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UNIT I:
Introduction to History
LESSON 1:
Meaning of History
History has always been known as the study of
the past.
History was derived from the Greek word
Historia, which means knowledge acquired
through inquiry or investigation.
History as a discipline has existed for around
2,400 years and is as old as mathematics and
philosophy.
Historia became known as the account of the
past of the person or a group of people through
written documents and historical evidence.
History can refer to two things
First, history relates to everything that had happened
in the past.
Second, history also refers to a kind of research or
inquiry.
1. History’s focus on human activities.
2. History, as a field of inquiry.
3. History is concerned with the past.
Contrary to the impression that history is all
about listing down events in the past in a
chronological manner or identifying key figures
and personalities in specific periods, this
discipline is more concerned with the question
of why.
However similar to other fields, the
historical discipline has changed in terms of its
nature, significance, and purpose. The present
meaning of history is a product of discipline’s
evolution across time.
 Ancient Greek historian
Herodotus is recognized as the
Father of History because he is
the one who established history
as a science.
 Herodotus’ purpose in writing his
work Histories was to describe
the deeds of men in the past for
posterity or future use. His quest
for knowledge of the past was not
only about retelling past human
activities, but also about finding
out and explaining the reason
behind such deeds.
 His successor was
Thucydides, another Greek
historian whose magnum
opus was the History of the
Peloponnesian War.
 Thucydides was known as
the Father of Scientific
History.
One noteworthy similarity between ancient
Greek historians Herodotus and Thucydides was
their focus on the history of limited geographic
space and of a recent historical period., i.e., a
period that is within living memory.
Consequently, their idea of history was
limited to the history of a particular society in a
specific period. For ancient Greek historian, the
remote past is unknowable. This idea changed
as the Greek civilization expanded and
developed.
 By the 19th century, a particular school of
thought would emerge and dominate various
scientific disciplines for many generations:
positivism.
 Positivism is an essential philosophy that
would serve as a vital anchor of the scientific
method.
 It asserts that real knowledge lies in the actual
observation of facts. Meaning, for an idea to be
real, it must be verified with sensory
experience . It should be observable by the
senses and be subject of experience.
Indeed, history as a discipline has already
turned into a complex and dynamic inquiry. This
dynamism inevitably produced various
perspectives on the discipline regarding
different question like: What is history? Why
study history? And For whom should history be?
These questions can be answered by
historiography. In simple terms, historiography is
the history of history.
As history developed as a scientific
discipline, due in part to the rise of the
positivist philosophy, professional
historians who made career out of history’s
academic study argued that studying
history should not have any other purpose
but for its own sake. This intellectual
movement referred to as historicism.
If history should not be studied only for the sake of
studying the past, what other purposes should it then
serve?
History can provide us with multiple ways to view,
interpret, and respond to a particular problem.
History reminds us that there can be range of different
options that have manifested in the past, which we
can be use for present issues.
History’s utility has always been referred to as
“learning from mistake of the past”, as if everything
that happened in the past was mistake.
LESSON 2:
History and Historian
Who Qualifies as a Historian?
For most people, history is something
that is taught and studied in schools;
thus, teachers are commonly regarded as
“expert” of history. It may come as a
surprise that some people actually take
history as full-time and serious
profession.
A Historian is someone who continuously
pursues historical knowledge. History, as
the study of the based on existing pieces
of historical evidence, is a dynamic and
continually evolving discipline. Thus
historian are expected to keep up with
changes and developments in historical
knowledge in light of new evidence.
What then is the difference
between a historian and a
student of history?
The Student of History gains historical
knowledge based on what history teachers and
history books say.
The Historian produces historical knowledge
through the continues and constant pursuit of
historical knowledge by answering questions
about the past through gathering and
interpreting historical evidence.
LESSON 3:
Historical Sources
Classification of Historical Sources
Primary Sources are those sources produced
simultaneously as the event, period, or subject being
studied.
Secondary sources are sources produced by an
author who relied on primary sources to write
material. In other words, secondary sources are
products of historical research that the other
historians use for additional information or as
background to their study.
