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Classification of-commodities2204-120114234912-phpapp02
Commodities which are used in the kitchen can be 
broadly classified in to three main categories: 
 Perishables: Ingredients which have short shelf life 
ranging from six hours to six days at room temperature 
such as milk and dairy products, meats, fish, eggs, fruits 
and vegetables 
 Semi Perishables: Ingredients which have a longer 
shelf life ranging from a few weeks to a few months 
such as cereals, pulses, fats, oils, condiments, spices, 
flour, proprietary foods etc. 
 Non Perishables: Ingredients which can be stored 
indefinitely such as salts, mild acids, sugar, edible 
colours, some essences etc.
Under ground vegetables: 
roots, tubers, bulbs, rhizomes, 
pods,etc. 
Over ground vegetables: 
Shoots, stems, leaves, fruits, 
seeds, pods, flowers etc.
Underground vegetables
Classification of-commodities2204-120114234912-phpapp02
Classification of-commodities2204-120114234912-phpapp02
Classification of-commodities2204-120114234912-phpapp02
Classification of-commodities2204-120114234912-phpapp02
Classification of-commodities2204-120114234912-phpapp02
1. Red Meat: Lamb, Beef, Pork, Mutton etc. 
2. White Meat: Poultry birds such as 
Chicken, Duck, Turkey etc. and also Fish 
& Seafood: 
3. Game Meat: Animals or Birds which are 
hunted for their meat and not farm 
reared, such as wild boar, hare, geese etc.
Types of Meats 
Beef 
Cattle are classified according to age and gender. 
1. Steers are male cattle that have been castrated 
while young so that they will gain weight 
quickly. 
2. Bulls are older uncast rated males, usually used 
in processed meats and pet foods. 
3. Heifers, females that have not borne a calf, are 
also used for meat. 
4. Cows are female cattle that have borne calves 
and this meat is less desirable than that from 
steers or heifers.
Types of Meats 
Veal 
Comes from calves of beef cattle, either male or 
female, between the ages of three weeks and 
three months. 
Calves three to eight months old are too old for 
veal and too young for beef.
Types of Meats 
Lamb and Mutton 
Lamb comes from sheep less than fourteen 
months old. 
Mutton from those over fourteen months.
Composition of Meats 
Meats are composed of a combination of: 
Water , Muscle, Connective tissue, Adipose (fatty) tissue, Bone 
1. Collagen: A pearly white, tough, and fibrous protein 
that provides support to muscle and prevents it from 
over-stretching. 
2. Marbling: Fat deposited in the muscle that can be 
seen as little white streaks or drops. 
3. The animal’s age, diet, and species affect the color 
and texture of fat
Composition of Meats 
Exposure of meat to oxygen changes the color of 
myoglobin, and therefore the meat. 
Cooking meat initially converts the color of raw 
meat to bright red. 
The food industry uses several methods to keep meat 
products from turning brown. 
One such method is the addition of nitrites to processed 
meats. 
Extractives: Flavor compounds consisting of non 
protein, nitrogen substances that are end-products 
of protein metabolism.
Purchasing Meats 
To ensure that consumers are purchasing meat that is safe, 
federal laws require the inspection of animal carcasses. 
In addition to this mandatory inspection for safety, meat 
may also be assigned yield grades and the later quality 
grades to assist consumers in selection. 
The Federal Meat Inspection Act of 1906 made 
inspection mandatory for all meat crossing state lines 
or entering the United States through foreign 
commerce. 
The grading of meat is not under government mandate or 
control, but is a strictly voluntary procedure that the meat 
packer or distributor may have done under contract with 
the USDA.
Inspection
GRADES
Classification of-commodities2204-120114234912-phpapp02
Yield grade: The amount of lean meat on the carcass in 
proportion to fat, bone, and other inedible parts. 
Marbling: Fat deposited in the muscle that can be 
seen as little white streaks or drops.
Purchasing Meats 
Tenderness of Meats 
Overall, natural meat tenderness is due to factors 
such as the cut, age, and fat content. 
Meats can also be treated to make them more 
tender. 
Preparation temperatures and times also 
have an influence on tenderness. 
