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COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURECOMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE
Muscle tissue consist of three major
components:
Water – 75%
Protein – 20%
Fat – up to 5%
Carbohydrates – small quantities.
MUSCLE FIBERS – are bound together in bundles
by connective tissue.
MATURITY AND TENDERNESSMATURITY AND TENDERNESS
 Use or exercise of the muscle
 Maturity or age of the animal or bird
Free-range chickenFree-range chicken - are those allowed to move around freely and eat outdoors in a more natural
environment. And raised without various chemical growth enhancers or without certain antibiotics.
Light Meat and Dark Meat - chicken and turkey
Are divided into two parts;
Light meat – breast and wings: less fat, less connective tissue, cooks faster.
Dark meat – legs (drumsticks and thighs) : more fat, more connective tissue, takes longer to cook.
INSPECTIONINSPECTION –
 A guarantee of wholesomeness
 Indicated by a round stamp
 Required by law
GRADINGGRADING
 Based on quality
 Indicated by a shield stamp and letter grade
 Not required by law.
*U.S. grades are A,B, and C ( a being the best ), they are based on:
 Shape of carcass
 Amount of flesh
 Amount of fat
 Pinfeathers
 Skin tears, cut broken bones
 Blemishes and bruises
CHICKEN:CHICKEN:
Rock Cornish game henRock Cornish game hen: 5-6 weeks, young chicken, very tender and
delicate.
Broiler or fryerBroiler or fryer: 9- 12 weeks, young chicken of either sex, tender
flesh and flexible cartilage, smooth skin.
RoasterRoaster: 3-5 months, young chicken of either sex, tender flesh and
smooth skin, but less flexible cartilage.
CaponCapon: under 8 months, castrated male chicken, flesh very tender
and well flavored. Large breast expensive.
Hen or FowlHen or Fowl: over 10 months, mature female, tough flesh and
coarse skin, hardened breastbone cartilage.
Cock or RoosterCock or Rooster: over 10 months Mature male, coarse skin, tough
dark meat
DUCK:
Broiler or fryerBroiler or fryer: under 8weeks, young and tender with sof bill and
windpipe.
Roaster ducklingRoaster duckling: under 16 weeks with bill and wind pipe that are just
starting to harden.
Mature duckMature duck: over 6 months, old duck w/ tough flesh and hard bill and
windpipe.
TURKEY:
Fryer-roasterFryer-roaster: Young bird of either sex, tender flesh, smooth skin and
flexible cartillage. Under 16 weeks
Young turkeyYoung turkey (hen or tom): Young turkey with tender flesh but firmer
cartillage. 5-7mos.
Yearling turkeyYearling turkey: Fully matured, that is reasonably tender. Under
15mos.
Mature turkey or old turkeyMature turkey or old turkey (hen or tom): old turkey with tough flesh
and coarse skin. Over 15mos.
GOOSE:
Young goose: young bird with either tender flesh. Under
6mos.
Mature goose: Tough old bird. Over 6mos.
GUINEAS:
Young guinea / Mature guinea: Domestic relatives of the
pheasant. Young birds are tender, old ones are tough. 6-
12mos.
PIGEONS:
Squab: Very young pigeons, with light, tender meat. 3-4
weeks.
Pigeon: Older pigeons with tough, dark meat. 3-4 weeks
CLASSIFICATION AND MARKET FORMS
Kind – species, such as chicken, turkey or duck.
Class – the subdivision of kind depending on age and
sex.
Style – the amount of cleaning and processing.
 live: almost never purchased on food service.
 Dressed: killed, bled and plucked, also rarely seen in
food service.
 Ready to cook: dressed and eviscerated, w/ head,
feet removed. Cut up, or parts
State of refrigeration – chilled or frozen.
CLASSIFICATION AND MARKETCLASSIFICATION AND MARKET
FORMSFORMS
Fresh - poultry that is to be cooked within 24 hours
Frozen - poultry that can be kept up to 6 months;
Fully-cooked - poultry that is purchased frozen or
canned.
