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Types of Retail Formats
By: Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM
Reference :RM- Swapna Pradhan, RM-Levy and Weitz
The changing structure of retailing
Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM2
• All dynamic developments in retailing
(department stores, and hypermarkets) are
responses to a changing environment
• Changing customer demand, new technologies,
intense competition, and social change create
new opportunities
• The Internet and web technologies have itself
created a myriad of opportunities for web based
business model of retailing
• This has created competition for the retailer in
order to maintain and grow its share of market
and compete within its band of retailers
Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM3
Role of Business Model
Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM4
Product /
services
Pricing policy
communication
Size and look
– store design
location
1. Trends in market
positioning
2. Competition
3. The Organizational
capabilities
Retailer Characteristics affecting business
model
Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM5
 Every retailer satisfies the needs of specific market
segment (Mass/ Exclusive/ Speciality)
 Retailers offer merchandise assortment and variety
 Retailers adopt a specific pricing strategy
(discount/ competitive/ premium)
 Each retailer develops its own promotional mix
 On the basis of product mix, a retailer decides
channel of distribution and thus location of store
 Level of customer service (self-service/ Assorted
Services / Full service)
Variety and Assortment
Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM6
 Variety represents the number of merchandise
categories a retailer offers (Width of product line)
 Assortment is the number of different items in a
merchandise category (depth of the merchandise)
 Each different item of merchandise is called as
Stock Keeping Unit (SKU) (Length )
Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM7
Men Formal
Shirts
Men Casual
Trousers
Women Ethnic
Wear Kurti
Women
Western Tops
Arrow Lee Cooper Biba AND
Louise Phillip Levis Rangmanch Chemistry
John Miller Bare W
Variety – 4 product lines
Assortment – a type of Arrow shirt – 4 colour X 4 sizes = 16
SKU – 11 different items of merchandise
• Bigbazaar, Pantaloons, Shopper’s Stop all have formal shirt
section.
• Bigbazaar has many other categories (more variety)
• Under shirt section, Shopper’s Stop has more number of
brands, patterns, sizes etc. than Bigbazaar thus (more
SKUs)
• Arrow has more assortment as compared than shopper’s
stop. (more depth)
Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM8
Classification of retail
formats
Store based
retailing
Forms of
Ownership
Independent Retailer
Chain Retailer
Franchise
Leased
Consumer co-
operative
Merchandise
Offered
Convenience Store
Supermarket
Hypermarket
Specialty Stores
Departmental Store
Off-price Retailers
Factory Outlets
Catalogue Showroom
Non-store
retailing
Direct Selling
Mail Order
Tele Marketing
Automated
Vending
Service
Retailing
Banks
Car Rentals
Other
services
Swapna Pradhan Page 70 onwards
Classification on the basis of
Ownership
Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM9
Classification on the basis of Ownership
Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM10
 Independent Retailer
 A Chain Retailer / Corporate Chain Retailer
 Franchising
 Leased Department
 Consumer Cooperative
Independent Retailer
Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM11
 Owns and operates only one retail outlet
 Either propriety/ joint-family/ partnership
 Local baniya/ kirana stores/ apparel stores
 +ve – Good rapport with customers, flexible and
thus can react quickly to market changes and
customer needs
 -ve – no economies of scale and thus low
bargaining power with suppliers
A Chain Retailer/ Corporate Retail Chain
Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM12
 When two or more outlets are under a common
ownership, it is called a retail chain.
 These stores have similar merchandise offered to
customers along with similarities in ambience,
advertising and promotions
 E.g. Arrow, Global Desi, Van Heusen,
departmental stores like Pantaloons, Westside,
Planet M, Foodbazaar
 +ve- bargaining power, cost effectiveness in
advertising and sales promotion
 -ve – no consideration to local preferences and
inability to manage each store, heavy investment
Franchising
Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM13
 A franchise is a contractual agreement
between the franchiser and the franchisee,
allowing franchisee to conduct a business
under an established name as per a particular
business format in return for a fee or
compensation.
 Types
 A product or trade mark franchise - e.g. Archie’s
 A business format franchise – e.g. McDonald
Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM14
Franchise Agreement
Franchisee Franchiser
Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM15
 Get a right to use
brand name
 Agrees to operate the
outlet in accordance
with procedures
prescribed
 Pays a lump sum +
royalty on all sales
 Provides assistance in
locating and building
the store, developing
the products and
services sold, training
managers and
advertising support
Leased Departments
Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM16
 Shop-in-shops
 When a section of a department in a retail
store is leased or rented to an outside party, it
is termed as a leased department
 Only display a fraction of the merchandise
sold
 Aim to make products available
 E.g. CCD in Shopper’s Stop
Consumer Co-operative
Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM17
 Aim to provide essential commodities at
reasonable prices
 E.g. Apna Bazaar etc.
