Social structure of Spanish to Pilipinos


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social structure of spanish to pilipinos
a report in our history subject by Jennifer Esplana

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Social structure of Spanish to Pilipinos

  1. 1. Social StructureSocial Structure
  2. 2. Ministry of the Colonies King of Spain Governor General Royal Audiencia (highest judicial body) Archbishop of Manila General Segundo Cabo Board of Authorities Corregidores (not completely pacified) Alcaldes en ordinario Cabeza de Barangay or Cabeza del Barrio Gobernadorcillo or Capitan Council of Administration Alcalde Mayor (pacified areas) Structure of the PhilippineStructure of the Philippine GovernmentGovernment Provincial Government (advisory bodies) (adviser on military affairs) (City Government or Ayuntamiento) 1. Alcaldia Mayor 2. Corregimientos for barrios for municipal government
  3. 3. the government which Spain set up in the Philippines was highly centralized that the central or national government was so powerful that almost nothing official could be done without its knowledge and consent there were two branches of government, the executive and judicial there was no legislative branch because laws passed in Spain were extended to the Philippines or simply the laws to govern the Philippines were not made in the Philippines but in Spain executive powers were exercised by the governor-general, while judicial powers were exercised by the judges of the Royal Audiencia (Supreme Court), by judges of the lower courts, and to a certain extent by the governor-general – all these officials represented the central government below the central government were the provincial, the municipal, the barrio, and the city governments
  4. 4. The Municipal Government below the provincial government was the municipal government and each municipality or town was headed by the gobernadorcillio (little governor), popularly known as the capitan the barrios or barangays of which each town was composed were headed by a cabeza de barangay The Provincial Government the provinces in the Philippines in the Spanish times were of two kinds – the civil provinces and the military provinces the civil provinces were headed by the alcade-mayor and the military provinces were headed by army officers known as corregidores
  5. 5. Alcalde -Alcalde - mayormayor the colonial chieftain and exercised both executive and judicial powers including the power to collect taxes exercised both executive and judicial powers, collected tributes from the town and enjoyed the privilege of monopolizing commerce in the province and engaged in usury manipulated government funds as well as drew loans from the obras pias, the friars' chest for "charities," to engage in nefarious commerce and usury described as a model of graft, corruption, and inefficiency brought about by inexperienced men being assigned to govern the provinces had the privilege of engaging in trade to increase his income (indulto de comercio) but abused his powers and committed graft
  6. 6. CorregidorCorregidor esespolitico – military governors in charge of the corregimientos or the territories that had not been completely pacified GobernadorciGobernadorci llollotheir office was open to Filipinos assisted by four deputies called tenientes, a chief of police, and subordinate officials called alguaciles in the beginning, he was elected for a term of one year by all the married men in each town but by the late 19th century, he was elected by a board of electors composed of outgoing gobernadorcillo and twelve cabeza de barangay (barangay heads) to qualify for the office of the gobernadorcillo, one had to be a Filipino of at least 25 years of age and must know how to read and write Spanish, and must have been a teniente mayor or cabeza de barangay
  7. 7. Cabeza deCabeza de barangaybarangay each town had several villages or barangays placed directly under the cabezas de barangay was appointed by the gobernadorcillo from among the former datus or gobernadorcillo’s relatives his most important duty is to collect taxes from the barrio or barangay inhabitants the town and barangay officials had no salary and their positions were honorary they and their families however were exempted from paying tributes and were considered as members pf the principalia (leading citizens)
  8. 8. Composition of the FilipinoComposition of the Filipino SocietySociety Españoles - españoles peninsulares - españoles insulares Mestizos / mestizas - Chinese mestizos - Spanish mestizos Indios
  9. 9. EspaEspañolñol eses españoles peninsulares españoles insulares - born in the Spanish peninsula - both parents are Spanish - also known as the criollos or full– blooded Spaniards born in the colonies
  10. 10. IndioIndio (Masses / indios naturales)(Masses / indios naturales) literally, Indians; the Spanish term for Filipinos or natives of the Philippines without Spanish or Chinese ancestry regarded as belonging to the “primitive” and “inferior races” and as fit to be to be enslaved or subjugated and could not comprehend more than the basic knowledge MestizoMestizo the offspring of Filipino and non-Filipino marriages; includes those of Spanish-Filipino parentage and Chinese- Filipino parentage a Spanish term for racially mixed people formed the first Filipino elite during the colonial period, and today they continue to form an economically and politically important minority
  11. 11. Chinese mestizo (mestizos de sangley) Spanish mestizo (mestizos de español) described as rich, active and intelligent and comprised about 23 percent of the combined total of indios and mestizos when indios and mestizos intermarried, the old structure of local government weakened and their rise was a major challenge to the colonial state they mixed with the local and Chinese population, creating another mestizo population earlier Spanish mestizos in the countryside were illicit offspring of friars and were absorbed into Indio communities often referred to themselves as criollos, wanting to claim pure Spanish blood and fearing descent on the colonial social ladder
  12. 12. SocialSocial ClassesClasses Principalia Masses
  13. 13. the highest class was reserved for the Spaniards as members of the conquering race, they were the administrators and high government and church officials
  14. 14. MasseMasse ss consisted of the poor, such as laborers and the peasants enjoyed a few rights and no privileges could not vote or be elected to a public office were kept to the status of serfs and even the freemen became dispossessed
  15. 15. Principalia or the principales (principal ones)Principalia or the principales (principal ones) had local wealth; high status and prestige; and certain privileges, such as exemption from taxes, lesser roles in the parish church, and appointment to local offices larger and more influential than the preconquest nobility, and it created and perpetuated an oligarchic system of local control became responsible for collecting and remitting tributes and other contributions to the encomendero and church, and in return, they and their eldest sons were exempt from tribute and labor service and their position allowed them to engage in various tactics to enrichment, such as demanding excess payment and reviving debt slavery referred to the prominent land-owning and propertied citizens who could read, write, and speak English and enjoyed many social and political advantages including the right to vote in elections and the right to hold public office the descendants of the ancient datus and maharlikas, the rich plantation owners, and the local officials or ex-officials; the members of this class comprised the town aristrocracy
  16. 16. iLLustradiLLustrad ooin the 19th century, thanks to the opening of the Philippines to world trade and the effects of material progress, a new social class – the illustrado, an enlightened middle class – developed in the country members of this social class formed the town intelligentsia they enjoyed economic security and high social status came from wealthy Filipino families that could afford to send them to the limited number of secondary schools (colegios) open to non-Spaniards they included physicians, pharmacists, lawyers, teachers, writers, businessmen, and educated property owners among them were Jose Rizal, Emilio Jacinto, Apolinario Mabini, etc. 
  17. 17. PicturePicture ss
  18. 18. costume of a family belonging to Principalía during the late 19th centuryThe Ilustrados: José Rizal, Marcelo H. del Pilar and Mariano Ponce.