External and Internal Criticism of Primary Sources
External Criticism is the practice of verifying
evidence’s authenticity by examining its physical
characteristics, consistency with the historical
character of the time when it was supposedly
produced, and the historical sources materials.

Internal Criticism is the examination of the content
of a particular document.
One of the most infamous cases of deception in Philippine
History is the hoax Code of Kalantiaw. The code was set a rules
contained in an epic, Maragtas. A certain Datu Kalantiaw
allegedly wrote the Code in 1433, more than a century before
Spain officially colonized the Philippines. The documents was
donated to the National Library and was regarded as an
important pre-colonial document until 1968. American historian
William Henry Scott debunked the code’s authenticity due to an
anachronism and lack of evidence to prove that the code
existed in the pre-colonial Philippine society.
Another debunked historical claim was Ferdinand
Marcos’ declaration that he was part of decorated
World War II soldier who led a guerilla unit called
“Ang Mga Maharlika”. Students of history widely
believed this claimed, and Marcos had war medals to
show. However, this claim was disproved when
historian counterchecked with the war records of the
United States.
LESSON 4:
Philippines Historiography
Historiography is both philosophical and scientific. It
is philosophical because we think about thinking,
and this exercise of “ thinking about thinking” can be
broadly defined as philosophizing. In historiography,
we specifically engage in thinking about historical
thinking, i.e., how historians think and how and why
they write what they write. Historiography is also
scientific because scholars who engage in this topic
proceed with writing the history of history through
systematic inventory and empirical analyses of
historical worker.
History of Philippine History
Kasaysayan in Ancient Philippine Society.
In the ancient Philippines Society, our concept of
history was fundamentally different. This indigenous
concept is called kasaysayan, and contrary to the
widely held notion, kasaysayan is not just Filipino
term for history. Its meaning, characteristics and
function are different. Kasaysayan was derived from
the root word saysay, which could means sense or
significance. These stories were transmitted orally in
the form of epics, songs and ritual.
Spanish Historiography in the Philippines.
The notion of kasaysayan was disrupted at the dawn of Spanish
colonization. The colonizers endeavor to break down the indigenous
communal and social organization included the destruction of these
communities’ oral traditions that were the central to their
indigenous practices and beliefs. They wrote about the indigenous
customs, traditions, social organization, belief systems, etc. all of
these were distributed and systematically kept and recorded.
 Historia was a narrative of the foreign colonizers regarding their observation,
life, and experiences in the islands.
 Bipartite View - perspective that prevailed among colonizers regarding our
history as an archipelago.
Divided the archipelago’s history
1. The Darkness (uncivilized, barbaric, and backward) believed in
false gods
2. The Light ( carving a civilization out of wilderness and introducing
people to one true God)
The History of Illustrados and the Katipunan.
By the mid-nineteenth century, a sector of the native and mestizo
population was given a chance to acquire certain level of
education that accorded them status illustrado or the enlightened.
This enlightened came from the liberal education they acquired in
European or Philippines Universities. Their affluence and
intelligence eventually led them to aspire for reform.
The Illustrados Viewed our history as Tripartite or divided into 3 parts.
1. A period of Prosperity ( native enjoy freedom in trading, equality
among people)
2. A period of Darkness (colonization began)
3. A period of Enlightenment (illustrados)
 Illustrados (written exclusively in Spanish)
 Katipunan (wrote almost exclusively in Filipino)
American Historiagraphy in the Philippines.
The American colonial period was an introduction to a new
tradition of scholarship and historical writing primarily caused
by the concept of benevolent assimilation. This principle is the
guiding framework of the American occupation of the
Philippines. This concept prompted novel ways of colonizing the
Philippines by turning the Filipinos into “little brown
Americans”. They wanted the Filipinos to think they like the
Americans.
 Public education available to every Filipinos
 Shift of language from Spanish to English
 Americans made teaching English an essential part of their
public education policy.
Philippine Nationalist Historiography.
As history continuously developed as an academic
discipline in the Philippines throughout the twentieth
century, more and more people joined in the foray and
specialized in history. This increase in interest also
prompted a diverse and energetic understanding and
interpretation of history. Homegrown Filipino
historians, including Teodoro Agoncillo, Renato
Constantino, and Reynaldo Ileto, pioneered an
intellectual movement in history. This lens purported
to reflect the struggle of the Filipinos under
colonization.