Classification on the basis of the
Merchandise Offered
1. Food Retailers
2. General Retailers
+
Target Market
Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM18
Convenience Stores
Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM19
 Relatively small, located near residential areas,
open for long hours, limited line of convenience
products like egg, bread, groceries
 Provide limited variety and assortment of
merchandise at convenient locations with speedy
check-outs
 Size range from 3000-8000 sq.ft
 Targeted at customers who want to make quick
purchases
 Near petrol pumps + local baniya
Supermarkets
Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM20
 Large, low cost, low margin, high-volume, self-
service operations, designed to meet needs for
food, groceries and other non-food related items.
 Area -400 sqm – 2500 sqm (4305 sqft-26910 sqft)
 Internationally – 8000-20000 sqft
 At least 70% of the merchandise comprising of
foodstuff and everyday commodities
 Carry approximately 30000 SKUs with limited
assortment
 E.g. Kroger, Safeway, ALDI, Tesco in US
 E.g. Foodworld, Foodbazaar, Reliance Fresh in
India
Variations in Supermarket
Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM21
 Over the years, variations in this business
model have emerged
 Superstore
 A variation in supermarket
 Larger than conventional supermarket with at
least 25000 items and more non-food such
general merchandise, health and beauty etc.
 Combination store
 Is a superstore and full-line pharmacy with
general merchandise and health & beauty care
items accounting for at least 15 % of sales
Hypermarket
Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM22
 Combination of a department store + a supermarket
 Invention by Carrefour in Paris 1963
 A retail store with a sale area of over 2500 sq.m with at
least 35% selling space devoted to non-grocery products
 Typical area – 80,000-220,000 sqft
 Offers variety of food and non-food products like
clothes, jewelry, books CDS, electrical , computers etc
 Stock SKUs 40000-60000
 Cheapest prices, one-stop shopping, a destination offer
 E.g. Wal-Mart Supercenters, Target (SuperTarget), Tesco
Extra Stores
 E.g. Bigbazaar, HyperCity etc.
Department Stores
Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM23
 Aristide Boucicaut, the son of a successful hat maker founded the
first department store Bon Marche’ in Saint-Germain, Paris in the
year 1838.
 Large-scale retail outlet, often multi-leveled, with multiple product
categories, Pleasing ambience, attentive service
 Carry broad variety and deep assortment, offer customer service
and organize their store into distinct departments. Selling fashion
clothing, accessories, cosmetics, household items
 Around 7000sqm internationally (~70,000 sqft)
 Avg. Indian store 20000-40000 sq.ft. with avg. 50,000-1,00,000
SKU’s
 E.g. Marks & Spencers, Sears, J. C. Penny
 E.g. Shopper’s Stop, Lifestyle etc.
Shoppers’ Stop
Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM24
 The company owns 172
stores in 25 cities with
4.81 million sq.ft space
across eight store formats
 Over 3.3 million
customers are a part of
the First Citizen Loyalty
Programme
Speciality Stores
Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM25
 A store specializing in a particular type of
merchandise or a single product of durable goods
like home furniture, consumer electronics,
apparel, jewellery etc.
 Very specific market segment
 High level of service and product information
made available to consumers
 Narrow product lines (variety), deep assortments
 Internationally area under 8000 sq.ft
 E.g. Gap, Ikea
 E.g. Fabindia, Tanishq, Croma
Off Price retailers
Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM26
 The merchandise is sold at less than retail prices
 Generally retailers buy manufacturer’s unpopular or
unsold inventory at a cheaper rate and sell it at deep
discounts. Merchandise may being odd sizes,
unpopular colours or with minor defects
 It might be manufacturer owned / speciality owned /
department store
 Outlets are seen as a means of increasing business
 E.g. Levi’s Factory outlet, Pantaloon’s Factory Outlet
Catalogue showrooms
Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM27
 Usually specialise in hard goods such as
housewares, jewellery and consumer electronics,
paints
 Customer goes through catalogue and decides
what does he/she wants to buy
 E.g. Argos is US
Drug Store
Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM28
 Is a speciality store that concentrate on health
and personal grooming merchandise
 Pharmaceuticals often represent over 50% of
the sales
Big Box Retailers
Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM29
 Over the years, the landscapes of cities and
towns across the world changed thus evolved
larger formats ..that are termed as BIG BOX
RETAILERS
 Big box retailers are large, industrial-style
buildings or stores with 20,000-2,00,000 sq.ft.
