Dewey-The Dewey Decimal Classification organizes library materials by discipline or field of study. Main divisions include philosophy, social sciences, science, technology, and history.VRA-a data standard for description of images and works of arts and cultureMany ways to organize information. RDA is one of them. It is the new way to record information about a work for the digital age. Linked Data model is also a way to organize information that is not familiar to the library world until now.
RDA tells catalogers how to describe resources in a way that makes sense to linked data model. Data elements and entity relationshipsBIBFRAME will convert existing MARC and data elements from RDA cataloging into linked data formatBIBRAME is a linked data model which is the basis for the Semantic Web
46 years since first edition of AACR35 years since second edition of AACR2-talk about the changesBritish National Library, Australia National Library, Canadian National Library, New Zealand, Germany, Chinese are translating it, French, Spanish, Japanese, etc.RDA defines individual data elements that are supposed to be independent of storage or display formats. RDA also tries to define atomistic elements, where each element contains only one type of information, rather than a conflation of different things, as is found in many MARC subfields. Just think about how many types of information can occur in 245 $c. Many of these elements have controlled vocabulary lists associated with them. It is hoped that these data elements will produce data that is in a form that computers can interpret and use to provide new and powerful services to help our users navigate the bibliographic universe.
Also mention the reactions by different countries
FRBR is work, manifestation, expression, and items
RDF is designed for data interchange between applicationsRDF identifies things using Web identifiers (URIs), and describes resources with properties and property values.Shakespeare is subject.Author of (predicate or property describing a relationship)A midsummer night’s dream (object or value)
Subject - identifies what object the triple is describingpredicate – defines property of the subjectObject – actual value
“In general, ontologies concentrate on classification methods, putting an emphasis on defining 'classes', 'subclasses', on how individual resources can be associated to such classes, and characterizing the relationships among classes and their instances.”2
New Directions in Information Organization: A Linked Data Model with BIBFRAME
New Directions in Information Organization-A
Linked Data Model with BIBFRAME
XI International Conference on University Libraries
National Autonomous University of Mexico
Nov. 6-8, 2013
Dr. Sharon Q. Yang
Associate Professor/Systems Librarian
Rider University, NJ, USA
Many Ways and Parts to Organize
• The Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC)
• Library of Congress Classification (LCC)
• Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH)
• Anglo-American Cataloging Rules (AACR2)
• Describing Archives: A Content Standard, Second
• Visual Resource Association Core (VRA)
• Resource Description and Access (RDA)
• Linked Data model
RDA, BIBFRAME, & Linked Data Model
• Three pieces are closely related.
• RDA gets bibliographic data ready for Linked
Data/the Semantic Web.
• BIBFRAME is an abbreviated name for LC
Bibliographic Framework Initiative.
• BIBFRAME will be the new data presentation
standard (MARC is for displaying library data,
not for linking)
• BIBFRAME is a Linked Data model.
• Zepheira headed by Eric Miller has been working with
LC on the BIBFRAME project
to replace MARC.
• Eric Miller has both library and
Semantic Web experience.
• The progress can be monitored at the official website
Photo from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m-TD4jTWn3U
What Does BIBFRAME Do?
data, part of the
What Do We Know about BIBFRAME?
• A totally new bibliographic environment
• Robust enough to convert the past 40 years of MARC
• Flexible enough to deal with the future information
organization (New formats of information and
requirements of more communities )
• Not only for libraries and other memory organizations
such as archives, museums, publishers, big data, but a
wider range of communities
More on BIBFRAME
• Data elements-atomistic elements, each of which contains one type
• Recombinant data-assemble the data in any way a community
wants (think about legos).
• Community profiles-allow any individual community to create
their data that makes sense to them.
• Connect/link data among the communities.
• Value added-Create new data with new meanings from existing
data, small building blocks to larger building blocks.
• Data are reusable.
• Part of the Web, not on the Web.