Pantayong Pananaw and Bagong Kasaysayan.
By the mid-1970s, Zeus Salazar, a member of U.P. Department of History,
introduced a new philosophy that would guide a new a new historical and social
scientific scholarship tradition. Salazar contends that despite the surge of
nationalist perspective in historical writing, our historical narrative remains
targeted to the English-speaking sectors of the society that consequently
excludes the larger masses. The people and the Filipino remained at the
margins of these narratives, and their stories were told not with them as the
intended audience but for the outsiders and elite few. Indeed, historia, as first
brought by the Spaniards in the sixteenth century, remained the standard of
historical scholarship of the country.
Pantayong Pananaw or the from-us-for-us (inclusive) wanted to replace
the dominant historia philosophy, which remained even after the rise of
nationalist history, and to reclaim the ancient kasaysayan in scientific terms.
Hence, Pantayong Pananaw served as the philosophical foundation of Bagong
Kasaysayan – a reconceptualization of the ancient kasaysayan, which focuses
on the importance of saysay or significance to the community where the history
belongs.
 Philippines

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RPH UNIT1 LESSONS 1-4.pptx

  • 1. UNIT I: Introduction to History LESSON 1: Meaning of History
  • 2. History has always been known as the study of the past. History was derived from the Greek word Historia, which means knowledge acquired through inquiry or investigation. History as a discipline has existed for around 2,400 years and is as old as mathematics and philosophy. Historia became known as the account of the past of the person or a group of people through written documents and historical evidence.
  • 3. History can refer to two things First, history relates to everything that had happened in the past. Second, history also refers to a kind of research or inquiry. 1. History’s focus on human activities. 2. History, as a field of inquiry. 3. History is concerned with the past.
  • 4. Contrary to the impression that history is all about listing down events in the past in a chronological manner or identifying key figures and personalities in specific periods, this discipline is more concerned with the question of why. However similar to other fields, the historical discipline has changed in terms of its nature, significance, and purpose. The present meaning of history is a product of discipline’s evolution across time.
  • 5.  Ancient Greek historian Herodotus is recognized as the Father of History because he is the one who established history as a science.  Herodotus’ purpose in writing his work Histories was to describe the deeds of men in the past for posterity or future use. His quest for knowledge of the past was not only about retelling past human activities, but also about finding out and explaining the reason behind such deeds.
  • 6.  His successor was Thucydides, another Greek historian whose magnum opus was the History of the Peloponnesian War.  Thucydides was known as the Father of Scientific History.
  • 7. One noteworthy similarity between ancient Greek historians Herodotus and Thucydides was their focus on the history of limited geographic space and of a recent historical period., i.e., a period that is within living memory. Consequently, their idea of history was limited to the history of a particular society in a specific period. For ancient Greek historian, the remote past is unknowable. This idea changed as the Greek civilization expanded and developed.
  • 8.  By the 19th century, a particular school of thought would emerge and dominate various scientific disciplines for many generations: positivism.  Positivism is an essential philosophy that would serve as a vital anchor of the scientific method.  It asserts that real knowledge lies in the actual observation of facts. Meaning, for an idea to be real, it must be verified with sensory experience . It should be observable by the senses and be subject of experience.
  • 9. Indeed, history as a discipline has already turned into a complex and dynamic inquiry. This dynamism inevitably produced various perspectives on the discipline regarding different question like: What is history? Why study history? And For whom should history be? These questions can be answered by historiography. In simple terms, historiography is the history of history.
  • 10. As history developed as a scientific discipline, due in part to the rise of the positivist philosophy, professional historians who made career out of history’s academic study argued that studying history should not have any other purpose but for its own sake. This intellectual movement referred to as historicism.
  • 11. If history should not be studied only for the sake of studying the past, what other purposes should it then serve? History can provide us with multiple ways to view, interpret, and respond to a particular problem. History reminds us that there can be range of different options that have manifested in the past, which we can be use for present issues. History’s utility has always been referred to as “learning from mistake of the past”, as if everything that happened in the past was mistake.
