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© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved.
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved.
Quality Maintenance
(HINSHITSU HOZEN)
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 2
Learning Objectives
Understand the key
concepts, principles
and philosophy of
Quality Maintenance
Describe the 8-step
process of Quality
Maintenance and the
key analytical tools
and techniques
Acquire knowledge
on the 4M conditions
and the prerequisites
for promoting Quality
Maintenance
NOTE: This is a PARTIAL PREVIEW. To
download the complete presentation, please
visit: https://www.oeconsulting.com.sg
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 3
Contents
4M Conditions – The Determinants of Quality
2
Key Concepts & Philosophy of Quality Maintenance
1
Key Tools and Techniques
4
The 8 Steps of Quality Maintenance
3
Towards Excellence in Quality Maintenance
5
4
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved.
“Quality is not an act,
it is a habit.”
Aristotle
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 5
The Times Demand Quality
On the shop floor
The age of technological innovation
The duty of the producer
To ensure quality that will allow the
customer to buy and use the product with
confidence and satisfaction
The producer’s task
To maintain and improve product quality
and guarantee consistency
Using equipment to build quality
into the product
Approaching the quality challenge
through equipment management
Shifting production work from
human to machines through
automation and labor-saving steps.
An increase in equipment-related
quality problems
Failures due to decreased function
exceed failures due to loss of
function (defect loss, etc.)
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 6
Traditional Inspection is a Poor Substitute for Quality
6
Traditional 100% inspection does not
provide 100% defect-free products.
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 7
Sporadic Defects and Chronic Defects
§ Recovering
measures are
required to
reduce the
level to the
original value
Extreme
value
Sporadic loss
Time
Percentage
of
Loss
Chronic loss
§ Innovative
measures are
required to
reduce the
level to the
extreme state
2 3
1
(see next slide for the cause-
countermeasures matrix)
To achieve zero defect, chronic defects have to be eliminated.
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 8
Steps of Countermeasures to Eliminate Chronic
Defects
Known
Unknown
Unknown
Known
Countermeasures
Causes
§ Apply
countermeasures
§ Establish and
perform
countermeasures
§ Perform
countermeasures
and check results
§ Apply cause and
effect analysis
§ Apply P-M analysis
2
3
1
2
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 9
Why Chronic Defects Persist
Proceeding without analyzing
the problem sufficiently
§ Jumping to conclusions about
the cause
§ Trying to solve the problem
based on experience alone
§ Not making a clear connection
between the defect and the
equipment
Thinking only within the
boundaries of one’s specialty
or a certain fixed technology
§ Not addressing other causal
factors
§ Not recognizing what has
changed in the equipment and
its operation
Chronic defects
don’t go away
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 10
Guarantee for 100% Good Parts and the 4 Major
Factors of Production (4Ms)
Guarantee for 100%
Good Parts
MATERIAL
MACHINE
METHOD
MEN / WOMEN
§ Arrangement of fundamental
conditions
§ Monitoring of operation status
§ Conformity to specifications
§ Mounting and removing of
workpiece
§ Replacement of processing
tools and jigs
§ Others
PRODUCTS Occurrence of
human mistakes
Causal abnormalities
in the equipment and
processing methods
Quality
Maintenance
Mistake-proof
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 11
Quality Maintenance is One of the Pillars of the
TPM Excellence Framework
Overview of TPM
Office
TPM
Safety,
Health
&
Environment
Autonomous
Maintenance
Planned
Maintenance
Focused
Improvement
Early
Equipment
Management
Quality
Maintenance
Education
&
Training
5S & Visual Management
TPM Goals:
Zero Defects, Zero Breakdowns,
Zero Accidents
The Quality Maintenance pillar focuses on establishing
and maintaining zero-defect conditions.
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 12
What is Quality Maintenance?
Focused Improvement
Quality Maintenance means figuring out the
equipment conditions in which defects won’t
occur, setting them up as the standards,
monitoring and measuring actual equipment
conditions over time, and confirming the
actual conditions are within the standards.
