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New Directions in Information Organization: A Linked Data Model with BIBFRAME


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This presentation explains the Semantic Web technologies and BIBFRAME, the future bibliographic display standard

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New Directions in Information Organization: A Linked Data Model with BIBFRAME

  1. 1. New Directions in Information Organization-A Linked Data Model with BIBFRAME XI International Conference on University Libraries National Autonomous University of Mexico Mexico City Nov. 6-8, 2013 Dr. Sharon Q. Yang Associate Professor/Systems Librarian Rider University, NJ, USA
  2. 2. Many Ways and Parts to Organize Information/knowledge • The Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) • Library of Congress Classification (LCC) • Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) • Anglo-American Cataloging Rules (AACR2) • Describing Archives: A Content Standard, Second Edition (DACS) • Visual Resource Association Core (VRA) • Resource Description and Access (RDA) • BIBFRAME • Linked Data model • More…
  3. 3. RDA, BIBFRAME, & Linked Data Model • Three pieces are closely related. • RDA gets bibliographic data ready for Linked Data/the Semantic Web. • BIBFRAME is an abbreviated name for LC Bibliographic Framework Initiative. • BIBFRAME will be the new data presentation standard (MARC is for displaying library data, not for linking) • BIBFRAME is a Linked Data model.
  4. 4. BIBFRAME • Zepheira headed by Eric Miller has been working with LC on the BIBFRAME project to replace MARC. • Eric Miller has both library and Semantic Web experience. • The progress can be monitored at the official website Photo from
  5. 5. What Does BIBFRAME Do? Data Cataloged with RDA/FRBR Existing MARC Records BIBFRAME/linked data, part of the Web
  6. 6. What Do We Know about BIBFRAME? • A totally new bibliographic environment • Robust enough to convert the past 40 years of MARC records • Flexible enough to deal with the future information organization (New formats of information and requirements of more communities ) • Not only for libraries and other memory organizations such as archives, museums, publishers, big data, but a wider range of communities
  7. 7. More on BIBFRAME • Data elements-atomistic elements, each of which contains one type of information. • Recombinant data-assemble the data in any way a community wants (think about legos). • Community profiles-allow any individual community to create their data that makes sense to them. • Connect/link data among the communities. • Value added-Create new data with new meanings from existing data, small building blocks to larger building blocks. • Data are reusable. • Part of the Web, not on the Web.
  8. 8. BIBFRAME Structure • Creative work-A resource reflecting a conceptual essence of the cataloging item • Instance-A resource reflecting an individual, material embodiment of the work • Authority-A resource reflecting key authority concepts that have defined relationships reflected in the Work and Instance. Examples of Authority Resources include People, Places, Topics, Organizations, etc. • Annotation-A resource that decorates other BIBFRAME resources with additional information (Library Holdings information, cover art and reviews) (
  9. 9. Linked Data? “A term used to describe a recommended best practice for exposing, sharing, connecting, pieces of data, information, and knowledge on the Semantic Web using URIs and RDF.” ( The Semantic Web is based on Linked Data. Two words are used interchangeably by us. URI and RDF?
  10. 10. What Is Linked Data Model/Semantic Web? • A vision by Tim Berners-Lee, Director of World Wide Web Consortium, in late 1999 • Web 3.0, the Semantic Web, Giant Global Graph, • Web of linked ata, a web of data • An extension of current Web, not a replacement • “A web of data that can be processed directly and indirectly by machines” –Tim Berners-Lee *Photo of Tim Berners-Lee in 2005 from Wikipedia
  11. 11. Three Things to Remember about Linked Data Model/the Semantic Web 1. Machines understand/process data 2. Entity relationships (RDA is also about entity relationships) – Relationships among humans and things – properties of humans and things (attributes and values) 3. A Web of linked data vs. a Web of linked documents
  12. 12. A Word May Have Many Meanings… • I love Boston-Which of the 26 Bostons in the world? • UC Berkeley –People write it in 50 different ways on the Internet (Metaweb Inc . at • A single entity • A single entity vs. text of different meanings and spellings • A single entity is a thing, place, person, concept, object or anything
  13. 13. Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) • An entity may be represented by URI in Linked Data model • An entity is also called a resource • Examples of URI from LCSH in SKOS – Example of URI - Shakespeare – Example of URI – 911 Terrorist attacks – Example of URI- Semantic Web • URI is the first important building block in linking data
  14. 14. Resource Description Framework (RDF)-Entity Relationship Model RDF statements are often referred to as “triples” that consist of a subject, predicate, and object, which correspond to a resource (subject), a property (predicate), and a property value (object).
  15. 15. RDF Triples • Subject – an entity (URI) • Predicate -property or attribute (URI) • Object – a property value (can be a URI or text) • Examples: – New York-- is place of publication of --Raintree County – Viking Penguin-- is publisher of --Raintree County – 1994-- is date of publication of-- Raintree County (Caren Koyle “Library Data in the Web World”) – T-shirt –color-red • Languages: RDF/XMS, N3, Turtle, N-Triples, Json
  16. 16. RDF/XML ”The Secret Agent” is written by Joseph Conrad <rdf:RDF xmlns:rdf="" xmlns:lib=""> <rdf:Description about="The Secret Agent"> <lib:creator>Joseph Conrad</lib:creator> </rdf:Description> </rdf:RDF> Is created by RDF Tutorial at oks/TheSecretAgent d
  17. 17. Silos MySQl MSSQL Oracle
  18. 18. Interoperability and Cross Domain Sharing Shared Base Ontology and Common Vocabulary Database 1 Database 2 Database 3
  19. 19. Vocabularies and Ontologies • Vocabulary - A collection of terms given a well- defined meaning that is consistent across contexts. • Ontology - Allows you to define contextual relationships behind a defined vocabulary. It is the cornerstone of defining a knowledge domain. (Semantic Modeling Tutorial at
  20. 20. Semantic Web Ontologies • “An ontology is a formal specification of a shared conceptualization”1 • “the success of the semantic Web depends predominantly on the proliferation of ontologies…” 2 • Different domain has different ontology • Ontologies are written in Web Ontology Language (OWL) and RDFS (RDF Schema) and others. 1. Tom Gruber at 2. Kaushal Girl “Role of Ontology in Semantic Web”
  21. 21. Finished Ontologies
  22. 22. What Do We Really Want? 1. Get all the bib data in RDF statements 2. Link them by entity relationships 3. Share vocabularies and ontologies with other communities 4. Be part of the Semantic Web, not in library silo
  23. 23. Examples • LCSH in SKOS Or OCLC FAST • OCLC Worldcat • BIBFRAME • Google • Friend of a Friend (FOAF)
  24. 24. The Biggest Challenge Decompose/convert the existing MARC into RDF statements
  25. 25. Thank You