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SEPARATION OF EAST PAKISTAN
(1971)
Lecture no: 18
Background
• When Pakistan came into being in 1947, it consisted of two
wings; East Pakistan and West Pakistan. These two wings were
separated by 1000 miles long territory on India.
• Right from its birth, Pakistan became a focus of Indian
conspiracy and aggression. In 1971, the Bengalis revolted against
Pakistan with active Indian support. As a result, in December
1971, East Pakistan succeeded in seceding from Pakistan.
Causes Of Separation Of East Pakistan
• There are a lot of causes behind the separation of East Pakistan, Some of
them are mentioned here:
 Natural Causes
Geographical Location:
Both the wings were thousands of miles far from each other,there
was no common border, East Pakistan was surrounded by India. India
influenced that led to social, economic and Political disparity with East
Pakistan. Relations worsened between the both provinces that resulted in
separation.
Language:
Language of East Pakistanis was Bengali, west Pakistanis spoke Urdu,
after the separation of Pakistan. Urdu was declared National language as
Quaid-e-Azim in his speech said that only Urdu would be our National
Language, This frustrated Bengali as They could only speak Bengali.
Culture
East and West Pakistan's culture was not same, They had their own distinct
culture. West Pakistan's culture was influencing East Pakistan's culture
although East Pakistani were 55% but still they got influenced.
Causes Of Separation Of East Pakistan
Political Causes:
Location of capital:
 After separation from India Pakistan made Karachi as her capital,
east Pakistanis said that they were in majority so capital would be
Dhaka.
 Location of Capital created great imbalance, uneven distribution
of wealth and privilege ,and better jobs for West Pakistan.
 All the ministries offices and industries were in Karachi, These
things accumulated more advantage to West Pakistan while East
Pakistan was deprived of such advantages, because they were
thousands of miles away from Capital.
Causes Of Separation Of East Pakistan
Representation
Bengal wanted representation in the legislature on the population basis,
while west Pakistan gave representation on equality.
Basic democracy
In era of Ayub Khan 40000 basic democrats were to be from both the
wings,54% Bengali population shared 40000 ,it was injustice they were in
majority they should be given seats on the base of population.
Electoral System
East Pakistan wanted separate electorate system while West Pakistan gave
Joint electorate.
Provincial Autonomy
East Pakistanis wanted and demanded Provincial Autonomy while
West Pakistan wanted strong centre. Bengalis demanded Provincial
autonomy because they were not given population based representation.
Causes Of Separation Of East Pakistan
Six Points of Sheikh Mujeeb-ur-Rehman
The Awami League view was supported by 75% of the electorate
in East Pakistan who voted in the elections in 1970. Awami league
had won the elections because of six points formula.
1. The character of Government shall be Federal and Parliamentary. The
representation in the Federal legislature shall be on the basis of
population.
2. The Federal Government shall be responsible only for Defence and
Foreign Affairs.
3. There shall be two separate currencies mutually or freely convertible
in each wing for each region.
4. Fiscal Policy shall be the responsibility of the Federating units.
5. Separate accounts of foreign exchange earning of each of the
federating units.
6. The units shall be empowered to maintain a Para-military force in
order to contribute towards national security.
Causes Of Separation Of East Pakistan
Economic Disparity Between East and West Pakistan
 The West Pakistan elite favoured the policies of economic growth of the West
Pakistan.
 Most of lucrative import licences were given to the West Pakistan.
 Bengal was producing Raw material which was being supplied to India but
money earned through Raw material was being used by west Pakistan on defence
and military equipment.
 All the economic institutions like State Bank and most of other banks ,Stock
exchange centre, chambers of commerce were in West Pakistan while Bengalis
were deprived of all such activities.
 Per capita income of Bengali people was less as compared to West Pakistani.
After independence there were 27000 educational institutions in Bengal but
after 1965 there were only 26000 educational institutions, this example is evident
that leadership was not interested in development and growth of east Pakistan.
Causes Of Separation Of East Pakistan
Legal Framework order
1. This order was drawn up to provide a basis for the elections for the creation of
National and Provincial assemblies and for the drafting of a constitution.
3. National Assembly had to complete the task of framing a constitution within
120 days.
4. After the original failure of the NA to meet in spring of 1971, modifications
were introduced into LFO, relieving the assembly of the responsibility of framing a
constitution but conferring powers to amend constitution.
5. General Yahiya Khan failed to enforce legal frame work order, and the result
was the political unrest between the 2 parts of the country.
Military Operation
Grievances of east Pakistanis should have been addressed through dialogue and
negotiations but West Pakistan used force that incited people to respond back. As
a result Our Army was captures there ,our strong armies' donor was depleted, it
suffered huge humiliation.
Causes Of Separation Of East Pakistan
Colonial heritage:
British were our colonial masters. They considered Bengali as their
traitors. Our Politicians also adopted same attitude towards them.
