SlideShare a Scribd company logo
MULTIPERSPECTIVITY
LESSON 11:
 Multiperspectivity: A way of viewing, and predisposition to
view historical events, personalities, developments, cultures,
and societies from different perspectives through drawing on
procedures and processes which are fundamental to history
as a discipline.
 Mutiny: An open rebellion against the proper authorities ,
especially by soldiers and sailors against their officers.
Key Concepts:
Key Concepts:
 Polos y Servicios: A system of forced labored that evolved
from the encomienda system.
 Insurrection: the act or an instance of revolting especially
violently against civil or political authority or against an
established government.
MULTIPERSPECTIVITY
 is a way of looking at historical events, personalities, developments,
cultures, and societies from different This definition tells us that there
are a multitude of ways by which we can view the world, and each
could be equally valid and partial as well. Some could argue that
historical writing is, by definition, biased, one-sided, and contains
preconceptions. Historians decide on what sources to use, what
interpretation to make more apparent, depending on what their
agenda is. Historians may misinterpret evidence, attending to those
that suggest That a particular event happened, and then ignoring the
rest that goes against the evidence.
THE CAVITE MUTINY
The year 1872 is a historic year of two events: the Cavite Mutiny and the
martyrdrom of the three priests, Mariano Gomez, Jose Burgos, and Jacinto
Zamora, later on immortalized as GOMBURZA. These events directly
influenced the decisive events of the the Philippine Revolution toward the
end of the century. While the significance is unquestioned, what made this
year controversial is the different sides of the story, a battle of perspectives
supported by primary. In this case study, we zoom in to the events of the
Cavity Mutiny, a significant factor in the awakening of nationalism among
Filipinos at that time
THE CAVITE MUTINY
 The documentation of Spanish historian Jose Montero y Vidal
centered on how the event was an attempt to overthrow the
Spanish government in the Philippines. Although regarded as
a historian, his account of the mutiny was criticized as
woefully biased and rabid for a scholar. Another account from
the official report written by then Governor-General Rafael
Izquierdo implicated the native clergy, who were active in the
secularization movement. These two accounts corroborated
each other.
THE CAVITE MUTINY IN 1872
THE THREE PRIEST AS GOMBURZA
MARIANO, GOMEZ JOSE, BURGOS JACINTO, ZAMORA
THE THREE PRIEST AS GOMBURZA
 Gomburza, alternatively stylized as GOMBURZA or
GomBurZa, refers to three Filipino Catholic priests, Mariano
Gómes, José Burgos, and Jacinto Zamora, who were
executed by garrote on February 17, 1872, in Bagumbayan,
Philippines by Spanish colonial authorities on charges of
subversion arising from the 1872 Cavite mutiny.
EXCERPT OF MONTERO' S ACCOUNT OF
THE CAVITE MUTINY
The Spanish revolution which overthrew a secular throne; the
propaganda carried on by an unbridled priest against
monarchical principles, attentatory [sic] of the most sacred
respects towards the dethroned majesty, the democratic
and pamphlets, the speeches and preachings of the apostles of
these new ideas in Spain.
EXCERPTS OF MONTERO' S ACCOUNT OF
THE CAVITE MUTINY
The outbursts of the American publicists and the criminal policy
of the senseless Governor whom the Revolutionary government
sent to govern the Philippines, and who put into practice these
ideas were the determining circumstances which gave rise,
among certain Filipinos to the idea of attaining independence. It
was towards this goal that they started to work with the
powerful assistance of a certain section of the native clergy, who
out of spite toward friars.
ANALYSIS OF MONTERO' S ACCOUNT OF
THE CAVITE MUTINY
 José Montero y Vidal was a Spanish historian who interpreted
that the mutiny was an attempt to remove and overthrow the
Spanish colonizers in the Philippines. His account,
corroborated with the account of Governor-General Rafael
Izquierdo, the governor-general of the Philippines at the time
of the mutiny.
ANALYSIS OF MONTERO' S ACCOUNT OF
THE CAVITE MUTINY
 In the beginning of the year 1872, the authorities received
anonymous communications with the information that great
uprising would break out against the Spaniards, the minute
the feet at Cavite left for the South, and that all would be
assassinated, including the friars.
ANALYSIS OF MONTERO' S ACCOUNT OF
THE CAVITE MUTINY
 The conspiracy had been going on since the days of La Torre
with utmost secrecy. At that times the principal leaders met
either in the house of Filipino Spaniard, D. Joaquin Pardo de
Tavern in that of the native priest, Jacinto Zamora, and these
meetings were usually attended by the curate of Bacoor, the
soul of the movement, whose energetic character and immense
wealth enabled him to exercise a strong influence.
EXCERPTS FROM THE OFFICIAL REPORT
OF GOVERNOR RAFAEL IZQUIERDO ON THE
CAVITE MUTINY IN 1872
 It seems definite that the insurrection was motivated and
prepared by the native clergy, by the mestizos and native
lawyers, and by those known here as "abogadillos". The
instigators, to carry out their criminal project, protested against
the injustice of the government in not paying the provinces for
their tobacco crop, and against the usury that some practice in
documents that the finance department gives crop owners who
have to sell them at a loss.
EXCERPTS FROM THE OFFICIAL
REPORT OF GOVERNOR RAFAEL IZQUIERDO ON
THE CAVITE MUTINY IN 1872
 The Indios have no word in their language to describe this
different form of government, whose head in Tagalog would be
called "hari" but it turns out that they would place at the head
of the government a priest... that the head selected would be D.
Jose Burgos, or D. Jacinto Zamora... Such is the plan of the
rebels, those who guided them, and the means they counted
upon for its realization.
 These two accounts underscore the reason for the "revolution":
the abolition of privileges enjoyed by the workers of the Cavite
arsenal such as exemption from payment of tribute and being
employed in Polos y Servicios, or forced labor. They also
identified other reasons which seemingly made the issue a lot
more serious, which included the presence of the native clergy,
who, out of spite against the Spanish friars, "conspired and
supported" the rebels.
ANALYSIS OF THE OFFICIAL REPORT OF
GOVERNOR RAFAEL IZQUIERDO ON THE CAVITE
MUTINY IN 1872
 Izquierdo, in a biased report, highlighted that attempt to
overthrow the Spanish government in the Philippines, to install
a new "hari" in the persons of Fathers Burgos and Zamora.
According to him, native clergy attracted supporters by giving
them the charismatic assurance that their fight will not fail
because they have God's support, aside from promises of high
rewards such as employment, wealth, and ranks in the army.
In the Spaniards' accounts, the event of 1872 was planned and is
part of a big conspiracy among the educated leaders, mestizos,
lawyers, and residents of Manila and Cavite. They allegedly plan
to liquidate high-ranking Spanish officers, then kill the friars .
THE SPANIARD'S ACCOUNT
 The event of 1872 was planned and is part of a big
conspiracy among the educated leaders, mestizos, lawyers,
and residents of Manila and Cavite. They allegedly plan to
liquidate high-ranking Spanish officers, then kill the friars
The signal they identify among these conspirators of Manila
and Cavite Was the rockets fired from Intramuros.
THE SPANIARD'S ACCOUNT
 On the Feast of the Virgin of Loreto, a misunderstanding
occurred in Cavite when a firework display was mistaken as
a signal to start a rebellion. A group of 200 men led by
Sergeant Lamadrid attacked Spanish officers, taking control
of an arsenal. The Spanish authorities quickly sent
reinforcements, quelling the revolt. The expected support
from the Manileños did not materialize, leading to the
failure of the rebellion. Leaders of the plot were killed, and
Fathers Gomez, Burgos, and Zamora were tried and
sentenced to execution. Other individuals, including Joaquin
Pardo de Tavera, Antonio Ma. Regidor, Jose and P Basa,
were also implicated.
THE SPANIARD'S ACCOUNT
 They faced various consequences, with some suspended
from legal practice and others sentenced to life
imprisonment in the Marianas Islands. Governor Izquierdo
disbanded native artillery regiments and established an
exclusively Peninsular force. On 17 February 1872, the
GOMBURZA (short for Gomez, Burgos, and Zamora) were
executed as a deterrent to discourage further Filipino
resistance.

