Downstream processing - industrial microbiology
Downstream processing - industrial microbiology
 
Cell disruption
Cell disruption Cell disruption
Cell disruption
 

Similar to Fermentation -- Scale up Technology

Fermentation scale up_lesson 8.pptx
Fermentation scale up_lesson 8.pptxFermentation scale up_lesson 8.pptx
Fermentation scale up_lesson 8.pptx
zahrarafi3
 
Pilot plant scaleup techniques used in pharmaceutical manufacturing
Pilot plant scaleup techniques used in pharmaceutical manufacturingPilot plant scaleup techniques used in pharmaceutical manufacturing
Pilot plant scaleup techniques used in pharmaceutical manufacturing
Sunil Boreddy Rx
 
Pilot scale up of tablets
Pilot scale up of tabletsPilot scale up of tablets
Pilot scale up of tablets
Narasimha Potla
 

Similar to Fermentation -- Scale up Technology (20)

Fermentation scale up_lesson 8.pptx
Fermentation scale up_lesson 8.pptxFermentation scale up_lesson 8.pptx
Fermentation scale up_lesson 8.pptx
 
Scale up
Scale upScale up
Scale up
 
Pilot plant scale up techniques
Pilot plant scale up techniquesPilot plant scale up techniques
Pilot plant scale up techniques
 
Pilot plant scaleup techniques used in pharmaceutical manufacturing
Pilot plant scaleup techniques used in pharmaceutical manufacturingPilot plant scaleup techniques used in pharmaceutical manufacturing
Pilot plant scaleup techniques used in pharmaceutical manufacturing
 
Pilot Plant Scale Up Techniques.pdf
Pilot Plant Scale Up Techniques.pdfPilot Plant Scale Up Techniques.pdf
Pilot Plant Scale Up Techniques.pdf
 
Pilot scale up of tablets
Pilot scale up of tabletsPilot scale up of tablets
Pilot scale up of tablets
 
Scale up & Pilot plant concept.pptx
Scale up & Pilot plant concept.pptxScale up & Pilot plant concept.pptx
Scale up & Pilot plant concept.pptx
 
Ak.pptx
Ak.pptxAk.pptx
Ak.pptx
 
Scale up process or Bioreactor scale up or Upstream process
Scale up process or Bioreactor scale up or Upstream processScale up process or Bioreactor scale up or Upstream process
Scale up process or Bioreactor scale up or Upstream process
 
PILOT PLANT SCALE-UP TECHNIQUES ppt.pptx
PILOT PLANT SCALE-UP TECHNIQUES ppt.pptxPILOT PLANT SCALE-UP TECHNIQUES ppt.pptx
PILOT PLANT SCALE-UP TECHNIQUES ppt.pptx
 
Pilot plant scale up techniques (1)
Pilot plant scale up techniques (1)Pilot plant scale up techniques (1)
Pilot plant scale up techniques (1)
 
Pilot plant scale up technique
Pilot plant scale up techniquePilot plant scale up technique
Pilot plant scale up technique
 
pilot plant scaleup techniques.pptx
pilot plant scaleup techniques.pptxpilot plant scaleup techniques.pptx
pilot plant scaleup techniques.pptx
 
Pilot plant scale up technique
Pilot plant scale up techniquePilot plant scale up technique
Pilot plant scale up technique
 
Pilot Plant Scale up Technique Ppt.pdf
Pilot Plant Scale up Technique Ppt.pdfPilot Plant Scale up Technique Ppt.pdf
Pilot Plant Scale up Technique Ppt.pdf
 
Pilot plant scale up.
Pilot plant scale up.Pilot plant scale up.
Pilot plant scale up.
 