Grading is affected by 
Feed grass/hay vs. corn affects outer surface 
fat and muscle marbling 
Age at slaughter 
Breed and breeding history 
Type of cattle
Type of cattle 
Hereford vs. Angus vs. Longhorn
Meat cuts 
There are two major types of meat cuts, 
wholesale and retail.
Purchase Meat cuts 
Prior to reaching the supermarket, a carcass is divided into about 
seven wholesale or primal cuts. 
Wholesale (primal) cuts: The large cuts of an animal 
carcass, which are further divided into retail cuts. 
These wholesale cuts are then divided into the retail cuts 
purchased by consumers. 
Retail cuts: Smaller cuts of meat obtained from wholesale 
cuts and sold to the consumer.
Meat cuts
Variety meats: The liver, 
sweetbreads (thymus), brain, 
kidneys, hear t, tongue, tripe 
(stomach lining), and oxtail (tail 
of cattle).
Storage of Meats 
Meat contains high percentages of water and protein, 
both ideal for the growth of microorganisms. 
Consequently, meat should be stored in the 
refrigerator or freezer. 
Meats are best refrigerated at just above freezing 
(32°F/0°C), between 32°F and 36°F (0° to 2°C). 
Wrapping Meat 
Most retail meats are packaged with plastic wrap and 
can be refrigerated in their original wrap for up to 
two days. 
Frozen 
Meats to be frozen should be wrapped tightly in 
aluminum foil, heavy plastic bags, or freezer paper 
and stored at or below 0°F (18°C).
Storage of Meats 
Wrapping Meat 
Most retail meats are packaged with plastic 
wrap and can be refrigerated in their original 
wrap for up to two days. 
Frozen 
Meats to be frozen should be wrapped tightly in 
aluminum foil, heavy plastic bags, or freezer 
paper and stored at or below 0°F (18°C).
POULTRY AND GAME BIRDS
Classification of Poultr y 
Poultry have been domesticated for over 
4,000 years 
Poultry 
Has a high protein content 
Is easier to raise and transport than 
cows and sheep 
Is considered a staple on most menus
Classification of Poultr y 
Types of poultry that may be graded 
Chicken, turkey, duck, geese, and 
guinea 
Chickens produce two major protein 
sources: eggs and meat 
Many different forms and packaging 
styles 
Turkey is popular as a deli meat and in 
whole bird roasters
Classification of game birds 
Feathered Game 
Refers to the remaining birds used in food service 
applications 
Wild turkey, goose, pheasant, duck, partridge, quail, 
and woodcock 
Must be farm-raised (includes free range) 
Game birds are available whole or precut into pieces 
Fresh, frozen, or canned (smaller birds) 
Factors affecting quality 
Age of the bird and manner of slaughter and 
packaging 
Should have springy skin and no “off ” odor
Composition of Poultr y and Game 
birds 
The composition of poultry (muscle tissue, 
connective tissue, etc.) is similar to meat. 
Pigments 
Turkeys and chickens have both white and 
dark meat.
Purchasing Poultr y and game 
birds 
Available from a variety of sources 
Broad line distributors to local merchants 
Know your supplier and ensure their sanitary practices 
Poultry should be delivered at freezing for fresh products 
or hard frozen 
Inspect for signs of temperature abuse 
Poultry has a very short shelf life 
Use fresh product within three days 
HACCP guidelines 
Store raw, un prepped product under raw, prepped product 
Cooked product should be stored on top 
Use separate coolers for raw and cooked
Purchasing Poultr y and Game 
Birds 
Types and Styles of Poultry 
“Type” refers to whether it 
is: 
Fresh 
Frozen 
Cooked 
Sliced 
Canned 
Dehydrated 
 “Style” describes the 
degree to which it has 
been cleaned or 
processed: 
 Live 
 Dressed 
 Ready-to-cook 
 Convenience 
categories
Purchasing Poultr y and Game 
Birds 
Processed Poultry 
 Processed chicken and turkey are commonly 
used in: 
 Canned or dried soups 
 Frozen dinners 
 Pot pies 
 Sausages 
 Hot dogs 
 Burgers 
 Bologna
Purchasing Poultr y and Game 
Birds 
How Much to Buy 
 Ready-to-cook poultry contains a good 
deal of inedible bone and unwanted fat 
 A good rule of thumb for most poultry is to 
buy 1 2 pound or ⁄ slightly more per serving. 