  • 13. Who Qualifies as a Historian? For most people, history is something that is taught and studied in schools; thus, teachers are commonly regarded as “expert” of history. It may come as a surprise that some people actually take history as full-time and serious profession.
  • 14. A Historian is someone who continuously pursues historical knowledge. History, as the study of the based on existing pieces of historical evidence, is a dynamic and continually evolving discipline. Thus historian are expected to keep up with changes and developments in historical knowledge in light of new evidence.
  • 15. What then is the difference between a historian and a student of history?
  • 16. The Student of History gains historical knowledge based on what history teachers and history books say. The Historian produces historical knowledge through the continues and constant pursuit of historical knowledge by answering questions about the past through gathering and interpreting historical evidence.
  • 18. Classification of Historical Sources Primary Sources are those sources produced simultaneously as the event, period, or subject being studied. Secondary sources are sources produced by an author who relied on primary sources to write material. In other words, secondary sources are products of historical research that the other historians use for additional information or as background to their study.
  • 19. External and Internal Criticism of Primary Sources External Criticism is the practice of verifying evidence’s authenticity by examining its physical characteristics, consistency with the historical character of the time when it was supposedly produced, and the historical sources materials.  Internal Criticism is the examination of the content of a particular document.
  • 20. One of the most infamous cases of deception in Philippine History is the hoax Code of Kalantiaw. The code was set a rules contained in an epic, Maragtas. A certain Datu Kalantiaw allegedly wrote the Code in 1433, more than a century before Spain officially colonized the Philippines. The documents was donated to the National Library and was regarded as an important pre-colonial document until 1968. American historian William Henry Scott debunked the code’s authenticity due to an anachronism and lack of evidence to prove that the code existed in the pre-colonial Philippine society.
  • 21. Another debunked historical claim was Ferdinand Marcos’ declaration that he was part of decorated World War II soldier who led a guerilla unit called “Ang Mga Maharlika”. Students of history widely believed this claimed, and Marcos had war medals to show. However, this claim was disproved when historian counterchecked with the war records of the United States.
  • 23. Historiography is both philosophical and scientific. It is philosophical because we think about thinking, and this exercise of “ thinking about thinking” can be broadly defined as philosophizing. In historiography, we specifically engage in thinking about historical thinking, i.e., how historians think and how and why they write what they write. Historiography is also scientific because scholars who engage in this topic proceed with writing the history of history through systematic inventory and empirical analyses of historical worker.
  • 24. History of Philippine History Kasaysayan in Ancient Philippine Society. In the ancient Philippines Society, our concept of history was fundamentally different. This indigenous concept is called kasaysayan, and contrary to the widely held notion, kasaysayan is not just Filipino term for history. Its meaning, characteristics and function are different. Kasaysayan was derived from the root word saysay, which could means sense or significance. These stories were transmitted orally in the form of epics, songs and ritual.
  • 25. Spanish Historiography in the Philippines. The notion of kasaysayan was disrupted at the dawn of Spanish colonization. The colonizers endeavor to break down the indigenous communal and social organization included the destruction of these communities’ oral traditions that were the central to their indigenous practices and beliefs. They wrote about the indigenous customs, traditions, social organization, belief systems, etc. all of these were distributed and systematically kept and recorded.  Historia was a narrative of the foreign colonizers regarding their observation, life, and experiences in the islands.  Bipartite View - perspective that prevailed among colonizers regarding our history as an archipelago. Divided the archipelago’s history 1. The Darkness (uncivilized, barbaric, and backward) believed in false gods 2. The Light ( carving a civilization out of wilderness and introducing people to one true God)
  • 26. The History of Illustrados and the Katipunan. By the mid-nineteenth century, a sector of the native and mestizo population was given a chance to acquire certain level of education that accorded them status illustrado or the enlightened. This enlightened came from the liberal education they acquired in European or Philippines Universities. Their affluence and intelligence eventually led them to aspire for reform. The Illustrados Viewed our history as Tripartite or divided into 3 parts. 1. A period of Prosperity ( native enjoy freedom in trading, equality among people) 2. A period of Darkness (colonization began) 3. A period of Enlightenment (illustrados)  Illustrados (written exclusively in Spanish)  Katipunan (wrote almost exclusively in Filipino)
  • 27. American Historiagraphy in the Philippines. The American colonial period was an introduction to a new tradition of scholarship and historical writing primarily caused by the concept of benevolent assimilation. This principle is the guiding framework of the American occupation of the Philippines. This concept prompted novel ways of colonizing the Philippines by turning the Filipinos into “little brown Americans”. They wanted the Filipinos to think they like the Americans.  Public education available to every Filipinos  Shift of language from Spanish to English  Americans made teaching English an essential part of their public education policy.