Pilot plant scaleup.pptx
Pilot plant scaleup.pptxPilot plant scaleup.pptx
Pilot plant scaleup.pptx
 
Pharmaceutical validation
Pharmaceutical validationPharmaceutical validation
Pharmaceutical validation
 
Process validation
Process validationProcess validation
Process validation
 
Introduction to pilot plant and scale up technology
Introduction to pilot plant and scale up technologyIntroduction to pilot plant and scale up technology
Introduction to pilot plant and scale up technology
 

More from Dr. Pavan Kundur

More from Dr. Pavan Kundur (20)

Auto Immune Diosorder are conditions in which your immune system mistakenly d...
Auto Immune Diosorder are conditions in which your immune system mistakenly d...Auto Immune Diosorder are conditions in which your immune system mistakenly d...
Auto Immune Diosorder are conditions in which your immune system mistakenly d...
 
Biology For Engineers Module 3 / HUMAN ORGAN SYSTEMS AND BIO-DESIGNS - 2
Biology For Engineers  Module 3 / HUMAN ORGAN SYSTEMS AND BIO-DESIGNS - 2 Biology For Engineers  Module 3 / HUMAN ORGAN SYSTEMS AND BIO-DESIGNS - 2
Biology For Engineers Module 3 / HUMAN ORGAN SYSTEMS AND BIO-DESIGNS - 2
 
Biology for Engineers Module - 5 Trends in Bioengineering
Biology for Engineers Module - 5 Trends in BioengineeringBiology for Engineers Module - 5 Trends in Bioengineering
Biology for Engineers Module - 5 Trends in Bioengineering
 
Biology for engineers Module 4 pdf.pdf
Biology for engineers Module 4 pdf.pdfBiology for engineers Module 4 pdf.pdf
Biology for engineers Module 4 pdf.pdf
 
Module 2:- HUMAN ORGAN SYSTEMS AND BIO DESIGNS
Module 2:- HUMAN ORGAN SYSTEMS AND BIO DESIGNSModule 2:- HUMAN ORGAN SYSTEMS AND BIO DESIGNS
Module 2:- HUMAN ORGAN SYSTEMS AND BIO DESIGNS
 
DNA Preparation for sequencing
DNA Preparation for sequencingDNA Preparation for sequencing
DNA Preparation for sequencing
 
Introduction to Health
Introduction to HealthIntroduction to Health
Introduction to Health
 
Hypersensitivity
Hypersensitivity Hypersensitivity
Hypersensitivity
 
Artificial Intelligence in Agriculture
Artificial Intelligence in AgricultureArtificial Intelligence in Agriculture
Artificial Intelligence in Agriculture
 
Preparing Genomic DNA for Sequencing
Preparing Genomic DNA for SequencingPreparing Genomic DNA for Sequencing
Preparing Genomic DNA for Sequencing
 
Plant tissue culture
Plant tissue culturePlant tissue culture
Plant tissue culture
 
Terminator Gene Technology
Terminator Gene TechnologyTerminator Gene Technology
Terminator Gene Technology
 
Golden Rice
Golden Rice Golden Rice
Golden Rice
 
Bt Cotton Development Stages
Bt Cotton Development StagesBt Cotton Development Stages
Bt Cotton Development Stages
 
Plant Growth Regulators
Plant Growth RegulatorsPlant Growth Regulators
Plant Growth Regulators
 
What Next After B.Sc., Biotechnology and Microbiology Avenues / Careers
What Next After B.Sc., Biotechnology and Microbiology Avenues / CareersWhat Next After B.Sc., Biotechnology and Microbiology Avenues / Careers
What Next After B.Sc., Biotechnology and Microbiology Avenues / Careers
 
Hybridization Techniques in Crop Improvement
Hybridization Techniques in Crop ImprovementHybridization Techniques in Crop Improvement
Hybridization Techniques in Crop Improvement
 
Crop improvement / Space breeding
Crop improvement / Space breeding Crop improvement / Space breeding
Crop improvement / Space breeding
 
Scope of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology
Scope of Industrial Microbiology and BiotechnologyScope of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology
Scope of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology
 
Biochemical tests for characterization of bacteria
Biochemical tests for characterization of bacteriaBiochemical tests for characterization of bacteria
Biochemical tests for characterization of bacteria
 

