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  1. 1. MASONRY
  2. 2. <ul><li>PHILIPPINE MASONRY TO 1890 (John N. Schumacher, S.J.) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Masonry Lodges served as centers for many of the Liberal conspiracies in Spain against clerical and reactionary government during the 1 st three-quarters of the 19 th century.” </li></ul><ul><li>Played strong influence in insurrection in Cuba in the 2 nd half of the 19 th century. </li></ul><ul><li>Due to its anti clerical orientation and the opportunity for clandestine activity – it play a significant role in nationalist movement. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>A. EARLY MASONRY IN THE PHIL. </li></ul><ul><li>Vague reports of British Masonic lodges during the occupation of Manila in 1762-64. </li></ul><ul><li>First lodges set up in Manila seem to date from the mid-1850’s formed by Spanish army officers followed by foreign merchants. </li></ul><ul><li>It is claimed that before 1872 Filipinos were admitted to lodge in Pandacan – eliminated by Gran Oriente de Espana in 1874. </li></ul><ul><li>Filipinos Lodges were introduced in 1891 by Filipino masons returning from Spain. </li></ul><ul><li>JOSE A. RAMOS, a Spanish mestizo was the only Fil. appearing in the lists of lodges from 1884; He is one of the founders of LODGE CONSTANCIA in 1887. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>B. EARLY FILIPINO MASON IN SPAIN </li></ul><ul><li>In April 1886 – RAFAEL DEL-PAN, a criollo/creole appears, already possessing the 18 th degree as one of the founders of LODGE SOLIDARIDAD; also a member was RICARDO AYLLON; EVARISTO AGUIRRE & Founder JULIO LLORENTE joined later. </li></ul><ul><li>MIGUEL MORAYTA – recruited other Spain’s overseas provinces; founded HIJOS DEL PROGRESO and listed as honorary member of Lodge SOLIDARIDAD. </li></ul><ul><li>Del Pan and Aguirre withdrew before the end of 1886. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>GRACIANO LOPEZ JAENA – initiated in 1882 in LODGE PORVENIR (but long inactive) affiliated with Lodge Solidaridad in April 1887. </li></ul><ul><li>LODGE LUZ DE MANTUA – was formed in June 1887 by majority of Lodge Solidaridad including Jaena & other Cubans. Lodge Solidaridad apparently ceased only to be revived later as all Fil. lodge. </li></ul><ul><li>C. LODGE REVOLUCION Predominantly Filipino, founded in Barcelona, Spain in April 1889, initiated by Spanish Army Officer Celso Mir Deas, married to Filipina. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>ORIGINAL MEMBERS: </li></ul><ul><li>Mir Deas, Lopez Jaena (worshipful master), M. H. Del Pilar (orator), Mariano Ponce, Jose Ma. Panganiban, and Cubans Juan Jose Canarte and Justo Argudin – collaborating in newspaper La Solidaridad. </li></ul><ul><li>Morayta founded new federation – GRAND ORIENTE ESPANOL </li></ul><ul><li>Morayta went to Barcelona where he was honored with a banquet by Fil. – became friends with Del Pilar. </li></ul><ul><li>As of 02 April 1889 – del Pilar held 3 rd degree position </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>FILIPINOS who joined Lodge Revolucion in 1889: </li></ul><ul><li>Santiago Icasiano, Ariston Bautista, Galicano Apacible, Damaso Ponce, Ramon Imperial, Agustin Blanco, Domingo Marcelo Cortes, and Teodoro Sandiko. </li></ul><ul><li>It seems very likely that del Pilar & Ponce reached 30 th degree. </li></ul><ul><li>Del Pilar intended to make use of Masonry in his campaign to destroy the powers of the friars in the Philippines. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>D. MASONRY AND THE FILIPINO ANTI FRIAR CAMPAIGN (In Spain) </li></ul><ul><li>Sponsorship by del Pilar and his associates of Manrique Alonso Lallave, a renegade Dominican, friar of Urdaneta, Pangasinan who had turned Protestant & in 1889 returned to Manila to open a Protestant Chapel. </li></ul><ul><li>Expelled from the Philippines by Gen. Rafael Izquierdo; upon return to Spain published Los Frailes en Filipinas accusing the friars in the Phil. crimes and demanded dissolution of friars orders (i.e. Dominicans, Agustinians, Franciscan, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Though friends & defenders of Filipinos and their rights, insults & denies all ability to Fil. (no brilliance of intelligence; no will power, lowless- </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>ness, small-mindedness, fear, servility in execution; lacks