ANALYSIS OF THE SPANIARD'S ACCOUNT
 The incident in Cavite on the Feast of the Virgin of Loreto
underscores the intricate dynamics of Filipino resistance
during the Spanish colonial period. It illuminates how
misunderstandings and internal divisions among the locals
thwarted the rebellion's success.
 The harsh penalties imposed on the leaders and their
associates served as a stark warning against defying Spanish
authority.
EXCERPTS FROM PARDO DE TAVERA'S
ACCOUNT OF THE CAVITE MUTINY
This uprising among the soldiers in Cavite was used as a powerful
level by the Spanish residents and by the friars...the Central
Government in Madrid had announced its intention to deprive
the friars in these islands of powers of intervention in matters of
civil government and of the direction and management of the
university... it was due to these facts and promises that the
Filipinos had great hopes of an improvement in the affairs of their
country, while the friars, on the other hand, feared that their
power in the colony would soon be a complete thing of the past...
 According to this account, the incident was merely a mutiny by
Filipino soldiers and laborers of the Cavite arsenal. Soldiers
and laborers of the arsenal to the dissatisfaction arising from
the draconian policies of Izquierdo, such as the abolition of
privileges and the prohibition of the founding of the school of
arts and trades for Filipinos, which the general saw as a smoke
screen to creating a political club.
EXCERPTS FROM PARDO DE TAVERA'S
ACCOUNT OF THE CAVITE MUTINY
 Tavera believed that the Spanish friars and Izquierdo used the
Cavite Mutiny as a way to address other issues by blowing out
of proportion the isolated mutiny attempt. During this time, the
Central Government in Madrid was planning to deprive the
friars of all the powers of intervention in matters of civil
government and direction and management of educational
institutions. The friars needed something to justify their
continuing dominance in the country, and the mutiny provided
such an opportunity.
EXCERPT FROM PARDO DE TAVERA'S
ACCOUNT OF THE CAVITE MUTINY
Another account, this time by French writer Edmund Plauchut,
complemented Tavera's account and analyzed the motivations of
the Cavite Mutiny.
EXCERPTS FROM PLAUCHUT'S ACCOUNT OF THE
CAVITY MUTINY
General La Torre created a junta composed of high officials
including some friars and six Spanish officials. At the same time
there was created by the government in Madrid a committee to
investigate the same problems submitted to the Manila
committee. When the two finished work, it was found that they
came to the same conclusions. Here is the summary of the
reforms they considered necessary to introduce.
EXCERPTS FROM PLAUCHUT'S ACCOUNT OF
THE CAVITY MUTINY
 Changes in tariff rates at customs, and the methods of
collection
 Removal of surcharges on foreign importations
 Reduction of export fees
 Permission for foreigners to reside in the Philippines, buy real
estate enjoy freedom of worship, and operate commercial
transports flying the Spanish flag .
 Establishment of an advisory council to inform the Minister of
Oversea Affairs in Madrid on the necessary reforms to be
implemented.
Excerpts from Plauchut's Account of the Cavite Mutiny
 Changes in primary and secondary education. 6
 Establishment of an Institute of Civil Administration in the
Philippines, rendering unnecessary the sending home of
short-term civil officials every time there is a change of
ministry
 Study of direct-tax system.
 Abolition of the tobacco monopoly.
EXCERPT FROM PLAUCHUT'S ACCOUNT OF THE
CAVITE MUTINY
The arrival in Manila of General Izquierdo put a sudden end to
all dreams of reforms... the prosecutions instituted by the new
Governor General were probably expected as a result of the
bitter disputes between the Filipino clerics and the friars. Such a
policy must really end in a strong desire on the part of the other
to repress cruelly.
EXCERPT FROM PLAUCHUT'S ACCOUNT OF THE
CAVITE MUTINY
In Manila a Society of Arts and Trades to be opened in March
of 1871 to repress the growth of liberal teachings, General
Izquierdo suspended the opening of the school the day previous
to the scheduled inauguration.
EXCERPTS FROM PLAUCHUT'S ACCOUNT OF THE
CAVITE MUTINY
The Filipino's had a duty to render service on public road
construction and pay taxes every year. But those who where
employed at the maestranza of the artillery, in the engineering
shops and arsenal of Cavite, were exempted from this obligation
since time immemorial.
EXCERPTS FROM PLAUCHUT'S ACCOUNT OF THE
CAVITE MUTINY
The friars used the incident as a part of a large conspiracy to
cement their dominance, which has started to show cracks
because of the discontent of the Filipinos. They showcased the
mutiny a pan of a broader plot by Filipino's overthrow the
Spanish government. Unintentionally and more so prophetically
the Cavite Mutiny of 1872 resulted in the martyrdom of
GOMBURZA and paved the way to revolution culminating in
1898.
THE CRY OF REBELLION
Momentous events swept the Spanish colonies in the late
nineteen century, including the Philippines. Journalists of the
time referred to the phrase El Grito de Rebelian or Cry of
Rebellion to mark the start of these revolutionary events,
identifying the places where it happened in the Philippines this
happened in August 1896, Northeast of Manila, where the
Katipuneros declared rebellion against Spain. These events are
essential markers in the history of colonies that struggled for
their independence against their colonizers.
THE CRY OF REBELLION
THE CRY OF REBELLION
 The controversy regarding this event stems from the
identification of the date and place where the Cry happened.
Prominent Filipino historian Teodoro Agoncillo
emphasized the event when Bonifacio tore the cedula or tax
receipt before the Katipuneros, who also did the same. Some
writers identified the first military event with the Spaniards
as the moment of the Cry, for which Emilio Aguinaldo
commissioned an "Himno de Balintawak" to inspire the
renewed struggle after the Pact of the of Biak na Bato failed.
THE CRY OF REBELLION
 A monument to the Heroes of 1896 was erected in what is