 One of the most economical ways to buy 
poultry is in its ready-to-cook whole state.
Preparation of Poultr y and 
Game Birds 
Thawing Frozen 
Poultry 
The refrigerator is 
the best place to thaw 
frozen birds, and its 
use requires planning 
ahead.
Preparation of Poultr y and Game 
Birds 
Changes During Preparation 
Properly prepared poultry is tender and juicy, 
but overcooking causes the flesh to become 
dry, tough, and stringy.
Preparation of Poultr y and Game 
Birds 
Determining Doneness 
 Poultry should 
always be heated 
until well done 
 Doneness may be 
determined by 
internal 
temperature, color 
changes, and/or 
touch and 
time/weight tables. 
 Poultry is sufficiently 
cooked when the 
internal temperature 
reaches 180° to 185°F 
(82° to 85°C). 
 A thermometer placed 
in the center of any 
stuffing must reach a 
minimum temperature 
of 165°F (74°C).
Preparation of Poultr y and Game 
Birds 
Color Change 
. 
Oven-roasted chicken or turkey will reach a golden 
brown color. 
The juices coming out of the bird should run clear. 
Touch 
When pressed firmly with one or two fingers, the 
well-done bird’s flesh will feel firm. 
White meat may be firmer than dark. 
Wiggle the drumstick
Preparation of Poultr y and Game 
Birds 
Dry-Heat 
Frying 
Preparation 
Sautéed 
Roasting 
Pan-fried 
Baking 
Deep-fried 
Broiling 
Stir-fried 
Grilling
Preparation of Poultr y and Game 
Birds 
Moist-Heat Preparation 
Braising 
Also called 
fricasseeing 
Stewing 
Poaching 
Microwaving 
The microwave 
manufacturers’ 
instructions should 
be followed for 
preparing poultry.
Storage of Poultr y and Game 
Birds 
Refrigerated 
Fresh, ready-to-cook poultry can be kept safely in the 
refrigerator at 40°F (4°C) or below for up to three days. 
It is best kept in the bottom portion of the refrigerator to 
prevent its drippings from contaminating other foods. 
Frozen 
Frozen whole poultry can be 
stored from six to twelve 
months at 0°F (18°C). 
Breaded or fried poultry should 
never be thawed and refrozen. 
Thawing 
Defrosting is recommended in 
the refrigerator. 
Once defrosted, poultry or any 
other meat should not be 
refrozen unless it has been 
cooked.
FISH AND SHELL FISH
Classification of Fish and 
Shellfish 
Vertebrate 
Finfish 
Finfish: Fish that have fins and internal skeletons. 
Invertebrate 
Shellfish which includes the invertebrate crustaceans and 
mollusks. 
Crustacean: An invertebrate animal with a segmented body 
covered by an exoskeleton consisting of a hard upper shell 
and a soft under shell. (crab, shrimp,lobster) 
Mollusk: An invertebrate animal with a soft un segmented 
body usually enclosed in a shell. (clams, oyster, mussels, 
scallops)
Classification of-commodities2204-120114234912-phpapp02
Classification of-commodities2204-120114234912-phpapp02
Classification of-commodities2204-120114234912-phpapp02
Classification of-commodities2204-120114234912-phpapp02
Classification of Fish and 
Shellfish 
Salt or Fresh Water 
Saltwater fish often have a more distinct flavor than 
freshwater fish. 
Some saltwater fish: 
Halibut, cod, and flounder 
Some freshwater varieties: 
Catfish, perch, and pike 
Lean or Fat 
Fish are not very fatty compared to most other meats.
Classification of-commodities2204-120114234912-phpapp02
Composition of Fish 
Structure of Finfish 
Collagen 
Fish are only 3 percent collagen. 
Amino Acid Content 
There is less of a certain amino acid (hydroxyproline). 
Muscle Structure 
The muscles of fish are shorter (less than an inch in 
length). 
This contributes to the characteristic flaking of prepared 
fish.