poetry; with harmonies the songs of the savages; Fil. being liars by their very nature; --combated by Rizal and others. </li></ul><ul><li>Despite all these, Del Pilar now proposed in his campaign to destroy the influence of the Friars in the Phil., to cooperated with Lallave and those sponsoring him (Lallave) notably the ex-revolutionary, former Grand Master of the Lodge Gran Oriente de Espana, MANUEL BECERRA, Overseas Minister in the Liberal Cabinet of Sagasta </li></ul><ul><li>BECERRA’s term – was a continuous threat to the church in the Phil – He called on the Gov. Gen. in the Phil. through circular “respect the religious be- </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>liefs/worships of Europeans, Asiatics (Indios included) Americans (protestants)” </li></ul><ul><li>In del Pilar’s letter to Pedro Serrano Laktaw under the protection of (Becerra’s circular), “you have coming to you there in person xxx Manrique Lallave, now a Protestant pastor.” if Lallave succeeds in proselyting, an exposition with 300,000 signatures will be presented to the govt. demanding greater tolerance and even of freedom of worship though freedom is remote possibility, tolerance is already a great step against the monastic power. Friars’ expulsion cannot be expected from govt. They (reformist) have to it by themselves. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Del Pilar urges Serrano to aid Lallave with the assistance of Doroteo Cortes and Jose Ramos. Sandiko was also urged to work with Serrano in helping Lallave. </li></ul><ul><li>Del Pilar gives some idea to D. Cortes of his (del Pilar) relationship to Becerra: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Sr. M. Lallave and his companies are going there to carry on some business which they will explain to you. Believing their interest to be antagonistic to those of certain monopolizers of the country, I would wish that, on your part and that of your friends, you would bestow every kind of protection on them, being assured that these gentlemen and the elements on whom they depend, with whom we are in complete understanding, are disposed to render us service in return.” </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>The plan did no prosper. Lallave contracted fever few weeks after his arrival in Manila and died two weeks after. </li></ul><ul><li>WHO were the “elements on which they depend” with whom Del Pilar has “complete understanding” and “who were disposed to render him reciprocal services in return for his cooperation with Lallave’s Anti Catholic Project” </li></ul><ul><li>Evidences that points to Lallave’s support being MASONIC, specifically from GRAN ORIENTE ESPANOL </li></ul><ul><li>- Lallave’s very active in Masonry; published a number of Masonic works; being editor of TALLER – masonic journal; member of Lodge Numantina, helped found Gran Logia Simbolica </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Independiente Espanola in 1881; Founded Lodge Numancia with these – Lallave, certainly was no stranger to Becerra and Morayta </li></ul><ul><li>Morayta & Gran Oriente – as sponsor of Lallave. </li></ul><ul><li>At a Banquet tendered by Filipinos in honor of MORAYTA, they (Fil & Spanish friends) drew up an exposition to the OVERSEAS MINISTER BECERRA, petitioning the parliamentary representation for the Phil., ABOLITION OF THE CENSORSHIPS and PROHIBITION OF ADMINISTRATIVE DEPORTATION. Few weeks later, Del Pilar wrote to Rizal, who seems to have joined Masonry sometime earlier: To Laong Laan 18 May 1889 </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>“ If you can take advantage of the support of the “Gran Familia”, now is the time. For Becerra belongs to it, and besides, this oppressive measure (administrative deportation) affects its prestige and good name, since it is its own members and its friends who are subject to its persecution.” </li></ul><ul><li>On 02 July 1889 Lopez Jaena as worshipful Master of Lodge Revolucion, forwarded to MORAYTA two copies of an exposition making this petition (against administrative deportation in the Phil.), signed by Gran Oriente Espanol and other “obediences” (lodges) – Morayta to deliver the exposition to Ministers SAGASTA & BECERRA. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Del Pilar was behind the WHOLE MOVE (exposition) but the political and Masonic contacts of Jaena were responsible in making the MOVE possible. </li></ul><ul><li>No evidence that anything was actually accomplished by these Masonic petitions. </li></ul><ul><li>After September (1889) decrease of Filipino activity due to plans of del Pilar to transfer operations to Madrid & transfer of Sandico, Bautista, Damaso Ponce, Mariano’ Ponce & Apacible. Panganiban died five months after. Jaena resigned as Worshipful Master at the end of Nov. 1889. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>II. FILIPINO MASONRY IN MADRID </li></ul><ul><li>Lodge REVOLUCION, the first predominantly Filipino Lodge was organized in Barcelona in 1889 by G.L. Jaena as Grand Master but was conceived by Del Pilar, the leading figure behind the scene as a means of obtaning political assistance from Spanish Masons in his campaign to destroy the influence of the friars in the Philippines and to win political rights for the Filipinos. </li></ul><ul><li>On 10 December 1889, preliminary meeting was held at Del Pilar’s quarter where it was decided to revive the old Lodge Solidaridad. </li></ul><ul><li>Julio Llorente – elected Worshipful Master; Del Pilar – Sr. Warden; Damaso Ponce – Junior Warden; </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Dominador Gomez – Orator; Teodoro Sandico – Secretary. They voted to seek recognition and affiliation from the Gran Oriente Espanol, the federation headed by Morayta. </li></ul><ul><li>THE NEW LODGE “SOLIDARIDAD”. Received it charter from Morayta in May 1890 </li></ul><ul><li>Almost entirely Filipino with the exception of Eleuterio Ruiz de Leon, who was however married to a Filipina. </li></ul><ul><li>Original membership included besides those already mentioned as officers in 1890, the following men: </li></ul><ul><li>Antonio Luna, Telesforo Sukgang, Ariston Bautista, Jose Yzama, Jose Alejandrino and Francisco Sunico. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>The following year, the following joined the Lodge Solidaridad: Pedro Serrano, Baldomero Roxas, Galicano Apacible, Mariano Kunanan, Lauro Dimayuga, Jose Abreu, Gregorio Aguilera, Pablo Rianzares, Melencio Figueroa, Moses Salvador and JOSE RIZAL. </li></ul><ul><li>Others who joined in succeeding years: </li></ul><ul><li>Simplicio Jugo, Tomas Arejola, Pio Crisostomo, Jose Ledesma, Simeon Mercado, Flaviano Cor de Cruz, Francisco Liongson, Rosauro Jocson, Jose Ma. Zuazo, Arturo Borromeo, Bernabe Bustamante, Jose Coromias & Isidoro de los Santos. </li></ul><ul><li>Rizal, Alejandrino, Bautista and Cunanan withdraw from the Lodge for leaving Madrid for the Phil or elsewhere. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Two Principal Functions – 1890 & 1891 </li></ul><ul><li>EDUCATION or INDOCTRINATION of members with Masonic ideals. </li></ul><ul><li>Kalaw refers to LECTURES by Damaso Ponce on FILIPIO REPRESENTATION IN SPANISH CORTES. </li></ul><ul><li>Pedro Serrano Laktaw – Teaching of Spanish in the Phil. </li></ul><ul><li>RIZAL – CONCEPT ON VIRTUE as the HABITUAL FULFILLMENT OF DAILY DUTIES. </li></ul><ul><li>M. H. Del Pilar – Specific duty of Fil-masons to carry the message of Masonry to their country as the means of counteracting the evil influence of Catholism in the Phil. </li></ul>
  20. 20. 1894 January – Isidoro de los Santos – “Emigracion filipina en los paises civilizados.” (2) ENLISTING POLITICAL SUPPORT FOR FILIPINO NATIONALISTA ASPIRATIONS LA SOLIDARIDAD – newspaper for propaganda for Fil. Views and publicity for Phil. problems and as organ of the ASOCIACION HISPANO-FILIPINA edited by del Pilar; to rally the support of concerned Spaniards for Fil. interest – by means of public meetings and corporated representations to the govt. - Del Pilar employed lodge Solidaridad, affiliated with Gran Oriente Espanol to weaken or destroy the influence of the friars in the Phil.
  21. 21. <ul><li>B. MASONIC TIES AND THE NATIONALIST CAMPAIGN </li></ul><ul><li>Del Pilar’s use of MASONIC CONNECTIONS made possible by Lodge Solidaridad is best illustrated in the campaign he waged for representation of the Phil. in the Cortes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At a meeting of the Asociacion Hispano-Filipina on June 1891 an exposition to the Cortes was approved that outlined the unjust situation of the Phil., an integral part of Spain, yet deprived of any representative of its interest in the Cortes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In June & July 1891 Solidaridad circulized other Masonic Lodges all over the country (Spain) asking for support of all their members in petitioning the </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><ul><li>Cortes in favor of Phil. Representation as stated in exposition. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In April 1892 Solidaridad addressed a new circular with an appeal to the constitution of Gran Oriente Espanol which pledged the federation to work for the liberation of the Filipinos from the crushing yoke of clericalism. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperation of all lodges was manifested in a bound volume containing over 300 pages with some 7,000 signatures from all parts of Spain dating between 1891 and mid-1892 which was presented in the Cortes in 1895 by the ally of Morayta & the Filipinos, the republican deputy & newspaper editor Emilio Junoy. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><ul><li>Though unsuccessful the success in obtaining signatures for the petition clearly shows the efficacy of the Masonic ties forged by Del Pilar through the lodge Solidaridad. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Masonic Lodges in the Phil under the auspices of Gran Oriente Espanol was said to be drawn up by Antonio Luna & Pedro Serrano in 1891, however, A. Luna did not then return to the Phil while Serrano did so late in 1891. Moises Salvador also took part in this plan. </li></ul><ul><li>With authorization from Gran Oriente Espanol, Serrano arrived in the Phil and with Salvador, Paez and Jose Ramos organized the first Filipino Lodge, </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><ul><li>NILAD, on 6 January 1892 with RAMOS as worshipful Master – other lodges quickly sprung up around Manila and in the provinces. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Due to jurisdictional differences that arose between Nilad and is Secretary Serrano on the one side & the dependent lodges in the other, Gran Oriente Espanol was forced by Fil lodges to permit the erection of GRAND REGIONAL COUNCIL in 1893, and expelled Serrano mismanagement of funds and Nilad. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prior to the break, and under the direction of Serrano each of the lodges in the Phil. contributed financially through Mother Lodge Nilad to the support of SOLIDARIDAD and of the Asociacion Hispano-Filipino & the propaganda in Madrid. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><ul><li>Though there were other devices for the support of the Propaganda Movement is Spain from 1893-1895, there was apparently no longer any organized Masonic support as such. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surviving records of Lodge Solidaridad extent only to 20 September 1894 when there is a communication to the Grand council informing it that Simon Mercado has been dropped from the list of the members. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In April 1894, ALL but 6 of the 13 named members of Solidaridad to the assembly of Gran Oriente Espanol had either been dropped or left Madrid. These 6- plus del Pilar were perhaps the only surviving members of the Lodge Solidaridad. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><ul><li>Seems likely that neither Asociacion Hispano-Filipina nor Solidaridad any longer functioned much after 1894. Except for LA SOLIDARIDAD’s letter of condolence to Prof. BLUMENTRITT on the death of his father signed by Morayta and Eduardo ‘de Lete in June 1894 & message to the Congreso de Diputados in support of parliamentary representation for the Phil. in May 1895, signed by Morayta, Del Pilar & Ponce. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jose Vic, Vice Pres. of Gran Oriente Espanol referred to M. H. Del Pilar and Mariano Ponce as the Filipinos as having formerly belonged to Gran Oriente Espanol but since disappeared apparently gone to Barcelona, where they prepared to take ship for Hongkong and Japan when DEL PILAR DIED in July 1896. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><ul><li>Mariano Ponce was secretary from Dec. 1890 while Del Pilar, Worhipful Master of Lodge Solidaridad. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ponce and Del Pilar were promoted to 31 st degree in May 1893 and by 1895 to 33 rd degree and both were members of the Supreme Council of the Gran Oriente Espanol, Ponce holding the position of “Segundo Consejero Suplente” and Del Pilar that of “Gran Orador Adjunto” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3.WENCESLAO RETANA, editor of La Politica de Espana en FILIPINAS and deputy to the Cortes denounced the head quarters of the Asociacion Hispano-Filipina and the Gran Oriente Espanol in Madrid as center of conspiracy against Spanish sovereignty in the Phil. </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>News arrived in Spain from Manila about the discovery of the Katipunan in August 1896 and of Masonic papers found among the possessions of some of those arrested. </li></ul><ul><li>MORAYTA evaded arrest by crossing the boarder into France and in the town of BOURG-MADAME addressed the protest against the accusation of filibusterismo, denying that the Gran Oriente Espanol had nothing to do with any revolutionary activity in the Philippines. In September 1896 his case was dismissed for lack of evidence. </li></ul><ul><li>Gran Oriente Nacional de Espana established lodges in the Phil. Members include Faustino Villaruel formerly of Gran Oriente Espanol & founder of </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>LODGE PATRIA in Cavite, Villareal was arrested as being implicated in the revolution </li></ul><ul><li>C. THE ROLE OF MORAYTA </li></ul><ul><li>There seems to be no evidence that Morayta was involved in any direct complicity in Filipino revolutionary plans, even if it could be shown that Del Pilar had a part in the planning of the Revolution of 1896. </li></ul><ul><li>Kalaw’s account of Morayta’s reluctance to permit organization of Grand Regional Council in the Phil (not directly subject to Spanish Federation) for fear that it might be used for conspiring against Spanish sovereignty in the Phil. With some reluctance, he allowed the Foundation of all-Filipino lodge in </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Madrid (lodge Solidaridad) to secure Filipino lodge allegiance rather than lose them to another Masonic Federation. </li></ul><ul><li>He closed his eyes to what might be the consequences of Filipino Lodges in his desire to get money out of the Filipinos through the Gran Oriente Espanol. Ponce however testified to the sincerity of Morayta in his private letter to the latter congratulating him in his election to the Cortes. </li></ul><ul><li>xxx we Filipinos who under your wise inspiration, carried on a campaign in favor of the Hispanization of the Philippines, so that it might cease to be like a piece of property, a fief of the friars continue to be considered, seditions subversive and traitors to Spain. But has it not been sufficiently demonstrated by the facts that if Spain lost the Phil., it was because she did just the opposite of what we were crying out for?” </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>The real purpose of the Propaganda Movement was to obtain the rights of Spanish citizens for Filipinos, assimilation to the Mother land. – This was where Morayta’s Collaboration took place. </li></ul><ul><li>Del Pilar believed that assimilation could be attained by legal means, like RIZAL, had a further goal – “in due time and by proper method, the abolition of the flag of Spain as well” (letter of Marcelo to Deodato Arellano) Ponce who worked intimately with Del Pilar also knew this. Was Morayta aware of this? (the further goal) </li></ul><ul><li>How about “as to the effectiveness of the Masonic connection for the Filipino nationalist campaign?” </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>Lodge Solidaridad in Madrid – served bridge as to organization of such lodges in the Phil. (Grand Regional Council organized in the Phil. after 1892) </li></ul><ul><li>Masonic connection did achieved some though limited success in rallying Masonic support for Fil. aims, notably in the matter of securing signatures for the petition of the Cortes. </li></ul><ul><li>Campaign to secure Filipino rights through propaganda; lobbying and other legal means – failure. </li></ul><ul><li>Masonic activities achieved little as a means to achieve unity among Filipino colony in Madrid. </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>A good number of Fil. in Madrid had nothing to do with the lodge. The character given to the work of the propaganda Movement by its close association with Masonry may have kept some Filipinos apart from the movement because of their unwillingness, for religious reasons or others to take part in what seemed to be a Masonic Movement. </li></ul>