Recently uploaded

Spellings Wk 4 and Wk 5 for Grade 4 at CAPS
Spellings Wk 4 and Wk 5 for Grade 4 at CAPSSpellings Wk 4 and Wk 5 for Grade 4 at CAPS
Spellings Wk 4 and Wk 5 for Grade 4 at CAPS
AnaAcapella
 
SPLICE Working Group: Reusable Code Examples
SPLICE Working Group:Reusable Code ExamplesSPLICE Working Group:Reusable Code Examples
SPLICE Working Group: Reusable Code Examples
Peter Brusilovsky
 
會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文
會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文
會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文
中 央社
 
會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽
會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽
會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽
中 央社
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Spellings Wk 4 and Wk 5 for Grade 4 at CAPS
Spellings Wk 4 and Wk 5 for Grade 4 at CAPSSpellings Wk 4 and Wk 5 for Grade 4 at CAPS
Spellings Wk 4 and Wk 5 for Grade 4 at CAPS
 
Graduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English (v3).pptx
Graduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English (v3).pptxGraduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English (v3).pptx
Graduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English (v3).pptx
 
Sternal Fractures & Dislocations - EMGuidewire Radiology Reading Room
Sternal Fractures & Dislocations - EMGuidewire Radiology Reading RoomSternal Fractures & Dislocations - EMGuidewire Radiology Reading Room
Sternal Fractures & Dislocations - EMGuidewire Radiology Reading Room
 
Andreas Schleicher presents at the launch of What does child empowerment mean...
Andreas Schleicher presents at the launch of What does child empowerment mean...Andreas Schleicher presents at the launch of What does child empowerment mean...
Andreas Schleicher presents at the launch of What does child empowerment mean...
 
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnerships
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community PartnershipsSpring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnerships
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnerships
 
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024
 
Observing-Correct-Grammar-in-Making-Definitions.pptx
Observing-Correct-Grammar-in-Making-Definitions.pptxObserving-Correct-Grammar-in-Making-Definitions.pptx
Observing-Correct-Grammar-in-Making-Definitions.pptx
 
AIM of Education-Teachers Training-2024.ppt
AIM of Education-Teachers Training-2024.pptAIM of Education-Teachers Training-2024.ppt
AIM of Education-Teachers Training-2024.ppt
 
Including Mental Health Support in Project Delivery, 14 May.pdf
Including Mental Health Support in Project Delivery, 14 May.pdfIncluding Mental Health Support in Project Delivery, 14 May.pdf
Including Mental Health Support in Project Delivery, 14 May.pdf
 
SPLICE Working Group: Reusable Code Examples
SPLICE Working Group:Reusable Code ExamplesSPLICE Working Group:Reusable Code Examples
SPLICE Working Group: Reusable Code Examples
 
Analyzing and resolving a communication crisis in Dhaka textiles LTD.pptx
Analyzing and resolving a communication crisis in Dhaka textiles LTD.pptxAnalyzing and resolving a communication crisis in Dhaka textiles LTD.pptx
Analyzing and resolving a communication crisis in Dhaka textiles LTD.pptx
 
MOOD STABLIZERS DRUGS.pptx
MOOD     STABLIZERS           DRUGS.pptxMOOD     STABLIZERS           DRUGS.pptx
MOOD STABLIZERS DRUGS.pptx
 
How to Manage Website in Odoo 17 Studio App.pptx
How to Manage Website in Odoo 17 Studio App.pptxHow to Manage Website in Odoo 17 Studio App.pptx
How to Manage Website in Odoo 17 Studio App.pptx
 
Trauma-Informed Leadership - Five Practical Principles
Trauma-Informed Leadership - Five Practical PrinciplesTrauma-Informed Leadership - Five Practical Principles
Trauma-Informed Leadership - Five Practical Principles
 
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
 
會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文
會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文
會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文
 
ESSENTIAL of (CS/IT/IS) class 07 (Networks)
ESSENTIAL of (CS/IT/IS) class 07 (Networks)ESSENTIAL of (CS/IT/IS) class 07 (Networks)
ESSENTIAL of (CS/IT/IS) class 07 (Networks)
 
會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽
會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽
會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽
 
Stl Algorithms in C++ jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj
Stl Algorithms in C++ jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjStl Algorithms in C++ jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj
Stl Algorithms in C++ jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj
 
diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....
diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....
diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....
 