Giblets - include the neck, heart, liver, and gizzards
of poultry. They are used for appetizers, gravies, and
stocks.
HANDLING AND STORAGE
FRESH
Fresh poultry is extremely perishable. It should arrive packed in
ice and be kept in ice until used.
Ideally, use it within 24hrs of receiving, never more than 4 days.
Poultry often carries salmonella bacteria. Wash all equipment
and cutting surfaces after handling the poultry to avoid food
contamination of other foods.
FROZEN
STORE FROZEN POULTRY AT 0F _(-18C) or lower until ready to
thaw.
Thaw in original wrapper in refrigerator, allowing 1-2 for
chickens, 2-4 days for larger birds. If pressed for time, thaw it in
running water in original wrapper.
Do not refreeze thawed poultry.
Fabrication
Trussing
Trussing:Trussing:
Involves tying the
legs and wings
against the bird’s
body.
Trussing allows
for even cooking
and creates an
attractive final
product when
served.
Cooking PoultryCooking Poultry
Cooking PoultryCooking Poultry
When roasting, you should start at a high temperature to
render the fat , for browning and to complete the
cooking at a lower temperature to promote even
cooking, and seal in juices helping to keep the meat
moist.
Bone-in poultry affect cooking procedures as compared
to boneless, Bone-in poultry takes longer to cook than
boneless poultry, and the bone helps retain moisture in
the meat.
Poaching is used for tender whole birds; Simmering is
used for tougher, older birds cut into pieces.
Cooking PoultryCooking Poultry
Federal mandate that poultry dishes sold in a foodservice
establishment cannot be stuffed, because bacteria can
reproduce rapidly in the stuffing within the bird’s cavity.
Even if the flesh of the bird cooks to above the proper
temperature, the temperature of the stuffing may not
reach a safe, adequate temperature in an adequate
amount of time.
To check the core temperature, the thermometer should
be inserted into the thickest muscle or part of the inner
part of the thigh, away from the bone.
Minimum Internal Temperature 165F for 15 sec.
The End! Thank You!
Don't forget to follow me on twitter @joviinthecity
Thank You!

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Poultry

  • 1.
  • 2. COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURECOMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE Muscle tissue consist of three major components: Water – 75% Protein – 20% Fat – up to 5% Carbohydrates – small quantities. MUSCLE FIBERS – are bound together in bundles by connective tissue.
  • 3. MATURITY AND TENDERNESSMATURITY AND TENDERNESS  Use or exercise of the muscle  Maturity or age of the animal or bird Free-range chickenFree-range chicken - are those allowed to move around freely and eat outdoors in a more natural environment. And raised without various chemical growth enhancers or without certain antibiotics. Light Meat and Dark Meat - chicken and turkey Are divided into two parts; Light meat – breast and wings: less fat, less connective tissue, cooks faster. Dark meat – legs (drumsticks and thighs) : more fat, more connective tissue, takes longer to cook. INSPECTIONINSPECTION –  A guarantee of wholesomeness  Indicated by a round stamp  Required by law GRADINGGRADING  Based on quality  Indicated by a shield stamp and letter grade  Not required by law. *U.S. grades are A,B, and C ( a being the best ), they are based on:  Shape of carcass  Amount of flesh  Amount of fat  Pinfeathers  Skin tears, cut broken bones  Blemishes and bruises
  • 4. CHICKEN:CHICKEN: Rock Cornish game henRock Cornish game hen: 5-6 weeks, young chicken, very tender and delicate. Broiler or fryerBroiler or fryer: 9- 12 weeks, young chicken of either sex, tender flesh and flexible cartilage, smooth skin. RoasterRoaster: 3-5 months, young chicken of either sex, tender flesh and smooth skin, but less flexible cartilage. CaponCapon: under 8 months, castrated male chicken, flesh very tender and well flavored. Large breast expensive. Hen or FowlHen or Fowl: over 10 months, mature female, tough flesh and coarse skin, hardened breastbone cartilage. Cock or RoosterCock or Rooster: over 10 months Mature male, coarse skin, tough dark meat
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  • 6. DUCK: Broiler or fryerBroiler or fryer: under 8weeks, young and tender with sof bill and windpipe. Roaster ducklingRoaster duckling: under 16 weeks with bill and wind pipe that are just starting to harden. Mature duckMature duck: over 6 months, old duck w/ tough flesh and hard bill and windpipe. TURKEY: Fryer-roasterFryer-roaster: Young bird of either sex, tender flesh, smooth skin and flexible cartillage. Under 16 weeks Young turkeyYoung turkey (hen or tom): Young turkey with tender flesh but firmer cartillage. 5-7mos. Yearling turkeyYearling turkey: Fully matured, that is reasonably tender. Under 15mos. Mature turkey or old turkeyMature turkey or old turkey (hen or tom): old turkey with tough flesh and coarse skin. Over 15mos.