 Sub-groups
 Discount department stores
 Category killers
 Outlet stores
 Warehouse clubs
Discount department store
Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM30
 80000sqft to 1,30,000 sqft
 Wide variety including automative parts , home
furnishing, apparel , beauty products etc.

Category killers
Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM31
 It is a specialty retailer which offers a very large
selection of product category and economical prices.
 They focus on single category and stock deep
 E.g. Toys R Us stock 10000 toy items as compared
3,000 in department store
 They buy and sell at cheap rates thus dominate the
category
 Internationally 20,000-1,20,000 sq.ft.
Outlet stores
Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM32
 20,000 -80000 sqft,
 Typically discount stores of major department stores
 E.g. Nordstrom Rack or J. C. Penny outlets
Warehouse clubs
Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM33
 104,000-1,70,000 sq.ft.
 Offers variety of goods @wholesale price
 Limited products (5,000 or less)
 E.g. Costco Wholesale, Sam’s Club
Other Formats
Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM34
1. Super warehouse store – hybrid warehouse /
superstore with 50000 - plus items and full
range of service departments, featuring high-
quality perishables and reduced prices
2. Limited assortment store – low price outlet with
minimal service and fewer than 2000 items.
Numerous private label
3. Supercenter- large food drug combination and
mass merchandiser 1,70000 sq ft (40% grocery
items @loss leader prices)
4. Wholesale club
5. Dollar store
Airport Retailing
Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM35
 Airports in many cities of the western works serve
as mini shopping plazas for travellers
 It is different from mall retailing with huge
margins / sales per sq. Foot-
 much smaller than even convenience stores-
logistics issue of getting goods to airport is
complex
 E.g. Duty Free Shops
Non-Store Retailing
Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM36
Direct Selling
Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM37
 Involves making a personal contact with the
end consumer at home or at the place of work
 Highly interactive form of retailing
 Party plan or Multi-level network
 E.g. Amway, Herbalife, Tupperware
Direct Response marketing
Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM38
 Catalogue retailing / mail order
 Appropriate for speciality products- targeted
catalogues to appeal to narrow target markets
 Television retailing
 Here existing and prospective customers watch a
TV programme demonstrating a product and then
place an order for the same by telephone, e-mail
or Internet
(For example: Asian Sky Shop, TSN, TVC, TSNM)
 E-tailing / Electronic Shopping
Information kiosks
Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM39
 Have emerged in the western markets as a new
type of electronic retailing
 These kiosks , comprising of computer terminals
housed inside and a touch screen on outside to
provide customers with product and company
information and may actually aid the customers
making a purchase
Automated Vending / Kiosks
Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM40
 A form of non-store retailing where products or
services are placed in a machine and are dispensed
to customers when they deposit cash or use plastic
money (credit or debit card)
 Most impersonal form of retailing
 Vending machines offer consumers greater
convenience 24 hours a day, and have replaced
many services formally requiring a human interface
 Popular in soft-drinks, candies etc. along with bank
ATMS
The Cash and Carry
Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM41
 Customers do their own order picking, pay in cash
and carry the merchandise away.
 It’s a wholesale format that aids small retailers
and businessmen.
 It offers a wide assortment of goods, food and
non-food items – thus provides one stop shopping
and allows customers to save time
 Longer working hours and seven day working
enable customers do the shopping at a convenient
time
 E.g. Metro AG and Shoprite
Services Retail
Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM42
Services Retail
Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM43
 Instead of products, they sell services to the end consumers
 Airlines, Banks, Repair, Child care, Pre-school, Education,
Financial Services, Fitness, Healthcare, Hotels, Quick
Service Restaurants etc.