Purchasing Fish and Shellfish 
Retailers providing consumers with nutrition information 
must abide by the nutrition labeling values provided by the 
FDA for fish and shellfish. 
Fish processors may submit to inspection and grading on a 
voluntary basis. 
The National Marine Fisheries Service of the U.S. 
Department of Commerce is responsible for fish inspections.
Purchasing Fish and Shellfish 
Fish can be purchased fresh or frozen as whole, 
drawn, dressed, steaks, fillets, and sticks.
Purchasing Fish and Shellfish 
Signs of Decay in Fresh Finfish 
Changes that occur in a fish after death are that: 
The eyes flatten and become concave. 
The pupil turns gray or creamy brown. 
The cornea becomes opaque and discolored. 
The bright red gills turn a paler brown. 
Gaping is a sign of aging, or may be a result of 
rough handling.
Purchasing Fish and Shellfish 
Purchasing Processed Shellfish 
Shellfish can also be bought cooked in the shell 
and chilled or frozen. 
Shucked shrimp, scallops, oysters, and clams 
are often breaded and frozen. 
Oysters can be bought live in the shell, or 
shucked and then chilled, frozen, or canned. 
Clams can be bought in the same forms as 
oysters.
Preparation of Fish and Shellfish 
Dry-Heat Preparation 
Baking 
Broiling 
Grilling 
 Frying 
 Deep-Fat Fried 
Moist-Heat Preparation 
Poaching 
Simmering 
Steaming 
 Clambakes are underground steaming. 
Microwaving 
Raw Fish 
 Sashimi (raw fish)
Storage of Fish and Shellfish 
Fresh fish 
Fresh fish are best consumed within a day or two of 
purchase. 
Fish should be stored in the coldest portion of the 
refrigerator. 
It should also be tightly wrapped to prevent odors 
from coming in contact with other foods. 
Fresh Shellfish 
Fresh shellfish should be eaten the day they are bought. 
Crabs, usually sold precooked, should be stored in the 
coldest part of the refrigerator and used within a day or 
two.
Storage of Fish and Shellfish 
Frozen 
Freezing greatly extends the keeping time of 
fish that, depending on the type, can be stored 
in the freezer up to nine months. 
Thawing 
Fish is best thawed by transferring it from the 
freezer to the refrigerator one day before 
preparation. 
Canned and Cured
Fruits 
Fleshy: apple, pineapple, banana, papaya 
Vine : grape, water melon, cantaloupe 
Stone : plum, apricot, lychee, mango 
Citrus : orange, lime, kumquat 
Soft fruits : raspberry, blackberry, strawberry
Fresh Herbs 
Rosemary 
Thyme 
Holy Basil 
Marjoram 
Chervil 
Fenugreek Leaves 
Dill 
Mint leaves 
Hyssop 
Fennel 
Sage 
Lavender 
Lemon Grass 
Tarragon 
Borage 
Chives 
Coriander or Cilantro 
Curry Leaves 
Parsley 
Caraway
Dairy Products 
Milk 
Cheese 
Cream 
Butter 
Ghee 
Butter Milk 
Curd 
Yoghurt
Cereals and Millets 
Cereals are normally staple foods which constitute 
major consumption by populations of the world 
example: 
Rice 
Wheat 
Corn or maize 
Sorghum or Jowar or Egyptian millets 
Ragi or Bhajra or Millets
Pulses and Legumes 
These include all kinds of beans, dry peas, lentils, 
legumes and dals such as: 
Red gram or toor dal, green gram or moong dal, black 
gram or urad dal, bengal gram or channa dal, kidney 
bean or rajma, white broad beans, yellow beans, soya 
beans etc.
Spices Cardamom 
Cloves 
Mace 
Nutmeg 
Cinnamon 
Cumin Seed 
Mustard 
Chillies 
Turmeric 
Coriander Seed 
Ginger 
Garlic 
Pepper Corns 
Caraway Seed 
Fenugreek seed 
Fennel Seed 
Poppy Seed 
Onion Seed 
Saffron 
Sesame Seed
Nuts 
All nuts are about equal in 
terms of calories per ounce, 
and in moderation, are all 
healthy additions to any 
diet. It’s a mix of omega-3 
fatty acids, protein, and 
fiber will help you feel full. 