now the intersection of Epifanio de los Santos (EDSA)
Avenue and Andres Bonifacio Drive-North Diversion road,
and from then on until 1962, the Cry Balintawak was
celebrated every 26 August. The site of the monument was
chose for an unknown reason.
ACCOUNT OF THE CRY
On August 26th, a significant meeting took place at Apolonio
Samson's residence in Balintawak, where he served as the cabeza
(local leader) of the Caloocan barrio. The attendees included
prominent figures such as Bonifacio, Emilio Jacinto, Aguedo del
Rosario, Tomas Remigio, Bricco Pantas, Teodor Plata, Pio
Valenzuela, Enrique Pacheco, and Francisco Carreon. These
individuals were all influential leaders within the Kalipunan and
formed the organization's board of directors.
GUILLERMO, MANGSAKAY
ACCOUNT OF THE CRY
This passage describes the early activities of the Katipunan, a
Filipino revolutionary society, in August 1896. Andres Bonifacio,
Emilio Jacinto, Procopio Bonifacio, Teodoro Plata, Aguedo del
Rosario, and the author sought refuge in Balintawak. On August
22, 1896, around 500 Katipunan members gathered at Apolonio
Samson's house and yard in Kangkong. Notable attendees
included Briccio Pantas, Alejandro Santiago, Ramon Bernardo,
and others. However, no formal resolutions were made, and the
meeting mainly involved exchanging views.
PIO, VALENZUELA
ACCOUNT OF THE CRY
In August 1896, a group of over 500 Katipuneros, led by the
Supremo Andres Bonifacio, gathered in Kangkong at the house
of Brother Apolonio Sanen. They were armed with various
weapons, including revolvers and a hunting rifle. Concerned
about potential enemy interception of couriers carrying
important letters, Bonifacio decided to relocate to a site called
Bahay Toro, where their numbers grew to over a thousand.
SANTIAGO, ALVAREZ
ACCOUNT OF THE CRY
From the eyewitness accounts presented, there is indeed marked
disagreement among historical witnesses as to the place and time
of the occurrence of the Cry Four sites have been identified using
primary and secondary sources: Balintawak Kangkong Pugad
Lawin, and Bahay Toro, while the dates vary 23, 24, 25, or 26
August 1896 Historian Jim Richardson organized all proposition.
PHILIPPINE AMERICAN WAR
INSURRECTION
 The Philippine-American War continued the struggle for
independence of Filipino revolutionaries against Spain.
This time, it was against a new colonizer the United States.
In April 1898, the United States went to war with Spain,
and on May 1, the Americans destroyed the Spanish fleet
in Manila Bay. The Filipino revolutionary leaders, exiled in
Hong Kong, returned to the Philippines, and General
Emilio Aguinaldo established a government and gained
control of much of Luzon by June 1898.
PHILIPPINE AMERICAN WAR
INSURRECTION
PHILIPPINE AMERICAN WAR
INSURRECTION
 During this time, the US government under
President William McKinley was interested in the
Philippines and its commercial potential. Spain ceded the
Philippines to the United States in the Treaty of Paris in
December 1898, and fighting broke out between
Aguinaldo's forces and the U.S. troops in Manila.
The Filipinas were adamant in their desire to resist the
U.S. takeover.
PRESIDENT WILLIAM MCKINLEY
The war had two phases. The first phase was dominated by
Aguinaldo's failed conventional warfare against the better trained
and equipped U.S. troops, lasting from February to November
1899. The second phase was marked by the Filipinos shift to
guerrilla warfare, which lasted from November 1899 until 1902,
when U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt declared the conflict
over. The fighting on the side of the Filipinos continued, sporadic
and periodic, until 1913.
The Philippine-American War, spanning from 1899 to 1902,
consisted of two distinct phases. The initial phase witnessed
Filipino leader Emilio Aguinaldo's unsuccessful attempts at
conventional warfare against better-equipped U.S. forces. This
phase lasted from February to November 1899. Subsequently, the
conflict evolved into guerrilla warfare, with Filipino forces
adapting their strategies. This guerrilla phase persisted until 1902,
when U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt declared an end to the
conflict. Notably, sporadic fighting by Filipino insurgents
continued until 1913.
Historians have disagreed on what to call the war between the
United States and the Philippines. Historically, the US
government has referred to it as the Philippine Insurrection.
Insurrection is defined as "a violent uprising against an authority
or government." Scholars, especially Filipinos, refer to the conflict
as "the Philippine-American War," as war is defined as "a state of
armed conflict between nations, states, or different groups within
a nation's state."
The Philippines was already a territory of the United States
under the treaty of Paris in 1899. The United States did not
recognize Aguinaldo's government and deemed any challenge
made by Filipino's an insurgency, and insurrection.
LESSON SUMMARY
 Multiperspectivity is a way of interpreting history by looking
at different perspectives of the past. There is no single
objective narrative of historical events. Instead, multiple
coexisting perspectives of the past could be equally valid and
also equally partial.
 The Spanish regime under the reactionary Governor-General
Izquierdo magnified the Cavite Mutiny and used it to
persecute Filipinos who had been advocating reform in the
government. A closer look at other primary sources shows
that the mutiny was caused by an order to subject some
soldiers to personal taxes, from which they were previously
exempt.
LESSON SUMMARY
 There are different competing accounts of the Cry of Rebellion
that started the Philippine Revolution. While some historians
agree that the precise dates and location are not exceptionally
important, many are still convinced that more in-depth
research needs to be done to mark this important event
accurately.
 The Philippine-American War, the continuation of the
struggle for independence, is not an insurgency. To refer to it
as the "Philippine Insurrection" is to demote the memory of
the Philippine Revolution, the struggle for independence, and
the creation of the Filipino nation.