As Bengali were not trusted by British due to revolt against british in 1757
similarly we also did same.
Power Structure of Pakistan
Power structure of Pakistan is elitist, Pakistan mainly has six elites in
Pakistan.
1.Land lord
2.Military
3.Bureaucracy
4.Industrial elite
5.religious elite
6.Professional elite
These sections have their strong grip over Pakistani Politics. They always
created hurdles in making good relations between east and west Pakistan.
Causes Of Separation Of East Pakistan
Role of Ruling Elite
Civil Service
Military Hierarchy
Their clear ascendancy as a ruling group had long been established, particularly
since military coup of Ayub in 1958.
1. This group made all major decisions in terms of economic and defence policies.
2.East Pakistan bitterly complained that there were few East Pakistani officers at
highest posts of the civil service. Until 1969 all the higher officers were from West
Pakistan or had emigrated from Muslim minority areas of India.
3. Pakistan Army was recruited from 4 districts of Northern Punjab (Rawalpindi,
Cambellpur, Jhelum and Gujarat ) and two districts of NWFP (Peshawar and Kohat).
60% Army consisted of Punjabi and 35% Pakhtoon Jawans.
4.The Bengalis were still considered non-martial race.
5.Separation between Ruling elite from the majority of population.
Pakistan bureaucratic and military elite were not only separated from the majority
of their population who lived in East Pakistan, but they were also separated in both
social and regional terms even from the people of regions like Sindh, Balochistan
and Frontier.
Causes Of Separation Of East Pakistan
Military Operation in East Pakistan
1. Mr. Mujeeb refused to go to Islamabad.
2.His home became centre of all policies and administrative affairs of East
Pakistan.
3. On March 23, 1971, a lot of West Pakistanis were massacred and
Bangladesh Flag was hoisted instead of Pakistani Flag. The Pakistan Day was
celebrated as the Resistance Day.
4. General Tikka Khan was made the Governor of East Pakistan. He
successfully crushed the anti-government elements, but could not manage
the affairs properly due to the non-cooperation of Bengali bureaucracy who
were responsible for the revolt.
5.The military operation brought inexpressible miseries and sufferings to
the Bengalis. The result was that Central Government deprived herself of
the public support and sympathies.
Causes Of Separation Of East Pakistan
International Causes
Hindu Population in Pakistan:
 Hindu Professors told Hindus about the injustices.
Soviet Union, India and USA
 We made USSR angry by joining US camp,India broke into war and
trapped Pakistani soldiers.
 USA and England supported Bengali liberation war.

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Lecture 18 separation of east pakistan 1971

  • 1. SEPARATION OF EAST PAKISTAN (1971) Lecture no: 18
  • 2. Background • When Pakistan came into being in 1947, it consisted of two wings; East Pakistan and West Pakistan. These two wings were separated by 1000 miles long territory on India. • Right from its birth, Pakistan became a focus of Indian conspiracy and aggression. In 1971, the Bengalis revolted against Pakistan with active Indian support. As a result, in December 1971, East Pakistan succeeded in seceding from Pakistan.
  • 3. Causes Of Separation Of East Pakistan • There are a lot of causes behind the separation of East Pakistan, Some of them are mentioned here:  Natural Causes Geographical Location: Both the wings were thousands of miles far from each other,there was no common border, East Pakistan was surrounded by India. India influenced that led to social, economic and Political disparity with East Pakistan. Relations worsened between the both provinces that resulted in separation. Language: Language of East Pakistanis was Bengali, west Pakistanis spoke Urdu, after the separation of Pakistan. Urdu was declared National language as Quaid-e-Azim in his speech said that only Urdu would be our National Language, This frustrated Bengali as They could only speak Bengali. Culture East and West Pakistan's culture was not same, They had their own distinct culture. West Pakistan's culture was influencing East Pakistan's culture although East Pakistani were 55% but still they got influenced.
  • 4. Causes Of Separation Of East Pakistan Political Causes: Location of capital:  After separation from India Pakistan made Karachi as her capital, east Pakistanis said that they were in majority so capital would be Dhaka.  Location of Capital created great imbalance, uneven distribution of wealth and privilege ,and better jobs for West Pakistan.  All the ministries offices and industries were in Karachi, These things accumulated more advantage to West Pakistan while East Pakistan was deprived of such advantages, because they were thousands of miles away from Capital.
  • 5. Causes Of Separation Of East Pakistan Representation Bengal wanted representation in the legislature on the population basis, while west Pakistan gave representation on equality. Basic democracy In era of Ayub Khan 40000 basic democrats were to be from both the wings,54% Bengali population shared 40000 ,it was injustice they were in majority they should be given seats on the base of population. Electoral System East Pakistan wanted separate electorate system while West Pakistan gave Joint electorate. Provincial Autonomy East Pakistanis wanted and demanded Provincial Autonomy while West Pakistan wanted strong centre. Bengalis demanded Provincial autonomy because they were not given population based representation.