Nuts are high in fiber and 
vitamin E, as well as 
minerals. Walnuts are rich 
in omega-3 fatty acids.
Spices 
Imagine your food without any spices. Unimaginable, is it? 
What are spices? In the culinary arts the word spice refers to any 
dried part of a plant, other than the leaves, used for seasoning 
and flavoring a recipe, but not used as the main ingredient. 
Why not the leaves? Because the green leafy part of a plant used 
in this way is considered an herb. Every other part of the plant, 
including dried bark, roots, berries, seeds, twigs, or anything else 
that isn't the green leafy part, is considered a spice.
Examples of Spices 
Star Anise 
Cinnamon 
Cardamom 
Bay leaves 
Curry leaves 
Chives 
Cloves 
Coriander
Coloring 
 A digestible substance used to give color to food; "food 
color made from vegetable dyes“. Color additives are 
important components of many products, making them 
attractive, appealing, appetizing, and informative. 
RED/PINK 
Beetroot or Cranberry 
YELLOW/ORANGE 
Carrots or turmeric powder
Flavoring 
A substance, such as an extract or spice, that imparts 
flavor. 
A substance used to give a particular flavor to food or 
drink. 
E.g.: Vanilla flavoring, chicken cube, Ajinomoto.

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Classification of-commodities2204-120114234912-phpapp02

  • 2. Commodities which are used in the kitchen can be broadly classified in to three main categories:  Perishables: Ingredients which have short shelf life ranging from six hours to six days at room temperature such as milk and dairy products, meats, fish, eggs, fruits and vegetables  Semi Perishables: Ingredients which have a longer shelf life ranging from a few weeks to a few months such as cereals, pulses, fats, oils, condiments, spices, flour, proprietary foods etc.  Non Perishables: Ingredients which can be stored indefinitely such as salts, mild acids, sugar, edible colours, some essences etc.
  • 3. Under ground vegetables: roots, tubers, bulbs, rhizomes, pods,etc. Over ground vegetables: Shoots, stems, leaves, fruits, seeds, pods, flowers etc.
  • 10. 1. Red Meat: Lamb, Beef, Pork, Mutton etc. 2. White Meat: Poultry birds such as Chicken, Duck, Turkey etc. and also Fish & Seafood: 3. Game Meat: Animals or Birds which are hunted for their meat and not farm reared, such as wild boar, hare, geese etc.
  • 11. Types of Meats Beef Cattle are classified according to age and gender. 1. Steers are male cattle that have been castrated while young so that they will gain weight quickly. 2. Bulls are older uncast rated males, usually used in processed meats and pet foods. 3. Heifers, females that have not borne a calf, are also used for meat. 4. Cows are female cattle that have borne calves and this meat is less desirable than that from steers or heifers.
  • 12. Types of Meats Veal Comes from calves of beef cattle, either male or female, between the ages of three weeks and three months. Calves three to eight months old are too old for veal and too young for beef.
  • 13. Types of Meats Lamb and Mutton Lamb comes from sheep less than fourteen months old. Mutton from those over fourteen months.
  • 14. Composition of Meats Meats are composed of a combination of: Water , Muscle, Connective tissue, Adipose (fatty) tissue, Bone 1. Collagen: A pearly white, tough, and fibrous protein that provides support to muscle and prevents it from over-stretching. 2. Marbling: Fat deposited in the muscle that can be seen as little white streaks or drops. 3. The animal’s age, diet, and species affect the color and texture of fat
  • 15. Composition of Meats Exposure of meat to oxygen changes the color of myoglobin, and therefore the meat. Cooking meat initially converts the color of raw meat to bright red. The food industry uses several methods to keep meat products from turning brown. One such method is the addition of nitrites to processed meats. Extractives: Flavor compounds consisting of non protein, nitrogen substances that are end-products of protein metabolism.
  • 16. Purchasing Meats To ensure that consumers are purchasing meat that is safe, federal laws require the inspection of animal carcasses. In addition to this mandatory inspection for safety, meat may also be assigned yield grades and the later quality grades to assist consumers in selection. The Federal Meat Inspection Act of 1906 made inspection mandatory for all meat crossing state lines or entering the United States through foreign commerce. The grading of meat is not under government mandate or control, but is a strictly voluntary procedure that the meat packer or distributor may have done under contract with the USDA.