More Related Content

What's hot

THE REVOLUTIONARY MOVEMENT (PROPAGANDA AND KATIPUNAN)
THE REVOLUTIONARY MOVEMENT (PROPAGANDA AND KATIPUNAN)THE REVOLUTIONARY MOVEMENT (PROPAGANDA AND KATIPUNAN)
THE REVOLUTIONARY MOVEMENT (PROPAGANDA AND KATIPUNAN)
shielamae026
 
Spanish Conquest of the Islands
Spanish Conquest of the IslandsSpanish Conquest of the Islands
Spanish Conquest of the Islands
Noel Jopson
 
The results of propaganda movement
The results of propaganda movementThe results of propaganda movement
The results of propaganda movement
Dinosaur Lover
 

What's hot (20)

Propaganda movement
Propaganda  movementPropaganda  movement
Propaganda movement
 
The katipunan
The katipunanThe katipunan
The katipunan
 
PHILIPPINE HISTORY
PHILIPPINE HISTORYPHILIPPINE HISTORY
PHILIPPINE HISTORY
 
Magalat revolution
Magalat revolutionMagalat revolution
Magalat revolution
 
American Occupation in the Philippines
American Occupation in the PhilippinesAmerican Occupation in the Philippines
American Occupation in the Philippines
 
Filipino revolts
Filipino revoltsFilipino revolts
Filipino revolts
 
1872 CAVITE MUTINY .pptx
1872 CAVITE MUTINY .pptx1872 CAVITE MUTINY .pptx
1872 CAVITE MUTINY .pptx
 
American colonial rule
American colonial ruleAmerican colonial rule
American colonial rule
 
The Beginnings of Filipino Nationalism
The Beginnings of Filipino NationalismThe Beginnings of Filipino Nationalism
The Beginnings of Filipino Nationalism
 
THE REVOLUTIONARY MOVEMENT (PROPAGANDA AND KATIPUNAN)
THE REVOLUTIONARY MOVEMENT (PROPAGANDA AND KATIPUNAN)THE REVOLUTIONARY MOVEMENT (PROPAGANDA AND KATIPUNAN)
THE REVOLUTIONARY MOVEMENT (PROPAGANDA AND KATIPUNAN)
 
Spanish Conquest of the Islands
Spanish Conquest of the IslandsSpanish Conquest of the Islands
Spanish Conquest of the Islands
 
The results of propaganda movement
The results of propaganda movementThe results of propaganda movement
The results of propaganda movement
 
Bonifacio and the katipunan
Bonifacio and the katipunanBonifacio and the katipunan
Bonifacio and the katipunan
 
Hist2 9 the reform movement and the revolution
Hist2   9 the reform movement and the revolutionHist2   9 the reform movement and the revolution
Hist2 9 the reform movement and the revolution
 
ANG MGA PROPAGANDISTA 6
ANG MGA PROPAGANDISTA 6ANG MGA PROPAGANDISTA 6
ANG MGA PROPAGANDISTA 6
 
Nationalism
NationalismNationalism
Nationalism
 
The founding of the katipunan
The founding of the katipunanThe founding of the katipunan
The founding of the katipunan
 
The Spanish Period Philippine History
The Spanish Period Philippine History  The Spanish Period Philippine History
The Spanish Period Philippine History
 
Act of Declaration of Philippine Independence BY: Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista
Act of Declaration of Philippine Independence BY: Ambrosio Rianzares BautistaAct of Declaration of Philippine Independence BY: Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista
Act of Declaration of Philippine Independence BY: Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista
 
Proclamation of the Philippine Independence.pptx
Proclamation of the Philippine Independence.pptxProclamation of the Philippine Independence.pptx
Proclamation of the Philippine Independence.pptx
 

Similar to Lesson 11 Multiperspectivity.pptx

Cavite-Mutiny-1.pptx riph reporting in history
Cavite-Mutiny-1.pptx riph reporting in historyCavite-Mutiny-1.pptx riph reporting in history
Cavite-Mutiny-1.pptx riph reporting in history
zorolite26
 

Similar to Lesson 11 Multiperspectivity.pptx (20)

aleve.pptx
aleve.pptxaleve.pptx
aleve.pptx
 
RPH-Module-3- history of first mass in limasawa
RPH-Module-3- history of first mass in limasawaRPH-Module-3- history of first mass in limasawa
RPH-Module-3- history of first mass in limasawa
 
20-MARCH-2023-cavite-mutiny-2 (1).doc
20-MARCH-2023-cavite-mutiny-2 (1).doc20-MARCH-2023-cavite-mutiny-2 (1).doc
20-MARCH-2023-cavite-mutiny-2 (1).doc
 
extracted-from-file.pptx
extracted-from-file.pptxextracted-from-file.pptx
extracted-from-file.pptx
 
Document-2.docx
Document-2.docxDocument-2.docx
Document-2.docx
 
Topic 4 - Cavite Mutiny.pdf
Topic 4 - Cavite Mutiny.pdfTopic 4 - Cavite Mutiny.pdf
Topic 4 - Cavite Mutiny.pdf
 
Topic 4 - Cavite Mutiny.pdf
Topic 4 - Cavite Mutiny.pdfTopic 4 - Cavite Mutiny.pdf
Topic 4 - Cavite Mutiny.pdf
 
1. The Cavite Mutiny
1. The Cavite Mutiny 1. The Cavite Mutiny
1. The Cavite Mutiny
 
Philippine History cavite Mutiny Report.ppt
Philippine History cavite Mutiny Report.pptPhilippine History cavite Mutiny Report.ppt
Philippine History cavite Mutiny Report.ppt
 
Cavite Mutiny Powerpoint Presentation.pptx
Cavite Mutiny Powerpoint Presentation.pptxCavite Mutiny Powerpoint Presentation.pptx
Cavite Mutiny Powerpoint Presentation.pptx
 
Cavite Mutiny Powerpoint presentation.pdf
Cavite Mutiny Powerpoint presentation.pdfCavite Mutiny Powerpoint presentation.pdf
Cavite Mutiny Powerpoint presentation.pdf
 
Presentation.pptx
Presentation.pptxPresentation.pptx
Presentation.pptx
 
Cavite-Mutiny-1.pptx riph reporting in history
Cavite-Mutiny-1.pptx riph reporting in historyCavite-Mutiny-1.pptx riph reporting in history
Cavite-Mutiny-1.pptx riph reporting in history
 
-1872-Cavite-Mutiny.ppt
-1872-Cavite-Mutiny.ppt-1872-Cavite-Mutiny.ppt
-1872-Cavite-Mutiny.ppt
 
Reinforcement Activity Cavite Mutiny.pdf
Reinforcement Activity Cavite Mutiny.pdfReinforcement Activity Cavite Mutiny.pdf
Reinforcement Activity Cavite Mutiny.pdf
 
Group-2-Cavite-Mutiny.pptx
Group-2-Cavite-Mutiny.pptxGroup-2-Cavite-Mutiny.pptx
Group-2-Cavite-Mutiny.pptx
 