India Specific Retail Models
Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM44
India Specific
Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM45
 The Public Distribution System
 ITC e-choupal
 Hariyali Kisan Bazaar
 Godrej Adhar
Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM46
Classification of retail
formats
Store based
retailing
Forms of
Ownership
Independent Retailer
Chain Retailer
Franchise
Leased
Consumer co-
operative
Merchandise
Offered
Convenience Store
Supermarket
Hypermarket
Specialty Stores
Departmental Store
Off-price Retailers
Factory Outlets
Catalogue Showroom
Non-store
retailing
Direct Selling
Mail Order
Tele Marketing
Automated
Vending
Service
Retailing
Banks
Car Rentals
Other
services
Swapna Pradhan Page 70 onwards
Airport
Retailing
Cash and Carry
India Specific
format

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Retail formats

  • 1. Types of Retail Formats By: Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM Reference :RM- Swapna Pradhan, RM-Levy and Weitz
  • 2. The changing structure of retailing Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM2 • All dynamic developments in retailing (department stores, and hypermarkets) are responses to a changing environment • Changing customer demand, new technologies, intense competition, and social change create new opportunities • The Internet and web technologies have itself created a myriad of opportunities for web based business model of retailing • This has created competition for the retailer in order to maintain and grow its share of market and compete within its band of retailers
  • 4. Role of Business Model Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM4 Product / services Pricing policy communication Size and look – store design location 1. Trends in market positioning 2. Competition 3. The Organizational capabilities
  • 5. Retailer Characteristics affecting business model Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM5  Every retailer satisfies the needs of specific market segment (Mass/ Exclusive/ Speciality)  Retailers offer merchandise assortment and variety  Retailers adopt a specific pricing strategy (discount/ competitive/ premium)  Each retailer develops its own promotional mix  On the basis of product mix, a retailer decides channel of distribution and thus location of store  Level of customer service (self-service/ Assorted Services / Full service)
  • 6. Variety and Assortment Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM6  Variety represents the number of merchandise categories a retailer offers (Width of product line)  Assortment is the number of different items in a merchandise category (depth of the merchandise)  Each different item of merchandise is called as Stock Keeping Unit (SKU) (Length )
  • 7. Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM7 Men Formal Shirts Men Casual Trousers Women Ethnic Wear Kurti Women Western Tops Arrow Lee Cooper Biba AND Louise Phillip Levis Rangmanch Chemistry John Miller Bare W Variety – 4 product lines Assortment – a type of Arrow shirt – 4 colour X 4 sizes = 16 SKU – 11 different items of merchandise • Bigbazaar, Pantaloons, Shopper’s Stop all have formal shirt section. • Bigbazaar has many other categories (more variety) • Under shirt section, Shopper’s Stop has more number of brands, patterns, sizes etc. than Bigbazaar thus (more SKUs) • Arrow has more assortment as compared than shopper’s stop. (more depth)
  • 8. Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM8 Classification of retail formats Store based retailing Forms of Ownership Independent Retailer Chain Retailer Franchise Leased Consumer co- operative Merchandise Offered Convenience Store Supermarket Hypermarket Specialty Stores Departmental Store Off-price Retailers Factory Outlets Catalogue Showroom Non-store retailing Direct Selling Mail Order Tele Marketing Automated Vending Service Retailing Banks Car Rentals Other services Swapna Pradhan Page 70 onwards
  • 9. Classification on the basis of Ownership Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM9
  • 10. Classification on the basis of Ownership Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM10  Independent Retailer  A Chain Retailer / Corporate Chain Retailer  Franchising  Leased Department  Consumer Cooperative
  • 11. Independent Retailer Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM11  Owns and operates only one retail outlet  Either propriety/ joint-family/ partnership  Local baniya/ kirana stores/ apparel stores  +ve – Good rapport with customers, flexible and thus can react quickly to market changes and customer needs  -ve – no economies of scale and thus low bargaining power with suppliers
  • 12. A Chain Retailer/ Corporate Retail Chain Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM12  When two or more outlets are under a common ownership, it is called a retail chain.  These stores have similar merchandise offered to customers along with similarities in ambience, advertising and promotions  E.g. Arrow, Global Desi, Van Heusen, departmental stores like Pantaloons, Westside, Planet M, Foodbazaar  +ve- bargaining power, cost effectiveness in advertising and sales promotion  -ve – no consideration to local preferences and inability to manage each store, heavy investment
  • 13. Franchising Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM13  A franchise is a contractual agreement between the franchiser and the franchisee, allowing franchisee to conduct a business under an established name as per a particular business format in return for a fee or compensation.  Types  A product or trade mark franchise - e.g. Archie’s  A business format franchise – e.g. McDonald
  • 15. Franchise Agreement Franchisee Franchiser Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM15  Get a right to use brand name  Agrees to operate the outlet in accordance with procedures prescribed  Pays a lump sum + royalty on all sales  Provides assistance in locating and building the store, developing the products and services sold, training managers and advertising support
  • 16. Leased Departments Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM16  Shop-in-shops  When a section of a department in a retail store is leased or rented to an outside party, it is termed as a leased department  Only display a fraction of the merchandise sold  Aim to make products available  E.g. CCD in Shopper’s Stop
  • 17. Consumer Co-operative Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM17  Aim to provide essential commodities at reasonable prices  E.g. Apna Bazaar etc.