  • 20. Yield grade: The amount of lean meat on the carcass in proportion to fat, bone, and other inedible parts. Marbling: Fat deposited in the muscle that can be seen as little white streaks or drops.
  • 21. Purchasing Meats Tenderness of Meats Overall, natural meat tenderness is due to factors such as the cut, age, and fat content. Meats can also be treated to make them more tender. Preparation temperatures and times also have an influence on tenderness. Grading is affected by Feed grass/hay vs. corn affects outer surface fat and muscle marbling Age at slaughter Breed and breeding history Type of cattle
  • 22. Type of cattle Hereford vs. Angus vs. Longhorn
  • 23. Meat cuts There are two major types of meat cuts, wholesale and retail.
  • 24. Purchase Meat cuts Prior to reaching the supermarket, a carcass is divided into about seven wholesale or primal cuts. Wholesale (primal) cuts: The large cuts of an animal carcass, which are further divided into retail cuts. These wholesale cuts are then divided into the retail cuts purchased by consumers. Retail cuts: Smaller cuts of meat obtained from wholesale cuts and sold to the consumer.
  • 26. Variety meats: The liver, sweetbreads (thymus), brain, kidneys, hear t, tongue, tripe (stomach lining), and oxtail (tail of cattle).
  • 27. Storage of Meats Meat contains high percentages of water and protein, both ideal for the growth of microorganisms. Consequently, meat should be stored in the refrigerator or freezer. Meats are best refrigerated at just above freezing (32°F/0°C), between 32°F and 36°F (0° to 2°C). Wrapping Meat Most retail meats are packaged with plastic wrap and can be refrigerated in their original wrap for up to two days. Frozen Meats to be frozen should be wrapped tightly in aluminum foil, heavy plastic bags, or freezer paper and stored at or below 0°F (18°C).
  • 28. Storage of Meats Wrapping Meat Most retail meats are packaged with plastic wrap and can be refrigerated in their original wrap for up to two days. Frozen Meats to be frozen should be wrapped tightly in aluminum foil, heavy plastic bags, or freezer paper and stored at or below 0°F (18°C).
  • 30. Classification of Poultr y Poultry have been domesticated for over 4,000 years Poultry Has a high protein content Is easier to raise and transport than cows and sheep Is considered a staple on most menus
  • 31. Classification of Poultr y Types of poultry that may be graded Chicken, turkey, duck, geese, and guinea Chickens produce two major protein sources: eggs and meat Many different forms and packaging styles Turkey is popular as a deli meat and in whole bird roasters
  • 32. Classification of game birds Feathered Game Refers to the remaining birds used in food service applications Wild turkey, goose, pheasant, duck, partridge, quail, and woodcock Must be farm-raised (includes free range) Game birds are available whole or precut into pieces Fresh, frozen, or canned (smaller birds) Factors affecting quality Age of the bird and manner of slaughter and packaging Should have springy skin and no “off ” odor
  • 33. Composition of Poultr y and Game birds The composition of poultry (muscle tissue, connective tissue, etc.) is similar to meat. Pigments Turkeys and chickens have both white and dark meat.
  • 34. Purchasing Poultr y and game birds Available from a variety of sources Broad line distributors to local merchants Know your supplier and ensure their sanitary practices Poultry should be delivered at freezing for fresh products or hard frozen Inspect for signs of temperature abuse Poultry has a very short shelf life Use fresh product within three days HACCP guidelines Store raw, un prepped product under raw, prepped product Cooked product should be stored on top Use separate coolers for raw and cooked
  • 35. Purchasing Poultr y and Game Birds Types and Styles of Poultry “Type” refers to whether it is: Fresh Frozen Cooked Sliced Canned Dehydrated  “Style” describes the degree to which it has been cleaned or processed:  Live  Dressed  Ready-to-cook  Convenience categories
  • 36. Purchasing Poultr y and Game Birds Processed Poultry  Processed chicken and turkey are commonly used in:  Canned or dried soups  Frozen dinners  Pot pies  Sausages  Hot dogs  Burgers  Bologna
  • 37. Purchasing Poultr y and Game Birds How Much to Buy  Ready-to-cook poultry contains a good deal of inedible bone and unwanted fat  A good rule of thumb for most poultry is to buy 1 2 pound or ⁄ slightly more per serving.  One of the most economical ways to buy poultry is in its ready-to-cook whole state.