Mexicanos
MexicanosMexicanos
Mexicanos
 
1872 CAVITE MUTINY .pptx
1872 CAVITE MUTINY .pptx1872 CAVITE MUTINY .pptx
1872 CAVITE MUTINY .pptx
 
pptx_20230312_131217_0000.pptx
pptx_20230312_131217_0000.pptxpptx_20230312_131217_0000.pptx
pptx_20230312_131217_0000.pptx
 
PHILIPPINE-INDEPENDENCE
PHILIPPINE-INDEPENDENCEPHILIPPINE-INDEPENDENCE
PHILIPPINE-INDEPENDENCE
 

More from JuneKierLanayon

More from JuneKierLanayon (6)

PurCom_Group_6_Maranao_pptsfdghjkhjgfghjhgfd
PurCom_Group_6_Maranao_pptsfdghjkhjgfghjhgfdPurCom_Group_6_Maranao_pptsfdghjkhjgfghjhgfd
PurCom_Group_6_Maranao_pptsfdghjkhjgfghjhgfd
 
ge2understanding the selfhjgvedwekbwe.pptx
ge2understanding the selfhjgvedwekbwe.pptxge2understanding the selfhjgvedwekbwe.pptx
ge2understanding the selfhjgvedwekbwe.pptx
 
The Internet and the World Wide Web.pptx
The Internet and the World Wide Web.pptxThe Internet and the World Wide Web.pptx
The Internet and the World Wide Web.pptx
 
RPH UNIT1 LESSONS 1-4.pptx
RPH UNIT1 LESSONS 1-4.pptxRPH UNIT1 LESSONS 1-4.pptx
RPH UNIT1 LESSONS 1-4.pptx
 
fashion-morandi-business-ppt-template.pptx
fashion-morandi-business-ppt-template.pptxfashion-morandi-business-ppt-template.pptx
fashion-morandi-business-ppt-template.pptx
 
Media-and-Information-Literacy-MIL-Opportunities-Challenges.pptx
Media-and-Information-Literacy-MIL-Opportunities-Challenges.pptxMedia-and-Information-Literacy-MIL-Opportunities-Challenges.pptx
Media-and-Information-Literacy-MIL-Opportunities-Challenges.pptx
 

Recently uploaded

ppt your views.ppt your views of your college in your eyes
ppt your views.ppt your views of your college in your eyesppt your views.ppt your views of your college in your eyes
ppt your views.ppt your views of your college in your eyes
ashishpaul799
 
The basics of sentences session 4pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 4pptx.pptxThe basics of sentences session 4pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 4pptx.pptx
heathfieldcps1
 
Neurulation and the formation of the neural tube
Neurulation and the formation of the neural tubeNeurulation and the formation of the neural tube
Neurulation and the formation of the neural tube
SaadHumayun7
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Gyanartha SciBizTech Quiz slideshare.pptx
Gyanartha SciBizTech Quiz slideshare.pptxGyanartha SciBizTech Quiz slideshare.pptx
Gyanartha SciBizTech Quiz slideshare.pptx
 
Basic_QTL_Marker-assisted_Selection_Sourabh.ppt
Basic_QTL_Marker-assisted_Selection_Sourabh.pptBasic_QTL_Marker-assisted_Selection_Sourabh.ppt
Basic_QTL_Marker-assisted_Selection_Sourabh.ppt
 
ppt your views.ppt your views of your college in your eyes
ppt your views.ppt your views of your college in your eyesppt your views.ppt your views of your college in your eyes
ppt your views.ppt your views of your college in your eyes
 
An Overview of the Odoo 17 Discuss App.pptx
An Overview of the Odoo 17 Discuss App.pptxAn Overview of the Odoo 17 Discuss App.pptx
An Overview of the Odoo 17 Discuss App.pptx
 
The Benefits and Challenges of Open Educational Resources
The Benefits and Challenges of Open Educational ResourcesThe Benefits and Challenges of Open Educational Resources
The Benefits and Challenges of Open Educational Resources
 
Basic Civil Engg Notes_Chapter-6_Environment Pollution & Engineering
Basic Civil Engg Notes_Chapter-6_Environment Pollution & EngineeringBasic Civil Engg Notes_Chapter-6_Environment Pollution & Engineering
Basic Civil Engg Notes_Chapter-6_Environment Pollution & Engineering
 
slides CapTechTalks Webinar May 2024 Alexander Perry.pptx
slides CapTechTalks Webinar May 2024 Alexander Perry.pptxslides CapTechTalks Webinar May 2024 Alexander Perry.pptx
slides CapTechTalks Webinar May 2024 Alexander Perry.pptx
 
B.ed spl. HI pdusu exam paper-2023-24.pdf
B.ed spl. HI pdusu exam paper-2023-24.pdfB.ed spl. HI pdusu exam paper-2023-24.pdf
B.ed spl. HI pdusu exam paper-2023-24.pdf
 
[GDSC YCCE] Build with AI Online Presentation
[GDSC YCCE] Build with AI Online Presentation[GDSC YCCE] Build with AI Online Presentation
[GDSC YCCE] Build with AI Online Presentation
 
The basics of sentences session 4pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 4pptx.pptxThe basics of sentences session 4pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 4pptx.pptx
 
Post Exam Fun(da) Intra UEM General Quiz - Finals.pdf
Post Exam Fun(da) Intra UEM General Quiz - Finals.pdfPost Exam Fun(da) Intra UEM General Quiz - Finals.pdf
Post Exam Fun(da) Intra UEM General Quiz - Finals.pdf
 
Basic phrases for greeting and assisting costumers
Basic phrases for greeting and assisting costumersBasic phrases for greeting and assisting costumers
Basic phrases for greeting and assisting costumers
 
“O BEIJO” EM ARTE .
“O BEIJO” EM ARTE                       .“O BEIJO” EM ARTE                       .
“O BEIJO” EM ARTE .
 
Word Stress rules esl .pptx
Word Stress rules esl               .pptxWord Stress rules esl               .pptx
Word Stress rules esl .pptx
 
Neurulation and the formation of the neural tube
Neurulation and the formation of the neural tubeNeurulation and the formation of the neural tube
Neurulation and the formation of the neural tube
 
The impact of social media on mental health and well-being has been a topic o...
The impact of social media on mental health and well-being has been a topic o...The impact of social media on mental health and well-being has been a topic o...
The impact of social media on mental health and well-being has been a topic o...
 
