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“Poetry, even
when apparently
most fantastic, is
always a revolt
against artifice, a
revolt, in a sense,
against actuality”
James Joyce (1882-1941)
James Joyce.
• A rebel among rebels.
• Contrast with Yeats and the
other literary contemporaries
who tried to rediscover the Irish
Celtic identity.
The Joyces in Paris
1. Life
James Joyce
Only Connect ... New Directions
1. Life
The Joyces in Paris
• He had two children, Giorgio
and Lucia, with his long-time
partner, Nora Barnacle, whom
he eventually married.
• He left Dublin at the age of
twenty-two and he settled for
some time in Paris, then in
Rome, Trieste, where he made
friends with Italo Svevo, and
Zurich.
James Joyce
Only Connect ... New Directions
• The setting of most of his works  Ireland,
especially Dublin.
• He rebelled against the Catholic Church.
• All the facts  explored from different points of
view simultaneously.
James Joyce
2. The most important features of Joyce’s works
Only Connect ... New Directions
James Joyce
• Greater importance given to the inner world of the
characters.
• Time  perceived as subjective.
• His task  to render life objectively.
2. The most important features of Joyce’s works
Isolation and detachment of the artist from society
Only Connect ... New Directions
Realism
Disciplined prose
Different points of view
Free-direct speech
Dubliners
James Joyce
3. The evolution of Joyce’s style
1.
Only Connect ... New Directions
James Joyce
3. The evolution of Joyce’s style
Third-person narration
Minimal dialogue
Language and prose used
to portray the
protagonist’s state of
mind
Free-direct speech
A Portrait of
the Artist as a
Young Man
2.
Only Connect ... New Directions
James Joyce
3. The evolution of Joyce’s style
Interior monologue with
two levels of narration
Extreme interior
monologue
Ulysses
3.
Only Connect ... New Directions
• The Dublin represented by
Joyce is not fixed and static,
it is «the revolutionary
montage of “Dublins”
through a range of historical
juxtapositions and varied
styles».
• The 15 stories of the
Dubliners, though set in the
same city, are not united by
their geography: each story
has a singular location.
James Joyce
4. Dublin
Only Connect ... New Directions
Dublin
James Joyce
4. Dublin
• The evocation of his town in A
Portrait is deeply influenced by
Joyce’s prolonged temporal
and spatial distance; Dublin is
filtered through Stephen’s
mind.
• In Ulysses, Dublin
overwhelms the reader.
Dublin
Only Connect ... New Directions
• Published in 1914 on the newspaper The Irish Homestead by
Joyce with the pseudonym Stephen Dedalus.
James Joyce
5. Dubliners
• Dubliners are
described as afflicted
people.
• All the stories are set in
Dublin  “The city
seemed to me the
centre of paralysis”,
Joyce stated.
Nassau Street, Dublin, early 20th century
Only Connect ... New Directions
• The stories present human situations
• They are arranged into 4 groups:
The Sisters
An Encounter
Araby
After the Race
The Boarding
House
Eveline
Two Gallants
A Little Cloud
Clay
Counterparts
A Painful
Case
Ivy Day in the
Committee
Room
A Mother
Grace
Mature life Public lifeAdolescenceChildhood
DUBLIN
Paralysis / Escape
James Joyce
6. Dubliners: structure and style
Only Connect ... New Directions
• Naturalistic, concise, detailed descriptions.
• Naturalism combined with symbolism  double
meaning of details.
• Each story opens in medias res and is mostly told from the
perspective of a character.
• Use of free-direct speech and free-direct thought  direct
presentation of the character’s thoughts.
James Joyce
7. Dubliners: narrative technique and themes
Only Connect ... New Directions
James Joyce
7. Dubliners: narrative technique and themes
• Different linguistic registers  the language suits the age,
the social class and the role of the characters.
• Use of epiphany  “the sudden spiritual manifestation” of
an interior reality.
• Themes  paralysis and escape.
• Absence of a didactic and moral aim because of the
impersonality of the artist.
Only Connect ... New Directions
Joyce’s aim  to take the reader beyond the usual aspects of life
through epiphany.
James Joyce
8. Dubliners: epiphany
It is the special moment in which a trivial
gesture, an external object or a banal situation
or an episode lead the character to a sudden
self-realisation about himself / herself or
about the reality surrounding him / her.
Understanding the epiphany in each story is the key to the story itself
Only Connect ... New Directions
• The main theme of Dubliners  paralysis
James Joyce
9. Dubliners: paralysis
Moral paralysis
linked to religion,
politics and culture
Physical paralysis
caused by external
forces
Only Connect ... New Directions
James Joyce
9. Dubliners: paralysis
• The climax of the stories  the coming to awareness
by the characters of their own paralysis.
• Alternative to paralysis = escape which always leads
to failure.
Only Connect ... New Directions
Characters:
- A boy.