• Creative work-A resource reflecting a conceptual essence of the
• Instance-A resource reflecting an individual, material embodiment of
• Authority-A resource reflecting key authority concepts that have
defined relationships reflected in the Work and Instance. Examples
of Authority Resources include
People, Places, Topics, Organizations, etc.
• Annotation-A resource that decorates other BIBFRAME resources
with additional information (Library Holdings information, cover art
and reviews) (http://www.loc.gov/bibframe/pdf/marcld-report-11-21-2012.pdf)
“A term used to describe a recommended best practice for
exposing, sharing, connecting, pieces of data, information,
and knowledge on the Semantic Web using URIs and
The Semantic Web is based on Linked Data. Two words
are used interchangeably by us.
URI and RDF?
What Is Linked Data Model/Semantic Web?
• A vision by Tim Berners-Lee, Director
of World Wide Web Consortium, in
• Web 3.0, the Semantic Web, Giant Global Graph,
• Web of linked ata, a web of data
• An extension of current Web, not a replacement
• “A web of data that can be processed directly and indirectly by
machines” –Tim Berners-Lee
*Photo of Tim Berners-Lee in 2005 from Wikipedia
Three Things to Remember about Linked Data
Model/the Semantic Web
1. Machines understand/process data
2. Entity relationships (RDA is also about entity relationships)
– Relationships among humans and things
– properties of humans and things (attributes and values)
3. A Web of linked data vs. a Web of linked documents
A Word May Have Many Meanings…
• I love Boston-Which of the 26 Bostons in the world?
• UC Berkeley –People write it in 50 different ways on the
Internet (Metaweb Inc . at http://wiki.freebase.com/wiki/Main_Page)
• A single entity
• A single entity vs. text of different meanings and
• A single entity is a thing, place, person, concept, object
Uniform Resource Identifier (URI)
• An entity may be represented by URI in Linked Data
• An entity is also called a resource
• Examples of URI from LCSH in SKOS
– Example of URI - Shakespeare
– Example of URI – 911 Terrorist attacks
– Example of URI- Semantic Web
• URI is the first important building block in linking data
Resource Description Framework (RDF)-Entity
RDF statements are often referred to as “triples” that consist of a
subject, predicate, and object, which correspond to a resource
(subject), a property (predicate), and a property value (object).
• Subject – an entity (URI)
• Predicate -property or attribute (URI)
• Object – a property value (can be a URI or text)
– New York-- is place of publication of --Raintree County
– Viking Penguin-- is publisher of --Raintree County
– 1994-- is date of publication of-- Raintree County (Caren Koyle “Library
Data in the Web World”)
– T-shirt –color-red
• Languages: RDF/XMS, N3, Turtle, N-Triples, Json
”The Secret Agent” is written by Joseph Conrad
<rdf:Description about="The Secret Agent">
Is created by
RDF Tutorial at http://zvon.org/xxl/RDFTutorial/General/contents.html
Interoperability and Cross Domain
Database 1 Database 2 Database 3
Vocabularies and Ontologies
• Vocabulary - A collection of terms given a well-
defined meaning that is consistent across contexts.
• Ontology - Allows you to define contextual
relationships behind a defined vocabulary. It is the
cornerstone of defining a knowledge domain. (Semantic
Modeling Tutorial at www.linkeddatatools.com)
Semantic Web Ontologies
• “An ontology is a formal specification of a shared conceptualization”1
• “the success of the semantic Web depends predominantly on the
proliferation of ontologies…” 2
• Different domain has different ontology
• Ontologies are written in Web Ontology Language (OWL) and
RDFS (RDF Schema) and others.
1. Tom Gruber at http://www-ksl.stanford.edu/kst/what-is-an-ontology.html
2. Kaushal Girl “Role of Ontology in Semantic Web”
What Do We Really Want?
1. Get all the bib data in RDF
2. Link them by entity relationships
3. Share vocabularies and ontologies
with other communities
4. Be part of the Semantic Web, not in
• LCSH in SKOS Or OCLC FAST
• OCLC Worldcat
• Friend of a Friend (FOAF)
The Biggest Challenge
Decompose/convert the existing MARC into