Features of Video Calls in the Discuss Module in Odoo 17
Features of Video Calls in the Discuss Module in Odoo 17Features of Video Calls in the Discuss Module in Odoo 17
Features of Video Calls in the Discuss Module in Odoo 17
 
Post Exam Fun(da) Intra UEM General Quiz 2024 - Prelims q&a.pdf
Post Exam Fun(da) Intra UEM General Quiz 2024 - Prelims q&a.pdfPost Exam Fun(da) Intra UEM General Quiz 2024 - Prelims q&a.pdf
Post Exam Fun(da) Intra UEM General Quiz 2024 - Prelims q&a.pdf
 
How to the fix Attribute Error in odoo 17
How to the fix Attribute Error in odoo 17How to the fix Attribute Error in odoo 17
How to the fix Attribute Error in odoo 17
 
size separation d pharm 1st year pharmaceutics
size separation d pharm 1st year pharmaceuticssize separation d pharm 1st year pharmaceutics
size separation d pharm 1st year pharmaceutics
 

Lesson 11 Multiperspectivity.pptx

  • 2.  Multiperspectivity: A way of viewing, and predisposition to view historical events, personalities, developments, cultures, and societies from different perspectives through drawing on procedures and processes which are fundamental to history as a discipline.  Mutiny: An open rebellion against the proper authorities , especially by soldiers and sailors against their officers. Key Concepts:
  • 3. Key Concepts:  Polos y Servicios: A system of forced labored that evolved from the encomienda system.  Insurrection: the act or an instance of revolting especially violently against civil or political authority or against an established government.
  • 4. MULTIPERSPECTIVITY  is a way of looking at historical events, personalities, developments, cultures, and societies from different This definition tells us that there are a multitude of ways by which we can view the world, and each could be equally valid and partial as well. Some could argue that historical writing is, by definition, biased, one-sided, and contains preconceptions. Historians decide on what sources to use, what interpretation to make more apparent, depending on what their agenda is. Historians may misinterpret evidence, attending to those that suggest That a particular event happened, and then ignoring the rest that goes against the evidence.
  • 5. THE CAVITE MUTINY The year 1872 is a historic year of two events: the Cavite Mutiny and the martyrdrom of the three priests, Mariano Gomez, Jose Burgos, and Jacinto Zamora, later on immortalized as GOMBURZA. These events directly influenced the decisive events of the the Philippine Revolution toward the end of the century. While the significance is unquestioned, what made this year controversial is the different sides of the story, a battle of perspectives supported by primary. In this case study, we zoom in to the events of the Cavity Mutiny, a significant factor in the awakening of nationalism among Filipinos at that time
  • 6. THE CAVITE MUTINY  The documentation of Spanish historian Jose Montero y Vidal centered on how the event was an attempt to overthrow the Spanish government in the Philippines. Although regarded as a historian, his account of the mutiny was criticized as woefully biased and rabid for a scholar. Another account from the official report written by then Governor-General Rafael Izquierdo implicated the native clergy, who were active in the secularization movement. These two accounts corroborated each other.
  • 8. THE THREE PRIEST AS GOMBURZA MARIANO, GOMEZ JOSE, BURGOS JACINTO, ZAMORA
  • 9. THE THREE PRIEST AS GOMBURZA  Gomburza, alternatively stylized as GOMBURZA or GomBurZa, refers to three Filipino Catholic priests, Mariano Gómes, José Burgos, and Jacinto Zamora, who were executed by garrote on February 17, 1872, in Bagumbayan, Philippines by Spanish colonial authorities on charges of subversion arising from the 1872 Cavite mutiny.
  • 10. EXCERPT OF MONTERO' S ACCOUNT OF THE CAVITE MUTINY The Spanish revolution which overthrew a secular throne; the propaganda carried on by an unbridled priest against monarchical principles, attentatory [sic] of the most sacred respects towards the dethroned majesty, the democratic and pamphlets, the speeches and preachings of the apostles of these new ideas in Spain.
  • 11. EXCERPTS OF MONTERO' S ACCOUNT OF THE CAVITE MUTINY The outbursts of the American publicists and the criminal policy of the senseless Governor whom the Revolutionary government sent to govern the Philippines, and who put into practice these ideas were the determining circumstances which gave rise, among certain Filipinos to the idea of attaining independence. It was towards this goal that they started to work with the powerful assistance of a certain section of the native clergy, who out of spite toward friars.
  • 12. ANALYSIS OF MONTERO' S ACCOUNT OF THE CAVITE MUTINY  José Montero y Vidal was a Spanish historian who interpreted that the mutiny was an attempt to remove and overthrow the Spanish colonizers in the Philippines. His account, corroborated with the account of Governor-General Rafael Izquierdo, the governor-general of the Philippines at the time of the mutiny.
  • 13. ANALYSIS OF MONTERO' S ACCOUNT OF THE CAVITE MUTINY  In the beginning of the year 1872, the authorities received anonymous communications with the information that great uprising would break out against the Spaniards, the minute the feet at Cavite left for the South, and that all would be assassinated, including the friars.
  • 14. ANALYSIS OF MONTERO' S ACCOUNT OF THE CAVITE MUTINY  The conspiracy had been going on since the days of La Torre with utmost secrecy. At that times the principal leaders met either in the house of Filipino Spaniard, D. Joaquin Pardo de Tavern in that of the native priest, Jacinto Zamora, and these meetings were usually attended by the curate of Bacoor, the soul of the movement, whose energetic character and immense wealth enabled him to exercise a strong influence.
  • 15. EXCERPTS FROM THE OFFICIAL REPORT OF GOVERNOR RAFAEL IZQUIERDO ON THE CAVITE MUTINY IN 1872  It seems definite that the insurrection was motivated and prepared by the native clergy, by the mestizos and native lawyers, and by those known here as "abogadillos". The instigators, to carry out their criminal project, protested against the injustice of the government in not paying the provinces for their tobacco crop, and against the usury that some practice in documents that the finance department gives crop owners who have to sell them at a loss.
  • 16. EXCERPTS FROM THE OFFICIAL REPORT OF GOVERNOR RAFAEL IZQUIERDO ON THE CAVITE MUTINY IN 1872  The Indios have no word in their language to describe this different form of government, whose head in Tagalog would be called "hari" but it turns out that they would place at the head of the government a priest... that the head selected would be D. Jose Burgos, or D. Jacinto Zamora... Such is the plan of the rebels, those who guided them, and the means they counted upon for its realization.
  • 17.  These two accounts underscore the reason for the "revolution": the abolition of privileges enjoyed by the workers of the Cavite arsenal such as exemption from payment of tribute and being employed in Polos y Servicios, or forced labor. They also identified other reasons which seemingly made the issue a lot more serious, which included the presence of the native clergy, who, out of spite against the Spanish friars, "conspired and supported" the rebels.