  • 38. Preparation of Poultr y and Game Birds Thawing Frozen Poultry The refrigerator is the best place to thaw frozen birds, and its use requires planning ahead.
  • 39. Preparation of Poultr y and Game Birds Changes During Preparation Properly prepared poultry is tender and juicy, but overcooking causes the flesh to become dry, tough, and stringy.
  • 40. Preparation of Poultr y and Game Birds Determining Doneness  Poultry should always be heated until well done  Doneness may be determined by internal temperature, color changes, and/or touch and time/weight tables.  Poultry is sufficiently cooked when the internal temperature reaches 180° to 185°F (82° to 85°C).  A thermometer placed in the center of any stuffing must reach a minimum temperature of 165°F (74°C).
  • 41. Preparation of Poultr y and Game Birds Color Change . Oven-roasted chicken or turkey will reach a golden brown color. The juices coming out of the bird should run clear. Touch When pressed firmly with one or two fingers, the well-done bird’s flesh will feel firm. White meat may be firmer than dark. Wiggle the drumstick
  • 42. Preparation of Poultr y and Game Birds Dry-Heat Frying Preparation Sautéed Roasting Pan-fried Baking Deep-fried Broiling Stir-fried Grilling
  • 43. Preparation of Poultr y and Game Birds Moist-Heat Preparation Braising Also called fricasseeing Stewing Poaching Microwaving The microwave manufacturers’ instructions should be followed for preparing poultry.
  • 44. Storage of Poultr y and Game Birds Refrigerated Fresh, ready-to-cook poultry can be kept safely in the refrigerator at 40°F (4°C) or below for up to three days. It is best kept in the bottom portion of the refrigerator to prevent its drippings from contaminating other foods. Frozen Frozen whole poultry can be stored from six to twelve months at 0°F (18°C). Breaded or fried poultry should never be thawed and refrozen. Thawing Defrosting is recommended in the refrigerator. Once defrosted, poultry or any other meat should not be refrozen unless it has been cooked.
  • 46. Classification of Fish and Shellfish Vertebrate Finfish Finfish: Fish that have fins and internal skeletons. Invertebrate Shellfish which includes the invertebrate crustaceans and mollusks. Crustacean: An invertebrate animal with a segmented body covered by an exoskeleton consisting of a hard upper shell and a soft under shell. (crab, shrimp,lobster) Mollusk: An invertebrate animal with a soft un segmented body usually enclosed in a shell. (clams, oyster, mussels, scallops)
  • 51. Classification of Fish and Shellfish Salt or Fresh Water Saltwater fish often have a more distinct flavor than freshwater fish. Some saltwater fish: Halibut, cod, and flounder Some freshwater varieties: Catfish, perch, and pike Lean or Fat Fish are not very fatty compared to most other meats.
  • 53. Composition of Fish Structure of Finfish Collagen Fish are only 3 percent collagen. Amino Acid Content There is less of a certain amino acid (hydroxyproline). Muscle Structure The muscles of fish are shorter (less than an inch in length). This contributes to the characteristic flaking of prepared fish.
  • 54. Purchasing Fish and Shellfish Retailers providing consumers with nutrition information must abide by the nutrition labeling values provided by the FDA for fish and shellfish. Fish processors may submit to inspection and grading on a voluntary basis. The National Marine Fisheries Service of the U.S. Department of Commerce is responsible for fish inspections.
  • 55. Purchasing Fish and Shellfish Fish can be purchased fresh or frozen as whole, drawn, dressed, steaks, fillets, and sticks.
  • 56. Purchasing Fish and Shellfish Signs of Decay in Fresh Finfish Changes that occur in a fish after death are that: The eyes flatten and become concave. The pupil turns gray or creamy brown. The cornea becomes opaque and discolored. The bright red gills turn a paler brown. Gaping is a sign of aging, or may be a result of rough handling.