- The adult world: the boy’s
uncle and aunt; Old Cotter;
the dead priest, and his
sisters, Eliza and Nannie.
James Joyce
10. Dubliners: The Sisters
Only Connect ... New Directions
Christchurch Cathedral, Dublin
James Joyce
10. Dubliners: The Sisters
Setting  the boy’s house;
the priest’s house and a street
next to the priest’s house.
Atmosphere  suffocating,
dark oppressive linked to
paralysis/death; bright, airy
linked to life.
Only Connect ... New Directions
Christchurch Cathedral, Dublin
Structure  priest’s life
described through
dialogues and flashbacks.
Narration  the first
person narrator is
combined with free direct
speech.
James Joyce
10. Dubliners: The Sisters
Only Connect ... New Directions
Christchurch Cathedral, Dublin
James Joyce
10. Dubliners: The Sisters
Language  simple childish
and adult linguistic registers
Symbolism  the priest’s
physical features = madness 
decay  paralysis  death
Epiphany  “it was the chalice
he broke”
excessive influence and intrusion
of the Church
Only Connect ... New Directions
Christchurch Cathedral, Dublin
• Characters:
- Eveline  passive, influenced by her family’s mentality
- Her father  a violent and strict man
- Frank  a very kind, open-hearted and brave boy
• Antithesis between Eveline’s house and her new one in
Buenos Aires
James Joyce
11. Dubliners: Eveline
Paralysis/Escape
Only Connect ... New Directions
• The story opens in medias res 
“She sat at the window watching the evening invade the avenue”
• Third-person narrator but Eveline’s point of view.
• Subjective perception of time.
James Joyce
11. Dubliners: Eveline
Structure and style
Only Connect ... New Directions
James Joyce
11. Dubliners: Eveline
• Epiphany  a street organ which reminds Eveline of the promise
she made to her dying mother.
• Symbolic words  dust = decay, paralysis
sea = action, escape
• Themes: paralysis and the failure to find a way out of it.
Only Connect ... New Directions
Structure and style
• The protagonists: Gabriel Conroy,
an embodiment of Joyce himself, and
Gretta, his wife.
• Epiphany  the song The Lass of
Aughrim, reminds Gretta of a young
man, Michael Furey, who died for her
when he was seventeen years old. 
Gabriel understands he is deader
than Michael Furey in Gretta’s
mind.
• Symbols  the snow, Gabriel’s
journey to the west.
James Joyce
12. Dubliners: The Dead
Angelica Huston in John Huston’s The Dead (1987)
Only Connect ... New Directions

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James Joyce slide "Only connect...New directions" |ZANICHELLI|

  • 1. “Poetry, even when apparently most fantastic, is always a revolt against artifice, a revolt, in a sense, against actuality” James Joyce (1882-1941) James Joyce.
  • 2. • A rebel among rebels. • Contrast with Yeats and the other literary contemporaries who tried to rediscover the Irish Celtic identity. The Joyces in Paris 1. Life James Joyce Only Connect ... New Directions
  • 3. 1. Life The Joyces in Paris • He had two children, Giorgio and Lucia, with his long-time partner, Nora Barnacle, whom he eventually married. • He left Dublin at the age of twenty-two and he settled for some time in Paris, then in Rome, Trieste, where he made friends with Italo Svevo, and Zurich. James Joyce Only Connect ... New Directions
  • 4. • The setting of most of his works  Ireland, especially Dublin. • He rebelled against the Catholic Church. • All the facts  explored from different points of view simultaneously. James Joyce 2. The most important features of Joyce’s works Only Connect ... New Directions
  • 5. James Joyce • Greater importance given to the inner world of the characters. • Time  perceived as subjective. • His task  to render life objectively. 2. The most important features of Joyce’s works Isolation and detachment of the artist from society Only Connect ... New Directions
  • 6. Realism Disciplined prose Different points of view Free-direct speech Dubliners James Joyce 3. The evolution of Joyce’s style 1. Only Connect ... New Directions
  • 7. James Joyce 3. The evolution of Joyce’s style Third-person narration Minimal dialogue Language and prose used to portray the protagonist’s state of mind Free-direct speech A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man 2. Only Connect ... New Directions
  • 8. James Joyce 3. The evolution of Joyce’s style Interior monologue with two levels of narration Extreme interior monologue Ulysses 3. Only Connect ... New Directions
  • 9. • The Dublin represented by Joyce is not fixed and static, it is «the revolutionary montage of “Dublins” through a range of historical juxtapositions and varied styles». • The 15 stories of the Dubliners, though set in the same city, are not united by their geography: each story has a singular location. James Joyce 4. Dublin Only Connect ... New Directions Dublin
  • 10. James Joyce 4. Dublin • The evocation of his town in A Portrait is deeply influenced by Joyce’s prolonged temporal and spatial distance; Dublin is filtered through Stephen’s mind. • In Ulysses, Dublin overwhelms the reader. Dublin Only Connect ... New Directions