  • 18. ANALYSIS OF THE OFFICIAL REPORT OF GOVERNOR RAFAEL IZQUIERDO ON THE CAVITE MUTINY IN 1872  Izquierdo, in a biased report, highlighted that attempt to overthrow the Spanish government in the Philippines, to install a new "hari" in the persons of Fathers Burgos and Zamora. According to him, native clergy attracted supporters by giving them the charismatic assurance that their fight will not fail because they have God's support, aside from promises of high rewards such as employment, wealth, and ranks in the army.
  • 19. In the Spaniards' accounts, the event of 1872 was planned and is part of a big conspiracy among the educated leaders, mestizos, lawyers, and residents of Manila and Cavite. They allegedly plan to liquidate high-ranking Spanish officers, then kill the friars .
  • 20. THE SPANIARD'S ACCOUNT  The event of 1872 was planned and is part of a big conspiracy among the educated leaders, mestizos, lawyers, and residents of Manila and Cavite. They allegedly plan to liquidate high-ranking Spanish officers, then kill the friars The signal they identify among these conspirators of Manila and Cavite Was the rockets fired from Intramuros.
  • 21. THE SPANIARD'S ACCOUNT  On the Feast of the Virgin of Loreto, a misunderstanding occurred in Cavite when a firework display was mistaken as a signal to start a rebellion. A group of 200 men led by Sergeant Lamadrid attacked Spanish officers, taking control of an arsenal. The Spanish authorities quickly sent reinforcements, quelling the revolt. The expected support from the Manileños did not materialize, leading to the failure of the rebellion. Leaders of the plot were killed, and Fathers Gomez, Burgos, and Zamora were tried and sentenced to execution. Other individuals, including Joaquin Pardo de Tavera, Antonio Ma. Regidor, Jose and P Basa, were also implicated.
  • 22. THE SPANIARD'S ACCOUNT  They faced various consequences, with some suspended from legal practice and others sentenced to life imprisonment in the Marianas Islands. Governor Izquierdo disbanded native artillery regiments and established an exclusively Peninsular force. On 17 February 1872, the GOMBURZA (short for Gomez, Burgos, and Zamora) were executed as a deterrent to discourage further Filipino resistance. 
  • 23. ANALYSIS OF THE SPANIARD'S ACCOUNT  The incident in Cavite on the Feast of the Virgin of Loreto underscores the intricate dynamics of Filipino resistance during the Spanish colonial period. It illuminates how misunderstandings and internal divisions among the locals thwarted the rebellion's success.  The harsh penalties imposed on the leaders and their associates served as a stark warning against defying Spanish authority.
  • 24. EXCERPTS FROM PARDO DE TAVERA'S ACCOUNT OF THE CAVITE MUTINY This uprising among the soldiers in Cavite was used as a powerful level by the Spanish residents and by the friars...the Central Government in Madrid had announced its intention to deprive the friars in these islands of powers of intervention in matters of civil government and of the direction and management of the university... it was due to these facts and promises that the Filipinos had great hopes of an improvement in the affairs of their country, while the friars, on the other hand, feared that their power in the colony would soon be a complete thing of the past...
  • 25.  According to this account, the incident was merely a mutiny by Filipino soldiers and laborers of the Cavite arsenal. Soldiers and laborers of the arsenal to the dissatisfaction arising from the draconian policies of Izquierdo, such as the abolition of privileges and the prohibition of the founding of the school of arts and trades for Filipinos, which the general saw as a smoke screen to creating a political club. EXCERPTS FROM PARDO DE TAVERA'S ACCOUNT OF THE CAVITE MUTINY
  • 26.  Tavera believed that the Spanish friars and Izquierdo used the Cavite Mutiny as a way to address other issues by blowing out of proportion the isolated mutiny attempt. During this time, the Central Government in Madrid was planning to deprive the friars of all the powers of intervention in matters of civil government and direction and management of educational institutions. The friars needed something to justify their continuing dominance in the country, and the mutiny provided such an opportunity. EXCERPT FROM PARDO DE TAVERA'S ACCOUNT OF THE CAVITE MUTINY
  • 27. Another account, this time by French writer Edmund Plauchut, complemented Tavera's account and analyzed the motivations of the Cavite Mutiny.
  • 28. EXCERPTS FROM PLAUCHUT'S ACCOUNT OF THE CAVITY MUTINY General La Torre created a junta composed of high officials including some friars and six Spanish officials. At the same time there was created by the government in Madrid a committee to investigate the same problems submitted to the Manila committee. When the two finished work, it was found that they came to the same conclusions. Here is the summary of the reforms they considered necessary to introduce.
  • 29. EXCERPTS FROM PLAUCHUT'S ACCOUNT OF THE CAVITY MUTINY  Changes in tariff rates at customs, and the methods of collection  Removal of surcharges on foreign importations  Reduction of export fees  Permission for foreigners to reside in the Philippines, buy real estate enjoy freedom of worship, and operate commercial transports flying the Spanish flag .  Establishment of an advisory council to inform the Minister of Oversea Affairs in Madrid on the necessary reforms to be implemented.
  • 30. Excerpts from Plauchut's Account of the Cavite Mutiny  Changes in primary and secondary education. 6  Establishment of an Institute of Civil Administration in the Philippines, rendering unnecessary the sending home of short-term civil officials every time there is a change of ministry  Study of direct-tax system.  Abolition of the tobacco monopoly.
  • 31. EXCERPT FROM PLAUCHUT'S ACCOUNT OF THE CAVITE MUTINY The arrival in Manila of General Izquierdo put a sudden end to all dreams of reforms... the prosecutions instituted by the new Governor General were probably expected as a result of the bitter disputes between the Filipino clerics and the friars. Such a policy must really end in a strong desire on the part of the other to repress cruelly.
  • 32. EXCERPT FROM PLAUCHUT'S ACCOUNT OF THE CAVITE MUTINY In Manila a Society of Arts and Trades to be opened in March of 1871 to repress the growth of liberal teachings, General Izquierdo suspended the opening of the school the day previous to the scheduled inauguration.
  • 33. EXCERPTS FROM PLAUCHUT'S ACCOUNT OF THE CAVITE MUTINY The Filipino's had a duty to render service on public road construction and pay taxes every year. But those who where employed at the maestranza of the artillery, in the engineering shops and arsenal of Cavite, were exempted from this obligation since time immemorial.
  • 34. EXCERPTS FROM PLAUCHUT'S ACCOUNT OF THE CAVITE MUTINY The friars used the incident as a part of a large conspiracy to cement their dominance, which has started to show cracks because of the discontent of the Filipinos. They showcased the mutiny a pan of a broader plot by Filipino's overthrow the Spanish government. Unintentionally and more so prophetically the Cavite Mutiny of 1872 resulted in the martyrdom of GOMBURZA and paved the way to revolution culminating in 1898.