Fermentation -- Scale up Technology

  • 1. Scale up of fermentation Dr. Pavan J Kundur, M.Sc., Ph.D., Assistant Professor Department of Biotechnology P C Jabin Science College, Hubballi, Karnataka, India
  • 2. Scaleup•Scale up studies refers to the act of using results obtained from laboratory studies for designing a prototype and a pilot plant process; construction a pilot plant and using pilot plant data for designing and constructing a full scale plant.
  • 5. Why conduct Scale up Studies? • A pilot plant allows investigation of a product and process on an intermediate scale before large amounts of money are committed to full-scale production. • It is usually not possible to predict the effects of a many- fold increase in scale. • Scale up studies are studies carried out at the laboratory or even pilot plant scale fermentors to yield data that could be used to to extrapolate and build the large scale industrial fermentors with sufficient confidence it will function properly with all its behaviours anticipated.
  • 6. Importance of scale up studies • More important during scale up exercises is that we are trying to build industrial size fermentor capable or close of producing the fermentation products as efficient as those produced in small scale fermentors. • It must be appreciated as the size of fermentation increases during scale up various parameters measured might not show a predictable linear co-relationships. Certain parameters changes. Some remained constant. Some parameters need to be modified and adjusted during scale up studies. The objective is to try to get the same fermentation efficiency as obtained in small scale fermentors at the most economical values.
  • 7. •Determining the various operational parameters for optimized oxygen supply to the fermentation process. •Selection of optimum operative modes of the fermentor •Determining the changes in rheological properties and its effect on the fermentation process. •Modeling and formulation of process controls •Sensors and controls There are few crucial studies which will only be answered by carrying it out on the pilot plant such as:
  • 8. Steps in Scale-Up • Define product economics based on projected market size and competitive selling and provide guidance for allowable manufacturing costs • Conduct laboratory studies and scale-up planning at the same time • Define key rate-controlling steps in the proposed process • Conduct preliminary larger-than-laboratory studies with equipment to be used in rate-controlling step to aid in plant design • Design and construct a pilot plant including provisions for process and environmental controls, cleaning and sanitizing systems, packaging and waste handling systems, and meeting regulatory agency requirements • Evaluate pilot plant results (product and process) including process economics to make any corrections and a decision on whether or not to proceed with a full scale plant development
  • 9. INITIAL SCALE UP STUDIES Most scale up studies are usually carried at different phases involving different scales of fermentors. Preliminary work are carried out at the level of petri dishes and small scale laboratory fermentors to establish whether the process is technically viable, meaning it is possible to produce such fermentation process and the products on the small scale. Additional parameters not provided by petri dishes studies and for more confidence are obtained by carrying further studies using submerged liquid fermentation using various sizes laboratory scale fermentors and even a pilot plant fermentor.
  • 10. Rules followed while doing scale-up • There are a few rules of the thumb followed when doing scale up studies such as: 1. Similarity in the geometry and configuration of fermentors used in scaling up • 2. A minimum of three or four stages of increment in the scaling up of the volume of fermentation studies. Each jump in scale should be by a magnitude or power increase and not an increase of a few litres capacity. Slight increase in the working volume would not yield significant data for scale up operation
  • 11. A pilot plant can be used for • Evaluating the results of laboratory studies and making product and process corrections and improvements • Producing small quantities of product for sensory, chemical, microbiological evaluations, limited market testing or furnishing samples to potential customers, shelf-live and storage stability studies • Determining possible salable by-products or waste stream requiring treatment before discharge • Providing data that can be used in making a decision on whether or not to proceed to a full-scale production process; and in the case of a positive decision, designing and constructing a full-size plant or modifying an existing plant
  • 12. Studies carried out during scale up 1. Inoculum development 2. Sterilization establishing the correct sterilization cycle at larger loads 3. Environmental parameters such as nutrient availability, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, dissolved carbon dioxide, 4. Shear conditions, foam production