Source: Focused Equipment Improvement for TPM Teams, JIPM
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 13
Differences Between Conventional Quality
Approach and Quality Maintenance
Conventional
Quality Approach
§ A mindset that zero defect
is not possible
§ Inspect for quality and
take action after the
products are produced
§ Reactive approach
Quality
Maintenance
§ Sets zero defect as the
goal
§ Establish and maintain
the conditions to create
zero-defect products
§ Preventive approach
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 14
Quality Maintenance – Target
§ Achieve and sustain customer
complaints at zero
§ Reduce in-process defects by
50%
§ Reduce cost of quality by 50%
15
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved.
“Quality is more
important than quantity.
One home run is much
better than two
doubles.”
Steve Jobs
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 16
Basic Principles of Quality Maintenance
Defects due to
processing conditions
Defects due to
equipment precision
Defects due to
the people involved
Quality Defects
Creation of equipment that
doesn’t produce defects
Training operators who know
their equipment well
Fostering maintenance
management ability
(the ability to spot abnormalities
that may cause defects and to deal
with them quickly and correctly)
Setting standard conditions for
equipment that doesn’t produce
defects
Management of standard
conditions that don’t produce
defects
Zero defects
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 17
Prerequisites for Promoting Quality Maintenance
Developing an equipment-competent workforce
2
Eliminating forced deterioration
1
Maintenance prevention design (‘MP design’) of
new products and new machinery
4
Activities for achieving zero equipment failures
3
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 18
Poor Maintenance Practices and Operating
Conditions Create Forced Deterioration
Forced
Deterioration
Time
Equipment
Reliability
Accelerated
Deterioration
Natural
Deterioration
Basic Condition
§ Failing to maintain
basic conditions
§ Failing to operate
within specified values
§ Failure to control
deterioration
§ Lack of skills and
knowledge
It is essential to eliminate forced deterioration through Autonomous Maintenance,
thereby extending and stabilizing component lifetimes.
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 19
What are the 4Ms?
MATERIALS
Do the materials meet the required
specifications? Do the materials from
the previous process meet your input
requirements?
MEN / WOMEN
Do our employees have the skill and
motivation to do what is expected of
them safely, consistently and effectively?
Do they adhere to standards?
MACHINES
Are the processing equipment, jigs and
tools, and measuring equipment capable
of safe and reliable output at the
desired quality and rate?
METHODS
Are the processing conditions, work
methods and measuring techniques
in place to ensure and support consistent,
safe production?
The 4Ms
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 20
The 8 Steps of Quality Maintenance
§ The 8 steps of Quality
Maintenance provide a
systematic approach to defect
loss elimination
§ It is based on the Plan-Do-
Check-Act (PDCA) model
§ The process can be used to
improve OEE and eliminate the
16 big losses
§ It is used with analytical tools
(e.g. IE tools, QC tools, P-M
analysis, etc.) to solve problems
Plan
Do
Check
Act
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 21
The 8 Steps of Quality Maintenance
Verify the Existing Situation
Investigate the Processes where
Defects Occur
Identify & Analyze 4M Conditions
Plan Action to Correct Deficiencies
Establish Conditions that Allow Good
Products to be Achieved
Eliminate Flaws in 4M Conditions and
Finalize
Consolidate Checking Methods
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Determine Standard Values for Checks
& Revise Standards
8
22
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved.
“Every defect is a
treasure, if the company
can uncover its cause
and work to prevent it
across the corporation.”