  • 7. GOOSE: Young goose: young bird with either tender flesh. Under 6mos. Mature goose: Tough old bird. Over 6mos. GUINEAS: Young guinea / Mature guinea: Domestic relatives of the pheasant. Young birds are tender, old ones are tough. 6- 12mos. PIGEONS: Squab: Very young pigeons, with light, tender meat. 3-4 weeks. Pigeon: Older pigeons with tough, dark meat. 3-4 weeks
  • 8. CLASSIFICATION AND MARKET FORMS Kind – species, such as chicken, turkey or duck. Class – the subdivision of kind depending on age and sex. Style – the amount of cleaning and processing.  live: almost never purchased on food service.  Dressed: killed, bled and plucked, also rarely seen in food service.  Ready to cook: dressed and eviscerated, w/ head, feet removed. Cut up, or parts State of refrigeration – chilled or frozen.
  • 9. CLASSIFICATION AND MARKETCLASSIFICATION AND MARKET FORMSFORMS Fresh - poultry that is to be cooked within 24 hours Frozen - poultry that can be kept up to 6 months; Fully-cooked - poultry that is purchased frozen or canned. Giblets - include the neck, heart, liver, and gizzards of poultry. They are used for appetizers, gravies, and stocks.
  • 10. HANDLING AND STORAGE FRESH Fresh poultry is extremely perishable. It should arrive packed in ice and be kept in ice until used. Ideally, use it within 24hrs of receiving, never more than 4 days. Poultry often carries salmonella bacteria. Wash all equipment and cutting surfaces after handling the poultry to avoid food contamination of other foods. FROZEN STORE FROZEN POULTRY AT 0F _(-18C) or lower until ready to thaw. Thaw in original wrapper in refrigerator, allowing 1-2 for chickens, 2-4 days for larger birds. If pressed for time, thaw it in running water in original wrapper. Do not refreeze thawed poultry.
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  • 17. Trussing Trussing:Trussing: Involves tying the legs and wings against the bird’s body. Trussing allows for even cooking and creates an attractive final product when served.
  • 19. Cooking PoultryCooking Poultry When roasting, you should start at a high temperature to render the fat , for browning and to complete the cooking at a lower temperature to promote even cooking, and seal in juices helping to keep the meat moist. Bone-in poultry affect cooking procedures as compared to boneless, Bone-in poultry takes longer to cook than boneless poultry, and the bone helps retain moisture in the meat. Poaching is used for tender whole birds; Simmering is used for tougher, older birds cut into pieces.
  • 20. Cooking PoultryCooking Poultry Federal mandate that poultry dishes sold in a foodservice establishment cannot be stuffed, because bacteria can reproduce rapidly in the stuffing within the bird’s cavity. Even if the flesh of the bird cooks to above the proper temperature, the temperature of the stuffing may not reach a safe, adequate temperature in an adequate amount of time. To check the core temperature, the thermometer should be inserted into the thickest muscle or part of the inner part of the thigh, away from the bone. Minimum Internal Temperature 165F for 15 sec.
  • 21. The End! Thank You! Don't forget to follow me on twitter @joviinthecity Thank You!