  • 28. Philippine Nationalist Historiography. As history continuously developed as an academic discipline in the Philippines throughout the twentieth century, more and more people joined in the foray and specialized in history. This increase in interest also prompted a diverse and energetic understanding and interpretation of history. Homegrown Filipino historians, including Teodoro Agoncillo, Renato Constantino, and Reynaldo Ileto, pioneered an intellectual movement in history. This lens purported to reflect the struggle of the Filipinos under colonization.
  • 29. Pantayong Pananaw and Bagong Kasaysayan. By the mid-1970s, Zeus Salazar, a member of U.P. Department of History, introduced a new philosophy that would guide a new a new historical and social scientific scholarship tradition. Salazar contends that despite the surge of nationalist perspective in historical writing, our historical narrative remains targeted to the English-speaking sectors of the society that consequently excludes the larger masses. The people and the Filipino remained at the margins of these narratives, and their stories were told not with them as the intended audience but for the outsiders and elite few. Indeed, historia, as first brought by the Spaniards in the sixteenth century, remained the standard of historical scholarship of the country. Pantayong Pananaw or the from-us-for-us (inclusive) wanted to replace the dominant historia philosophy, which remained even after the rise of nationalist history, and to reclaim the ancient kasaysayan in scientific terms. Hence, Pantayong Pananaw served as the philosophical foundation of Bagong Kasaysayan – a reconceptualization of the ancient kasaysayan, which focuses on the importance of saysay or significance to the community where the history belongs.

Editor's Notes

  1. The Greek word was borrowed into Classical Latin as historia, meaning "investigation, inquiry, research, account, description, written account of past events, writing of history, historical narrative, recorded knowledge of past events, story, narrative".
  2. diff. from theology is concerned with the divine not human beings. myths or legends they are not concerned in human act. But lives and undertaking of mythical creatures like deities or supernatural entities. 2. generally falls on science( seeks to an answer question) systematic and methodical collection of data and evidence. (findings) 3. Social science disciplines ( political science, economics, sociology…prescribing answers or solution to pressing issues and problem today. explain past events,
  3. . Why jose rizal executed, why did Japan invade ph during world war 2..
  4. The Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC) was an ancient Greek war fought between Athens and Sparta and their respective allies for the hegemony of the Greek world. Herodotus- humanistic focus Thucydieds; highlighted the importance of systematic and impartial collection of evidence As essential in prerequisite in writing history. tocidudes
  5. Compilation of various works and records.
  6. History; study of the past, events that what happen in the past and causes of such events. Historiography; is study of history.
  7. But what make someone historian?
  8. Explore commonwealth constitution convention…primary sources minutes of convention, newspaper clippins, ph. Commision report in US, RECORD OF CONVENTION, DRAFT OF THE CONSTitution , even photograph of event.. 2. Because produced at different time ( katipuniros) testimonies of veterans, martial law.
  9. Documents- quality of papers used to produced documents, printing or copying technique otherwise commit mistake of using illegitimate or fake documents. Authorship and date of production should be established.. Artifacts, calligraphy, wrong enterpret 2. read document, understand the meaning of document. ( historian validate nila muna kung manipulate, propaganda)
  10. Battle of mactan, PhilipII, Japanese invaded ph ww2, edsa marcos
  11. Colonizer view about archipelago
  12. Symphatic Spaniard help them abuse of Spanish govt. Support for countrymen in revolution.
  13. reduccion