Kiichiro Toyoda,
Founder of Toyota
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 23
Preparing a QM Matrix
Preparing a QM Matrix
Preparing a QM Matrix
Write ◎ , ○ or △ to indicate degree of
interaction with quality characteristics that
correlate with management items
Setting management
items
Use items that contributing
factors of P-M analysis or
primary 4M items as
management items
Setting management
conditions
§ Management thresholds
§ Inspection cycles
§ Inspection managers
Addition to quality management process
drawings
Addition to a Autonomous Maintenance
inspection standards documents
Addition to Planned Maintenance
inspection standards documents
Preparation of trend
management sheets
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 24
Example of P-M Analysis Table
Phenomenon
Physical
Analysis
Contributing
Conditions
4M Correlations
(Primary)
4M Correlations (Secondary)
The coil
windings are
too thick
The pitch of a
copper wire
wound about a
bobbin shows
variation
1. The required
tension varies
1.1. Tension setting
varies
1.1.1. Play in spring fixing block
1.1.2. Block fixing bolts loose
1.1.3. Springs worn out
1.1.4. Play in shock-absorber plate
1.1.5. Shock-absorber spring worn out
1.1.6. Shock-absorber spring adjustment bolts
loose
1.1.7. Play in tension level fixing
1.1.8. Play in tension arm fixing
1.2. Set tension cannot
be maintained
1.2.1. Wire not wound correctly onto supply
wheel
1.2.2. Tension rubbers worn
1.2.3. Rubber tension adjusting bolts loose
(remainder omitted)
ILLUSTRATIVE
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 25
5 Whys Process Funnel
Why is Tom injured?
Why did he fall?
Why was the floor wet?
Why was the valve leaking?
Why did the seal fail?
Because he had a fall
Because the floor
was wet
Because there was a
leaking valve
Because there was a
seal failure
Because it was not
maintained
The Problem:
Tom is injured
Root Cause
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 26
The 8 Steps of P-M Analysis
Identify Constituent Conditions
3
Conduct a Physical Analysis
2
Clarify the Phenomenon
1
Study 4Ms for Causal Factors
4
Determine Abnormalities to be Addressed
7
Survey Causal Factors for Abnormalities
6
Establish Optimal Conditions (Standard Values)
5
Propose and Make Improvements
8
Source: Based on Kunio, et al.
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 27
How to Sustain TPM & Quality Maintenance
Activities
§ Engaging employees
§ Aim for early success
§ Providing active leadership
§ Share success stories
§ Rewards and recognition
§ Continuously reduce the 16 big
losses
§ Evolving the TPM initiative over time
and integration with Lean
© Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 28
Operational Excellence Consulting is a management training and consulting
firm that assists organizations in improving business performance and
effectiveness. Based in Singapore, the firm’s mission is to create business
value for organizations through innovative design and operational excellence
management training and consulting solutions. For more information, please
visit www.oeconsulting.com.sg

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TPM: Quality Maintenance (Hinshitsu Hozen)

  • 1. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. Quality Maintenance (HINSHITSU HOZEN)
  • 2. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 2 Learning Objectives Understand the key concepts, principles and philosophy of Quality Maintenance Describe the 8-step process of Quality Maintenance and the key analytical tools and techniques Acquire knowledge on the 4M conditions and the prerequisites for promoting Quality Maintenance NOTE: This is a PARTIAL PREVIEW. To download the complete presentation, please visit: https://www.oeconsulting.com.sg
  • 3. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 3 Contents 4M Conditions – The Determinants of Quality 2 Key Concepts & Philosophy of Quality Maintenance 1 Key Tools and Techniques 4 The 8 Steps of Quality Maintenance 3 Towards Excellence in Quality Maintenance 5
  • 4. 4 © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. “Quality is not an act, it is a habit.” Aristotle
  • 5. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 5 The Times Demand Quality On the shop floor The age of technological innovation The duty of the producer To ensure quality that will allow the customer to buy and use the product with confidence and satisfaction The producer’s task To maintain and improve product quality and guarantee consistency Using equipment to build quality into the product Approaching the quality challenge through equipment management Shifting production work from human to machines through automation and labor-saving steps. An increase in equipment-related quality problems Failures due to decreased function exceed failures due to loss of function (defect loss, etc.)
  • 6. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 6 Traditional Inspection is a Poor Substitute for Quality 6 Traditional 100% inspection does not provide 100% defect-free products.
  • 7. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 7 Sporadic Defects and Chronic Defects § Recovering measures are required to reduce the level to the original value Extreme value Sporadic loss Time Percentage of Loss Chronic loss § Innovative measures are required to reduce the level to the extreme state 2 3 1 (see next slide for the cause- countermeasures matrix) To achieve zero defect, chronic defects have to be eliminated.