Editor's Notes

  1. Disclaimer: I do not own the rights nor property of this powerpoint presentation. All rights reserved to the owner.   Don't forget to follow me on twitter @joviinthecity   Thank You!   xoxo -Jovi
  2. Disclaimer: I do not own the rights nor property of this powerpoint presentation. All rights reserved to the owner.   Don't forget to follow me on twitter @joviinthecity   Thank You!   xoxo -Jovi
  3. Disclaimer: I do not own the rights nor property of this powerpoint presentation. All rights reserved to the owner.   Don't forget to follow me on twitter @joviinthecity   Thank You!   xoxo -Jovi
  4. Disclaimer: I do not own the rights nor property of this powerpoint presentation. All rights reserved to the owner.   Don't forget to follow me on twitter @joviinthecity   Thank You!   xoxo -Jovi
  5. Disclaimer: I do not own the rights nor property of this powerpoint presentation. All rights reserved to the owner.   Don't forget to follow me on twitter @joviinthecity   Thank You!   xoxo -Jovi
  6. Disclaimer: I do not own the rights nor property of this powerpoint presentation. All rights reserved to the owner.   Don't forget to follow me on twitter @joviinthecity   Thank You!   xoxo -Jovi
  7. Disclaimer: I do not own the rights nor property of this powerpoint presentation. All rights reserved to the owner.   Don't forget to follow me on twitter @joviinthecity   Thank You!   xoxo -Jovi
  8. Disclaimer: I do not own the rights nor property of this powerpoint presentation. All rights reserved to the owner.   Don't forget to follow me on twitter @joviinthecity   Thank You!   xoxo -Jovi
  9. Disclaimer: I do not own the rights nor property of this powerpoint presentation. All rights reserved to the owner.   Don't forget to follow me on twitter @joviinthecity   Thank You!   xoxo -Jovi
  10. Disclaimer: I do not own the rights nor property of this powerpoint presentation. All rights reserved to the owner.   Don't forget to follow me on twitter @joviinthecity   Thank You!   xoxo -Jovi
  11. Disclaimer: I do not own the rights nor property of this powerpoint presentation. All rights reserved to the owner.   Don't forget to follow me on twitter @joviinthecity   Thank You!   xoxo -Jovi
  12. Disclaimer: I do not own the rights nor property of this powerpoint presentation. All rights reserved to the owner.   Don't forget to follow me on twitter @joviinthecity   Thank You!   xoxo -Jovi
  13. Disclaimer: I do not own the rights nor property of this powerpoint presentation. All rights reserved to the owner.   Don't forget to follow me on twitter @joviinthecity   Thank You!   xoxo -Jovi
  14. Disclaimer: I do not own the rights nor property of this powerpoint presentation. All rights reserved to the owner.   Don't forget to follow me on twitter @joviinthecity   Thank You!   xoxo -Jovi
  15. Disclaimer: I do not own the rights nor property of this powerpoint presentation. All rights reserved to the owner.   Don't forget to follow me on twitter @joviinthecity   Thank You!   xoxo -Jovi
  16. Disclaimer: I do not own the rights nor property of this powerpoint presentation. All rights reserved to the owner.   Don't forget to follow me on twitter @joviinthecity   Thank You!   xoxo -Jovi
  17. Disclaimer: I do not own the rights nor property of this powerpoint presentation. All rights reserved to the owner.   Don't forget to follow me on twitter @joviinthecity   Thank You!   xoxo -Jovi
  18. Disclaimer: I do not own the rights nor property of this powerpoint presentation. All rights reserved to the owner.   Don't forget to follow me on twitter @joviinthecity   Thank You!   xoxo -Jovi
  19. Disclaimer: I do not own the rights nor property of this powerpoint presentation. All rights reserved to the owner.   Don't forget to follow me on twitter @joviinthecity   Thank You!   xoxo -Jovi
  20. Disclaimer: I do not own the rights nor property of this powerpoint presentation. All rights reserved to the owner.   Don't forget to follow me on twitter @joviinthecity   Thank You!   xoxo -Jovi