  • 6. Causes Of Separation Of East Pakistan Six Points of Sheikh Mujeeb-ur-Rehman The Awami League view was supported by 75% of the electorate in East Pakistan who voted in the elections in 1970. Awami league had won the elections because of six points formula. 1. The character of Government shall be Federal and Parliamentary. The representation in the Federal legislature shall be on the basis of population. 2. The Federal Government shall be responsible only for Defence and Foreign Affairs. 3. There shall be two separate currencies mutually or freely convertible in each wing for each region. 4. Fiscal Policy shall be the responsibility of the Federating units. 5. Separate accounts of foreign exchange earning of each of the federating units. 6. The units shall be empowered to maintain a Para-military force in order to contribute towards national security.
  • 7. Causes Of Separation Of East Pakistan Economic Disparity Between East and West Pakistan  The West Pakistan elite favoured the policies of economic growth of the West Pakistan.  Most of lucrative import licences were given to the West Pakistan.  Bengal was producing Raw material which was being supplied to India but money earned through Raw material was being used by west Pakistan on defence and military equipment.  All the economic institutions like State Bank and most of other banks ,Stock exchange centre, chambers of commerce were in West Pakistan while Bengalis were deprived of all such activities.  Per capita income of Bengali people was less as compared to West Pakistani. After independence there were 27000 educational institutions in Bengal but after 1965 there were only 26000 educational institutions, this example is evident that leadership was not interested in development and growth of east Pakistan.
  • 8. Causes Of Separation Of East Pakistan Legal Framework order 1. This order was drawn up to provide a basis for the elections for the creation of National and Provincial assemblies and for the drafting of a constitution. 3. National Assembly had to complete the task of framing a constitution within 120 days. 4. After the original failure of the NA to meet in spring of 1971, modifications were introduced into LFO, relieving the assembly of the responsibility of framing a constitution but conferring powers to amend constitution. 5. General Yahiya Khan failed to enforce legal frame work order, and the result was the political unrest between the 2 parts of the country. Military Operation Grievances of east Pakistanis should have been addressed through dialogue and negotiations but West Pakistan used force that incited people to respond back. As a result Our Army was captures there ,our strong armies' donor was depleted, it suffered huge humiliation.
  • 9. Causes Of Separation Of East Pakistan Colonial heritage: British were our colonial masters. They considered Bengali as their traitors. Our Politicians also adopted same attitude towards them. As Bengali were not trusted by British due to revolt against british in 1757 similarly we also did same. Power Structure of Pakistan Power structure of Pakistan is elitist, Pakistan mainly has six elites in Pakistan. 1.Land lord 2.Military 3.Bureaucracy 4.Industrial elite 5.religious elite 6.Professional elite These sections have their strong grip over Pakistani Politics. They always created hurdles in making good relations between east and west Pakistan.
  • 10. Causes Of Separation Of East Pakistan Role of Ruling Elite Civil Service Military Hierarchy Their clear ascendancy as a ruling group had long been established, particularly since military coup of Ayub in 1958. 1. This group made all major decisions in terms of economic and defence policies. 2.East Pakistan bitterly complained that there were few East Pakistani officers at highest posts of the civil service. Until 1969 all the higher officers were from West Pakistan or had emigrated from Muslim minority areas of India. 3. Pakistan Army was recruited from 4 districts of Northern Punjab (Rawalpindi, Cambellpur, Jhelum and Gujarat ) and two districts of NWFP (Peshawar and Kohat). 60% Army consisted of Punjabi and 35% Pakhtoon Jawans. 4.The Bengalis were still considered non-martial race. 5.Separation between Ruling elite from the majority of population. Pakistan bureaucratic and military elite were not only separated from the majority of their population who lived in East Pakistan, but they were also separated in both social and regional terms even from the people of regions like Sindh, Balochistan and Frontier.
  • 11. Causes Of Separation Of East Pakistan Military Operation in East Pakistan 1. Mr. Mujeeb refused to go to Islamabad. 2.His home became centre of all policies and administrative affairs of East Pakistan. 3. On March 23, 1971, a lot of West Pakistanis were massacred and Bangladesh Flag was hoisted instead of Pakistani Flag. The Pakistan Day was celebrated as the Resistance Day. 4. General Tikka Khan was made the Governor of East Pakistan. He successfully crushed the anti-government elements, but could not manage the affairs properly due to the non-cooperation of Bengali bureaucracy who were responsible for the revolt. 5.The military operation brought inexpressible miseries and sufferings to the Bengalis. The result was that Central Government deprived herself of the public support and sympathies.
  • 12. Causes Of Separation Of East Pakistan International Causes Hindu Population in Pakistan:  Hindu Professors told Hindus about the injustices. Soviet Union, India and USA  We made USSR angry by joining US camp,India broke into war and trapped Pakistani soldiers.  USA and England supported Bengali liberation war.