  • 11. • Published in 1914 on the newspaper The Irish Homestead by Joyce with the pseudonym Stephen Dedalus. James Joyce 5. Dubliners • Dubliners are described as afflicted people. • All the stories are set in Dublin  “The city seemed to me the centre of paralysis”, Joyce stated. Nassau Street, Dublin, early 20th century Only Connect ... New Directions
  • 12. • The stories present human situations • They are arranged into 4 groups: The Sisters An Encounter Araby After the Race The Boarding House Eveline Two Gallants A Little Cloud Clay Counterparts A Painful Case Ivy Day in the Committee Room A Mother Grace Mature life Public lifeAdolescenceChildhood DUBLIN Paralysis / Escape James Joyce 6. Dubliners: structure and style Only Connect ... New Directions
  • 13. • Naturalistic, concise, detailed descriptions. • Naturalism combined with symbolism  double meaning of details. • Each story opens in medias res and is mostly told from the perspective of a character. • Use of free-direct speech and free-direct thought  direct presentation of the character’s thoughts. James Joyce 7. Dubliners: narrative technique and themes Only Connect ... New Directions
  • 14. James Joyce 7. Dubliners: narrative technique and themes • Different linguistic registers  the language suits the age, the social class and the role of the characters. • Use of epiphany  “the sudden spiritual manifestation” of an interior reality. • Themes  paralysis and escape. • Absence of a didactic and moral aim because of the impersonality of the artist. Only Connect ... New Directions
  • 15. Joyce’s aim  to take the reader beyond the usual aspects of life through epiphany. James Joyce 8. Dubliners: epiphany It is the special moment in which a trivial gesture, an external object or a banal situation or an episode lead the character to a sudden self-realisation about himself / herself or about the reality surrounding him / her. Understanding the epiphany in each story is the key to the story itself Only Connect ... New Directions
  • 16. • The main theme of Dubliners  paralysis James Joyce 9. Dubliners: paralysis Moral paralysis linked to religion, politics and culture Physical paralysis caused by external forces Only Connect ... New Directions
  • 17. James Joyce 9. Dubliners: paralysis • The climax of the stories  the coming to awareness by the characters of their own paralysis. • Alternative to paralysis = escape which always leads to failure. Only Connect ... New Directions
  • 18. Characters: - A boy. - The adult world: the boy’s uncle and aunt; Old Cotter; the dead priest, and his sisters, Eliza and Nannie. James Joyce 10. Dubliners: The Sisters Only Connect ... New Directions Christchurch Cathedral, Dublin
  • 19. James Joyce 10. Dubliners: The Sisters Setting  the boy’s house; the priest’s house and a street next to the priest’s house. Atmosphere  suffocating, dark oppressive linked to paralysis/death; bright, airy linked to life. Only Connect ... New Directions Christchurch Cathedral, Dublin
  • 20. Structure  priest’s life described through dialogues and flashbacks. Narration  the first person narrator is combined with free direct speech. James Joyce 10. Dubliners: The Sisters Only Connect ... New Directions Christchurch Cathedral, Dublin
  • 21. James Joyce 10. Dubliners: The Sisters Language  simple childish and adult linguistic registers Symbolism  the priest’s physical features = madness  decay  paralysis  death Epiphany  “it was the chalice he broke” excessive influence and intrusion of the Church Only Connect ... New Directions Christchurch Cathedral, Dublin
  • 22. • Characters: - Eveline  passive, influenced by her family’s mentality - Her father  a violent and strict man - Frank  a very kind, open-hearted and brave boy • Antithesis between Eveline’s house and her new one in Buenos Aires James Joyce 11. Dubliners: Eveline Paralysis/Escape Only Connect ... New Directions
  • 23. • The story opens in medias res  “She sat at the window watching the evening invade the avenue” • Third-person narrator but Eveline’s point of view. • Subjective perception of time. James Joyce 11. Dubliners: Eveline Structure and style Only Connect ... New Directions
  • 24. James Joyce 11. Dubliners: Eveline • Epiphany  a street organ which reminds Eveline of the promise she made to her dying mother. • Symbolic words  dust = decay, paralysis sea = action, escape • Themes: paralysis and the failure to find a way out of it. Only Connect ... New Directions Structure and style
  • 25. • The protagonists: Gabriel Conroy, an embodiment of Joyce himself, and Gretta, his wife. • Epiphany  the song The Lass of Aughrim, reminds Gretta of a young man, Michael Furey, who died for her when he was seventeen years old.  Gabriel understands he is deader than Michael Furey in Gretta’s mind. • Symbols  the snow, Gabriel’s journey to the west. James Joyce 12. Dubliners: The Dead Angelica Huston in John Huston’s The Dead (1987) Only Connect ... New Directions