  • 8. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 8 Steps of Countermeasures to Eliminate Chronic Defects Known Unknown Unknown Known Countermeasures Causes § Apply countermeasures § Establish and perform countermeasures § Perform countermeasures and check results § Apply cause and effect analysis § Apply P-M analysis 2 3 1 2
  • 9. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 9 Why Chronic Defects Persist Proceeding without analyzing the problem sufficiently § Jumping to conclusions about the cause § Trying to solve the problem based on experience alone § Not making a clear connection between the defect and the equipment Thinking only within the boundaries of one’s specialty or a certain fixed technology § Not addressing other causal factors § Not recognizing what has changed in the equipment and its operation Chronic defects don’t go away
  • 10. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 10 Guarantee for 100% Good Parts and the 4 Major Factors of Production (4Ms) Guarantee for 100% Good Parts MATERIAL MACHINE METHOD MEN / WOMEN § Arrangement of fundamental conditions § Monitoring of operation status § Conformity to specifications § Mounting and removing of workpiece § Replacement of processing tools and jigs § Others PRODUCTS Occurrence of human mistakes Causal abnormalities in the equipment and processing methods Quality Maintenance Mistake-proof
  • 11. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 11 Quality Maintenance is One of the Pillars of the TPM Excellence Framework Overview of TPM Office TPM Safety, Health & Environment Autonomous Maintenance Planned Maintenance Focused Improvement Early Equipment Management Quality Maintenance Education & Training 5S & Visual Management TPM Goals: Zero Defects, Zero Breakdowns, Zero Accidents The Quality Maintenance pillar focuses on establishing and maintaining zero-defect conditions.
  • 12. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 12 What is Quality Maintenance? Focused Improvement Quality Maintenance means figuring out the equipment conditions in which defects won’t occur, setting them up as the standards, monitoring and measuring actual equipment conditions over time, and confirming the actual conditions are within the standards. Source: Focused Equipment Improvement for TPM Teams, JIPM
  • 13. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 13 Differences Between Conventional Quality Approach and Quality Maintenance Conventional Quality Approach § A mindset that zero defect is not possible § Inspect for quality and take action after the products are produced § Reactive approach Quality Maintenance § Sets zero defect as the goal § Establish and maintain the conditions to create zero-defect products § Preventive approach
  • 14. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 14 Quality Maintenance – Target § Achieve and sustain customer complaints at zero § Reduce in-process defects by 50% § Reduce cost of quality by 50%
  • 15. 15 © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. “Quality is more important than quantity. One home run is much better than two doubles.” Steve Jobs
  • 16. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 16 Basic Principles of Quality Maintenance Defects due to processing conditions Defects due to equipment precision Defects due to the people involved Quality Defects Creation of equipment that doesn’t produce defects Training operators who know their equipment well Fostering maintenance management ability (the ability to spot abnormalities that may cause defects and to deal with them quickly and correctly) Setting standard conditions for equipment that doesn’t produce defects Management of standard conditions that don’t produce defects Zero defects
  • 17. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 17 Prerequisites for Promoting Quality Maintenance Developing an equipment-competent workforce 2 Eliminating forced deterioration 1 Maintenance prevention design (‘MP design’) of new products and new machinery 4 Activities for achieving zero equipment failures 3
  • 18. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 18 Poor Maintenance Practices and Operating Conditions Create Forced Deterioration Forced Deterioration Time Equipment Reliability Accelerated Deterioration Natural Deterioration Basic Condition § Failing to maintain basic conditions § Failing to operate within specified values § Failure to control deterioration § Lack of skills and knowledge It is essential to eliminate forced deterioration through Autonomous Maintenance, thereby extending and stabilizing component lifetimes.