  • 18. Classification on the basis of the Merchandise Offered 1. Food Retailers 2. General Retailers + Target Market Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM18
  • 19. Convenience Stores Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM19  Relatively small, located near residential areas, open for long hours, limited line of convenience products like egg, bread, groceries  Provide limited variety and assortment of merchandise at convenient locations with speedy check-outs  Size range from 3000-8000 sq.ft  Targeted at customers who want to make quick purchases  Near petrol pumps + local baniya
  • 20. Supermarkets Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM20  Large, low cost, low margin, high-volume, self- service operations, designed to meet needs for food, groceries and other non-food related items.  Area -400 sqm – 2500 sqm (4305 sqft-26910 sqft)  Internationally – 8000-20000 sqft  At least 70% of the merchandise comprising of foodstuff and everyday commodities  Carry approximately 30000 SKUs with limited assortment  E.g. Kroger, Safeway, ALDI, Tesco in US  E.g. Foodworld, Foodbazaar, Reliance Fresh in India
  • 21. Variations in Supermarket Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM21  Over the years, variations in this business model have emerged  Superstore  A variation in supermarket  Larger than conventional supermarket with at least 25000 items and more non-food such general merchandise, health and beauty etc.  Combination store  Is a superstore and full-line pharmacy with general merchandise and health & beauty care items accounting for at least 15 % of sales
  • 22. Hypermarket Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM22  Combination of a department store + a supermarket  Invention by Carrefour in Paris 1963  A retail store with a sale area of over 2500 sq.m with at least 35% selling space devoted to non-grocery products  Typical area – 80,000-220,000 sqft  Offers variety of food and non-food products like clothes, jewelry, books CDS, electrical , computers etc  Stock SKUs 40000-60000  Cheapest prices, one-stop shopping, a destination offer  E.g. Wal-Mart Supercenters, Target (SuperTarget), Tesco Extra Stores  E.g. Bigbazaar, HyperCity etc.
  • 23. Department Stores Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM23  Aristide Boucicaut, the son of a successful hat maker founded the first department store Bon Marche’ in Saint-Germain, Paris in the year 1838.  Large-scale retail outlet, often multi-leveled, with multiple product categories, Pleasing ambience, attentive service  Carry broad variety and deep assortment, offer customer service and organize their store into distinct departments. Selling fashion clothing, accessories, cosmetics, household items  Around 7000sqm internationally (~70,000 sqft)  Avg. Indian store 20000-40000 sq.ft. with avg. 50,000-1,00,000 SKU’s  E.g. Marks & Spencers, Sears, J. C. Penny  E.g. Shopper’s Stop, Lifestyle etc.
  • 24. Shoppers’ Stop Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM24  The company owns 172 stores in 25 cities with 4.81 million sq.ft space across eight store formats  Over 3.3 million customers are a part of the First Citizen Loyalty Programme
  • 25. Speciality Stores Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM25  A store specializing in a particular type of merchandise or a single product of durable goods like home furniture, consumer electronics, apparel, jewellery etc.  Very specific market segment  High level of service and product information made available to consumers  Narrow product lines (variety), deep assortments  Internationally area under 8000 sq.ft  E.g. Gap, Ikea  E.g. Fabindia, Tanishq, Croma
  • 26. Off Price retailers Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM26  The merchandise is sold at less than retail prices  Generally retailers buy manufacturer’s unpopular or unsold inventory at a cheaper rate and sell it at deep discounts. Merchandise may being odd sizes, unpopular colours or with minor defects  It might be manufacturer owned / speciality owned / department store  Outlets are seen as a means of increasing business  E.g. Levi’s Factory outlet, Pantaloon’s Factory Outlet
  • 27. Catalogue showrooms Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM27  Usually specialise in hard goods such as housewares, jewellery and consumer electronics, paints  Customer goes through catalogue and decides what does he/she wants to buy  E.g. Argos is US
  • 28. Drug Store Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM28  Is a speciality store that concentrate on health and personal grooming merchandise  Pharmaceuticals often represent over 50% of the sales
  • 29. Big Box Retailers Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM29  Over the years, the landscapes of cities and towns across the world changed thus evolved larger formats ..that are termed as BIG BOX RETAILERS  Big box retailers are large, industrial-style buildings or stores with 20,000-2,00,000 sq.ft.  Sub-groups  Discount department stores  Category killers  Outlet stores  Warehouse clubs
  • 30. Discount department store Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM30  80000sqft to 1,30,000 sqft  Wide variety including automative parts , home furnishing, apparel , beauty products etc. 