  • 57. Purchasing Fish and Shellfish Purchasing Processed Shellfish Shellfish can also be bought cooked in the shell and chilled or frozen. Shucked shrimp, scallops, oysters, and clams are often breaded and frozen. Oysters can be bought live in the shell, or shucked and then chilled, frozen, or canned. Clams can be bought in the same forms as oysters.
  • 58. Preparation of Fish and Shellfish Dry-Heat Preparation Baking Broiling Grilling  Frying  Deep-Fat Fried Moist-Heat Preparation Poaching Simmering Steaming  Clambakes are underground steaming. Microwaving Raw Fish  Sashimi (raw fish)
  • 59. Storage of Fish and Shellfish Fresh fish Fresh fish are best consumed within a day or two of purchase. Fish should be stored in the coldest portion of the refrigerator. It should also be tightly wrapped to prevent odors from coming in contact with other foods. Fresh Shellfish Fresh shellfish should be eaten the day they are bought. Crabs, usually sold precooked, should be stored in the coldest part of the refrigerator and used within a day or two.
  • 60. Storage of Fish and Shellfish Frozen Freezing greatly extends the keeping time of fish that, depending on the type, can be stored in the freezer up to nine months. Thawing Fish is best thawed by transferring it from the freezer to the refrigerator one day before preparation. Canned and Cured
  • 61. Fruits Fleshy: apple, pineapple, banana, papaya Vine : grape, water melon, cantaloupe Stone : plum, apricot, lychee, mango Citrus : orange, lime, kumquat Soft fruits : raspberry, blackberry, strawberry
  • 62. Fresh Herbs Rosemary Thyme Holy Basil Marjoram Chervil Fenugreek Leaves Dill Mint leaves Hyssop Fennel Sage Lavender Lemon Grass Tarragon Borage Chives Coriander or Cilantro Curry Leaves Parsley Caraway
  • 63. Dairy Products Milk Cheese Cream Butter Ghee Butter Milk Curd Yoghurt
  • 64. Cereals and Millets Cereals are normally staple foods which constitute major consumption by populations of the world example: Rice Wheat Corn or maize Sorghum or Jowar or Egyptian millets Ragi or Bhajra or Millets
  • 65. Pulses and Legumes These include all kinds of beans, dry peas, lentils, legumes and dals such as: Red gram or toor dal, green gram or moong dal, black gram or urad dal, bengal gram or channa dal, kidney bean or rajma, white broad beans, yellow beans, soya beans etc.
  • 66. Spices Cardamom Cloves Mace Nutmeg Cinnamon Cumin Seed Mustard Chillies Turmeric Coriander Seed Ginger Garlic Pepper Corns Caraway Seed Fenugreek seed Fennel Seed Poppy Seed Onion Seed Saffron Sesame Seed
  • 67. Nuts All nuts are about equal in terms of calories per ounce, and in moderation, are all healthy additions to any diet. It’s a mix of omega-3 fatty acids, protein, and fiber will help you feel full. Nuts are high in fiber and vitamin E, as well as minerals. Walnuts are rich in omega-3 fatty acids.
  • 68. Spices Imagine your food without any spices. Unimaginable, is it? What are spices? In the culinary arts the word spice refers to any dried part of a plant, other than the leaves, used for seasoning and flavoring a recipe, but not used as the main ingredient. Why not the leaves? Because the green leafy part of a plant used in this way is considered an herb. Every other part of the plant, including dried bark, roots, berries, seeds, twigs, or anything else that isn't the green leafy part, is considered a spice.
  • 69. Examples of Spices Star Anise Cinnamon Cardamom Bay leaves Curry leaves Chives Cloves Coriander
  • 70. Coloring  A digestible substance used to give color to food; "food color made from vegetable dyes“. Color additives are important components of many products, making them attractive, appealing, appetizing, and informative. RED/PINK Beetroot or Cranberry YELLOW/ORANGE Carrots or turmeric powder
  • 71. Flavoring A substance, such as an extract or spice, that imparts flavor. A substance used to give a particular flavor to food or drink. E.g.: Vanilla flavoring, chicken cube, Ajinomoto.