  • 19. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 19 What are the 4Ms? MATERIALS Do the materials meet the required specifications? Do the materials from the previous process meet your input requirements? MEN / WOMEN Do our employees have the skill and motivation to do what is expected of them safely, consistently and effectively? Do they adhere to standards? MACHINES Are the processing equipment, jigs and tools, and measuring equipment capable of safe and reliable output at the desired quality and rate? METHODS Are the processing conditions, work methods and measuring techniques in place to ensure and support consistent, safe production? The 4Ms
  • 20. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 20 The 8 Steps of Quality Maintenance § The 8 steps of Quality Maintenance provide a systematic approach to defect loss elimination § It is based on the Plan-Do- Check-Act (PDCA) model § The process can be used to improve OEE and eliminate the 16 big losses § It is used with analytical tools (e.g. IE tools, QC tools, P-M analysis, etc.) to solve problems Plan Do Check Act
  • 21. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 21 The 8 Steps of Quality Maintenance Verify the Existing Situation Investigate the Processes where Defects Occur Identify & Analyze 4M Conditions Plan Action to Correct Deficiencies Establish Conditions that Allow Good Products to be Achieved Eliminate Flaws in 4M Conditions and Finalize Consolidate Checking Methods 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Determine Standard Values for Checks & Revise Standards 8
  • 22. 22 © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. “Every defect is a treasure, if the company can uncover its cause and work to prevent it across the corporation.” Kiichiro Toyoda, Founder of Toyota
  • 23. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 23 Preparing a QM Matrix Preparing a QM Matrix Preparing a QM Matrix Write ◎ , ○ or △ to indicate degree of interaction with quality characteristics that correlate with management items Setting management items Use items that contributing factors of P-M analysis or primary 4M items as management items Setting management conditions § Management thresholds § Inspection cycles § Inspection managers Addition to quality management process drawings Addition to a Autonomous Maintenance inspection standards documents Addition to Planned Maintenance inspection standards documents Preparation of trend management sheets
  • 24. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 24 Example of P-M Analysis Table Phenomenon Physical Analysis Contributing Conditions 4M Correlations (Primary) 4M Correlations (Secondary) The coil windings are too thick The pitch of a copper wire wound about a bobbin shows variation 1. The required tension varies 1.1. Tension setting varies 1.1.1. Play in spring fixing block 1.1.2. Block fixing bolts loose 1.1.3. Springs worn out 1.1.4. Play in shock-absorber plate 1.1.5. Shock-absorber spring worn out 1.1.6. Shock-absorber spring adjustment bolts loose 1.1.7. Play in tension level fixing 1.1.8. Play in tension arm fixing 1.2. Set tension cannot be maintained 1.2.1. Wire not wound correctly onto supply wheel 1.2.2. Tension rubbers worn 1.2.3. Rubber tension adjusting bolts loose (remainder omitted) ILLUSTRATIVE
  • 25. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 25 5 Whys Process Funnel Why is Tom injured? Why did he fall? Why was the floor wet? Why was the valve leaking? Why did the seal fail? Because he had a fall Because the floor was wet Because there was a leaking valve Because there was a seal failure Because it was not maintained The Problem: Tom is injured Root Cause
  • 26. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 26 The 8 Steps of P-M Analysis Identify Constituent Conditions 3 Conduct a Physical Analysis 2 Clarify the Phenomenon 1 Study 4Ms for Causal Factors 4 Determine Abnormalities to be Addressed 7 Survey Causal Factors for Abnormalities 6 Establish Optimal Conditions (Standard Values) 5 Propose and Make Improvements 8 Source: Based on Kunio, et al.
  • 27. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 27 How to Sustain TPM & Quality Maintenance Activities § Engaging employees § Aim for early success § Providing active leadership § Share success stories § Rewards and recognition § Continuously reduce the 16 big losses § Evolving the TPM initiative over time and integration with Lean
  • 28. © Operational Excellence Consulting. All rights reserved. 28 Operational Excellence Consulting is a management training and consulting firm that assists organizations in improving business performance and effectiveness. Based in Singapore, the firm’s mission is to create business value for organizations through innovative design and operational excellence management training and consulting solutions. For more information, please visit www.oeconsulting.com.sg