  • 31. Category killers Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM31  It is a specialty retailer which offers a very large selection of product category and economical prices.  They focus on single category and stock deep  E.g. Toys R Us stock 10000 toy items as compared 3,000 in department store  They buy and sell at cheap rates thus dominate the category  Internationally 20,000-1,20,000 sq.ft.
  • 32. Outlet stores Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM32  20,000 -80000 sqft,  Typically discount stores of major department stores  E.g. Nordstrom Rack or J. C. Penny outlets
  • 33. Warehouse clubs Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM33  104,000-1,70,000 sq.ft.  Offers variety of goods @wholesale price  Limited products (5,000 or less)  E.g. Costco Wholesale, Sam’s Club
  • 34. Other Formats Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM34 1. Super warehouse store – hybrid warehouse / superstore with 50000 - plus items and full range of service departments, featuring high- quality perishables and reduced prices 2. Limited assortment store – low price outlet with minimal service and fewer than 2000 items. Numerous private label 3. Supercenter- large food drug combination and mass merchandiser 1,70000 sq ft (40% grocery items @loss leader prices) 4. Wholesale club 5. Dollar store
  • 35. Airport Retailing Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM35  Airports in many cities of the western works serve as mini shopping plazas for travellers  It is different from mall retailing with huge margins / sales per sq. Foot-  much smaller than even convenience stores- logistics issue of getting goods to airport is complex  E.g. Duty Free Shops
  • 37. Direct Selling Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM37  Involves making a personal contact with the end consumer at home or at the place of work  Highly interactive form of retailing  Party plan or Multi-level network  E.g. Amway, Herbalife, Tupperware
  • 38. Direct Response marketing Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM38  Catalogue retailing / mail order  Appropriate for speciality products- targeted catalogues to appeal to narrow target markets  Television retailing  Here existing and prospective customers watch a TV programme demonstrating a product and then place an order for the same by telephone, e-mail or Internet (For example: Asian Sky Shop, TSN, TVC, TSNM)  E-tailing / Electronic Shopping
  • 39. Information kiosks Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM39  Have emerged in the western markets as a new type of electronic retailing  These kiosks , comprising of computer terminals housed inside and a touch screen on outside to provide customers with product and company information and may actually aid the customers making a purchase
  • 40. Automated Vending / Kiosks Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM40  A form of non-store retailing where products or services are placed in a machine and are dispensed to customers when they deposit cash or use plastic money (credit or debit card)  Most impersonal form of retailing  Vending machines offer consumers greater convenience 24 hours a day, and have replaced many services formally requiring a human interface  Popular in soft-drinks, candies etc. along with bank ATMS
  • 41. The Cash and Carry Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM41  Customers do their own order picking, pay in cash and carry the merchandise away.  It’s a wholesale format that aids small retailers and businessmen.  It offers a wide assortment of goods, food and non-food items – thus provides one stop shopping and allows customers to save time  Longer working hours and seven day working enable customers do the shopping at a convenient time  E.g. Metro AG and Shoprite
  • 43. Services Retail Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM43  Instead of products, they sell services to the end consumers  Airlines, Banks, Repair, Child care, Pre-school, Education, Financial Services, Fitness, Healthcare, Hotels, Quick Service Restaurants etc.
  • 44. India Specific Retail Models Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM44
  • 45. India Specific Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM45  The Public Distribution System  ITC e-choupal  Hariyali Kisan Bazaar  Godrej Adhar
  • 46. Prof. Deepa Rohit, LLIM46 Classification of retail formats Store based retailing Forms of Ownership Independent Retailer Chain Retailer Franchise Leased Consumer co- operative Merchandise Offered Convenience Store Supermarket Hypermarket Specialty Stores Departmental Store Off-price Retailers Factory Outlets Catalogue Showroom Non-store retailing Direct Selling Mail Order Tele Marketing Automated Vending Service Retailing Banks Car Rentals Other services Swapna Pradhan Page 70 onwards Airport Retailing Cash and Carry India Specific format

Editor's Notes

  1. Across the world, the hypermarkets are usually part of a retail park with other shops, cafeterias and restaurants. They almost always have their own petrol station on the site along with other facilities like cash machines, photo processing shops and pharmacies
  2. The format depends on volume sales to make money