  • 35. THE CRY OF REBELLION Momentous events swept the Spanish colonies in the late nineteen century, including the Philippines. Journalists of the time referred to the phrase El Grito de Rebelian or Cry of Rebellion to mark the start of these revolutionary events, identifying the places where it happened in the Philippines this happened in August 1896, Northeast of Manila, where the Katipuneros declared rebellion against Spain. These events are essential markers in the history of colonies that struggled for their independence against their colonizers.
  • 36. THE CRY OF REBELLION
  • 37. THE CRY OF REBELLION  The controversy regarding this event stems from the identification of the date and place where the Cry happened. Prominent Filipino historian Teodoro Agoncillo emphasized the event when Bonifacio tore the cedula or tax receipt before the Katipuneros, who also did the same. Some writers identified the first military event with the Spaniards as the moment of the Cry, for which Emilio Aguinaldo commissioned an "Himno de Balintawak" to inspire the renewed struggle after the Pact of the of Biak na Bato failed.
  • 38. THE CRY OF REBELLION  A monument to the Heroes of 1896 was erected in what is now the intersection of Epifanio de los Santos (EDSA) Avenue and Andres Bonifacio Drive-North Diversion road, and from then on until 1962, the Cry Balintawak was celebrated every 26 August. The site of the monument was chose for an unknown reason.
  • 39. ACCOUNT OF THE CRY On August 26th, a significant meeting took place at Apolonio Samson's residence in Balintawak, where he served as the cabeza (local leader) of the Caloocan barrio. The attendees included prominent figures such as Bonifacio, Emilio Jacinto, Aguedo del Rosario, Tomas Remigio, Bricco Pantas, Teodor Plata, Pio Valenzuela, Enrique Pacheco, and Francisco Carreon. These individuals were all influential leaders within the Kalipunan and formed the organization's board of directors. GUILLERMO, MANGSAKAY
  • 40. ACCOUNT OF THE CRY This passage describes the early activities of the Katipunan, a Filipino revolutionary society, in August 1896. Andres Bonifacio, Emilio Jacinto, Procopio Bonifacio, Teodoro Plata, Aguedo del Rosario, and the author sought refuge in Balintawak. On August 22, 1896, around 500 Katipunan members gathered at Apolonio Samson's house and yard in Kangkong. Notable attendees included Briccio Pantas, Alejandro Santiago, Ramon Bernardo, and others. However, no formal resolutions were made, and the meeting mainly involved exchanging views. PIO, VALENZUELA
  • 41. ACCOUNT OF THE CRY In August 1896, a group of over 500 Katipuneros, led by the Supremo Andres Bonifacio, gathered in Kangkong at the house of Brother Apolonio Sanen. They were armed with various weapons, including revolvers and a hunting rifle. Concerned about potential enemy interception of couriers carrying important letters, Bonifacio decided to relocate to a site called Bahay Toro, where their numbers grew to over a thousand. SANTIAGO, ALVAREZ
  • 42. ACCOUNT OF THE CRY From the eyewitness accounts presented, there is indeed marked disagreement among historical witnesses as to the place and time of the occurrence of the Cry Four sites have been identified using primary and secondary sources: Balintawak Kangkong Pugad Lawin, and Bahay Toro, while the dates vary 23, 24, 25, or 26 August 1896 Historian Jim Richardson organized all proposition.
  • 43. PHILIPPINE AMERICAN WAR INSURRECTION  The Philippine-American War continued the struggle for independence of Filipino revolutionaries against Spain. This time, it was against a new colonizer the United States. In April 1898, the United States went to war with Spain, and on May 1, the Americans destroyed the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay. The Filipino revolutionary leaders, exiled in Hong Kong, returned to the Philippines, and General Emilio Aguinaldo established a government and gained control of much of Luzon by June 1898.
  • 45. PHILIPPINE AMERICAN WAR INSURRECTION  During this time, the US government under President William McKinley was interested in the Philippines and its commercial potential. Spain ceded the Philippines to the United States in the Treaty of Paris in December 1898, and fighting broke out between Aguinaldo's forces and the U.S. troops in Manila. The Filipinas were adamant in their desire to resist the U.S. takeover.
  • 47. The war had two phases. The first phase was dominated by Aguinaldo's failed conventional warfare against the better trained and equipped U.S. troops, lasting from February to November 1899. The second phase was marked by the Filipinos shift to guerrilla warfare, which lasted from November 1899 until 1902, when U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt declared the conflict over. The fighting on the side of the Filipinos continued, sporadic and periodic, until 1913.
  • 48. The Philippine-American War, spanning from 1899 to 1902, consisted of two distinct phases. The initial phase witnessed Filipino leader Emilio Aguinaldo's unsuccessful attempts at conventional warfare against better-equipped U.S. forces. This phase lasted from February to November 1899. Subsequently, the conflict evolved into guerrilla warfare, with Filipino forces adapting their strategies. This guerrilla phase persisted until 1902, when U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt declared an end to the conflict. Notably, sporadic fighting by Filipino insurgents continued until 1913.
  • 49. Historians have disagreed on what to call the war between the United States and the Philippines. Historically, the US government has referred to it as the Philippine Insurrection. Insurrection is defined as "a violent uprising against an authority or government." Scholars, especially Filipinos, refer to the conflict as "the Philippine-American War," as war is defined as "a state of armed conflict between nations, states, or different groups within a nation's state."
  • 50. The Philippines was already a territory of the United States under the treaty of Paris in 1899. The United States did not recognize Aguinaldo's government and deemed any challenge made by Filipino's an insurgency, and insurrection.
  • 51. LESSON SUMMARY  Multiperspectivity is a way of interpreting history by looking at different perspectives of the past. There is no single objective narrative of historical events. Instead, multiple coexisting perspectives of the past could be equally valid and also equally partial.  The Spanish regime under the reactionary Governor-General Izquierdo magnified the Cavite Mutiny and used it to persecute Filipinos who had been advocating reform in the government. A closer look at other primary sources shows that the mutiny was caused by an order to subject some soldiers to personal taxes, from which they were previously exempt.
  • 52. LESSON SUMMARY  There are different competing accounts of the Cry of Rebellion that started the Philippine Revolution. While some historians agree that the precise dates and location are not exceptionally important, many are still convinced that more in-depth research needs to be done to mark this important event accurately.  The Philippine-American War, the continuation of the struggle for independence, is not an insurgency. To refer to it as the "Philippine Insurrection" is to demote the memory of the Philippine Revolution, the struggle for independence, and the creation of the Filipino nation.